Sustainability Master’s Thesis Inventory

2023 Master Sustainability Thesis Inventory

The Sustainability Master’s Thesis Inventory was developed by the Committee on the Environment, Climate Change, and Sustainability (CECCS). It gathers information about all Master’s theses with sustainability content at the University of Toronto since 2009. It includes 3,023 sustainability-oriented Master’s theses, representing approximately 29% of 10,353 Master’s theses since 2009. The purpose of the sustainability thesis inventory is to increase the visibility of such work, making it more accessible for the U of T community to access sustainability related scholarly work.

The approach to sustainability we take here addresses both human and environmental wellbeing (instead of simply focusing on reducing environmental damage), in accordance with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs were chosen as a basis for the inventory due to their comprehensiveness and widespread usage in the sustainability field. The inventory was created based on keywords from the SDGs, as shown in this table.

A table with the SDG goals and the relevant keywords associated with them

These SDG-related keywords, also used to develop the Sustainability Undergraduate Course Inventory, were developed in 2017 by the Expanded Student Engagement (ESE) Project in consultation with CECCS. SDG 17, “Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the goal partnership for sustainable development,” was excluded from the methodology, as it encompasses the act of achieving the other goals rather than bringing a new perspective to sustainability.

Using these keywords, titles and abstracts of Master’s theses were searched. Since 2009, the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) requires doctoral and masters graduates to submit a thesis to TSpace, a free research repository hosted by the U of T Libraries to disseminate and preserve the scholarly record of U of T faculty and graduate student research. SGS intends to house all available digitized Doctoral and Masters theses by U of T graduate students on TSpace. Thesis metadata was exported by a TSpace administrator and shared with CECCS in August 2023.

The search results were then manually reviewed for quality assurance by CECCS. Any output deemed irrelevant to the particular SDG based on the abstract has been removed. The following information was documented in the inventory: Author, Advisor/Supervisor, Title, Department, Date Issued, Abstract, Degree, Subject and the SDG(s) to which the thesis is related.

If you are an author or supervisor at the University of Toronto and think that a thesis should be included in or removed from the inventory, please contact

AuthorAdvisorTitleDepartmentDate issuedAbstractDegreeKeyword(s)SDG(s) covered
Abachi, Rowa Fernie, Geoff Design and Evaluation of a Portable Cost-Effective Biomechanics Analysis System Using Multiple Kinect Sensors Biomedical Engineering2014-11Homecare workers have difficult jobs that place them at high risk of back injury. They perform challenging patient handling activities alone in confined spaces with limited equipment. We need to better understand the postures and techniques homecare workers utilize in order to develop effective solutions to reduce their risk of injury. Existing biomechanical tools require complex equipment and/or lengthy processing time. This work describes the design and evaluation of an inexpensive portable biomechanics evaluation system based on multiple Kinect sensors that addresses these limitations. Caregiver's joints are tracked and posturally-induced spinal loads are calculated. The Kinect system was compared to a gold standard Vicon system and was found to be very accurate overall, with RMS errors (SD) as low as 1.11° (0.97°), 0.86° (0.84°), and 1.80° (1.28°) for flexion, lateral bend, and twist respectively. Pilot tests conducted in simulated bathroom and bedroom settings demonstrated that the system is feasible to use in confined spaces.M.A.S.worker8
Abadir, Monica RaafatTodorova, Miglena The Curation of Difference, Diasporas in Archive: A Living Document Breathing Through Memory Social Justice Education2017-11This document is a dialogue of questions in the erasure of racialized Muslimah from the state-sanctioned institution, the Aga Khan Museum, settling on colonial Canada. Its framework is founded in an understanding of memory as having physical qualities, and material implications in its moment of recollection, museumization, and visualization. In juxtaposition to the critique of the Museum, and the colonial visual landscape of Canada more broadly, a public memoir through a collection of artwork, and a dialogue to follow. In it, three Muslimah-Canadian artists: Faduma Mohamed, Nasim Asgari, and Hiba Abdallah, which not only illuminate the variances of (mis)representation which claim a cultural production of knowledge in Canada, but also speak and curate themselves into existence, and thus enact resistance. This thesis is written to be a document of doing; an active public space which divests of whiteness, and the colonial inclination to erase, commodify, and barter bodies of difference in its presence.M.A.institution16
Abarbanel, Mishael DavidSimon, Robert M. Holistic or Autonomous: Educators' Conceptions of Literacy and their Implications for Practice and Teacher Development Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2015-06This thesis investigates educators' conceptions of literacy, what beliefs and conceptual frameworks support them, how literacy seems to be defined in educators' sites of practice, and how conceptions of literacy inform teaching. Main findings show that `literacy' is a sliding signifier: a sign that bears no connection to the thing it ostensibly represents; dominant literacy pedagogies in teachers' sites of practice are the strongest determinants of how teachers conceptualize and teach literacy, influencing or superseding personal definitions when differences exist; and elementary and secondary teachers described different notions of both the ontology and function of literacy. Specific professional development is needed to allow educators to deal with policies that aim to standardize and decontextualize the teaching and assessment of literacy, and that posit literacy as a series of discrete skills, as opposed to a series of context-specific social practices.M.A.educat4
Abbas, SabeenCummins, Jim||Gagne, Antoinette “We're sisters now”: Reciprocal Learning in a Canadian/Chinese Cross-cultural Educational Collaboration Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2019-06My thesis presents the findings from a research study that examined the cross-cultural teacher collaboration between two elementary school teachers from Toronto and Shanghai within the context of the ‘Reciprocal Learning in Teacher Education and School Education Between Canada and China SSHRC Partnership Grant Project’. The theoretical framework that I use to analyze the research data draws on theories of multiliteracies, plurilingualism and cosmopolitanism. This exploratory narrative case study aims to answer the broad research question: What does reciprocal learning look like in a cross-cultural collaboration? The collaboration between the two teachers resulted in a digital ABC book and a series of video-taped Read Alouds by the students. Reciprocal learning in the classroom involved participants teaching and learning from each other, using multimodal literacy practices, recognizing and including cultural and linguistic diversity, focusing on relationship building, and co-constructing teaching and learning practices together.M.A.educat4
Abbasnezhad-Ghadi, Banafsheh Lawrence, Herenia P. Access to Dental Care for a Selected Group of Children and Adolescents with ASD Dentistry2010-07-21T15:03:12ZObjectives: 1) to determine if children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encounter difficulties accessing dental, 2) to identify barriers that diminish access to dental care for this population. Methods: This descriptive study is based on a web-survey conducted at the Geneva Centre for Autism in Toronto between November 2008 and March 2009. Forty-nine multiple choice questions including open-ended fields were developed. Parents of children with ASD (ages 5–18) completed the survey. Results: The majority of participants visited a dentist regularly (71%) and had private dental insurance (64%). Parents/caregivers were more likely to have difficulties finding a dentist as unmarried parents (OR=3.7, P=0.075) or when their level of education was high school/less (OR=10.4, P=0.043). Conclusions: The majority of children/adolescents with ASD had access to dental care. Difficulties accessing dental care were related to family structure, parents’ education and their perception of dentists’ knowledge of ASD.MASThealth3
Abdallah, SalsabilSenatore, Adriano Biophysical Characterization and Evolutionary Analysis of the Presynaptic Voltage-gated calcium (Cav2) Channel in Trichoplax adhaerens Cell and Systems Biology2018-11Trichoplax adhaerens is a primitive metazoan with six cell types that lacks a nervous system and synapses. One cell type, dubbed gland cells, line the periphery of its flat disc- shaped body and resemble neurons by expressing membrane apposed secretory vesicles and proteins required for regulated neuronal exocytosis including a presynaptic Cav2 calcium channel homologue. Trichoplax is a motile behaving animal that can integrate sensory information with cell activity, where it will pause its ciliary locomotion upon detecting algae under its body, then locally secrete hydrolytic enzymes to lyse and consume the algae by external digestion. In this project, a molecular characterization of the cloned Trichoplax Cav2 channel, with a focus on its biophysical and pharmacological properties will be examined. My work will provide insights into the evolution of the nervous system, where pre-synaptic calcium channels are essential for translating electrical signals into regulated secretion of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.M.Sc.consum
Abdel-Nour, MenaGuyard, Cyril The Role of the Legionella Collagen-like Protein in Legionella pneumophila Biofilm Formation, Environmental Dissemination and Pathogenicity Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology2013-11The Legionella collagen-like protein (Lcl) of Legionella pneumophila is an adhesin involved in multiple processes during the lifecycle of L. pneumophila. Among these processes is the sedimentation and auto-aggregation of L. pneumophila. Lcl potentiates the infection of amoeba species by facilitating contact and adhesion to its host, allowing the pathogen to replicate, disseminate and persist in the environment. Lcl dependent auto- aggregation requires divalent cations, suggesting it may occur in the natural habitat of L. pneumophila. In addition to its role in sedimentation, Lcl mediates biofilm production of L. pneumophila. The Lcl encoding gene, lpg2644 is polymorphic among clinical isolates, and the number of collagenous repeats is positively correlated to biofilm production and clinical prevalence. This study underscores the role of Lcl in human infection by contributing to environmental dissemination and persistence, thereby increasing the likelihood of encountering human hosts.MAST environment13
Abdela, MubarekIravani, Reza Impact of Grid-fed Electric Vehicle DC Fast Charging Station on the Utility Grid Electrical and Computer Engineering2019-11Fast recharging of EVs from grid-connected chargers requires a large amount of power which can adversely affect the grid. This thesis investigates impacts of a grid-connected DC fast charging station (DC-FCS) on the utility grid and proposes an energy storage system (ESS) to mitigate the impacts. A study system consisting of a distribution feeder, a DC-FCS and an ESS is selected. The study system is used for time-domain simulation studies to evaluate steady-state and transient operations of the DC-FCS with and without the ESS in the PSCAD/EMTDC platform. The steady-state performances are studied under different Short-Circuit Ratio (SCR) values, and degrees of voltage unbalance. The transient performances are studied by introducing load changes and fault scenarios. The offline simulation results are verified by using Control-Hardware-In-the-Loop (CHIL) in RTDS-based real-time simulation platform. The study results demonstrate that the ESS can mitigate adverse effects caused by peak charging demand of the DC-FCS.M.A.S.energy7
Abdul Selam, Mustafa Abdul HalimConnelly, Kim A||Thavendiranathan, Paaladinesh Early Cardiac Remodeling in Women with Breast Cancer, Receiving Sequential Therapy with Anthracycline and Trastuzumab – Cardiac MRI Study Medical Science2019-06Background: Cardiotoxicity is an adverse prognostic marker in women with early-stage breast cancer. Understanding cardiac changes using cardiac-MRI will provide the opportunity to establish predictive models for early detection of cardiotoxicity.
Methods: Eighty-three patients had cardiac MRI pre-anthracycline, within three weeks post-anthracycline, and at five months (~three months into trastuzumab therapy) on a 1.5T scanner; along with thirty volunteers scanned at matched time points.
Results: Temporal and inter-observer test-retest variability, repeatability, and reproducibly of left and right ventricular volumetric parameters in healthy volunteers were statistically small. Ten patients (12.1%) developed LV-cardiotoxicity, 1 (10%) at 2 months and 9 (90%) at 5 months. LV-cardiotoxicity was associated with a significant increase in LVESV in 91% of the patients.
Conclusions: Ventricular remodeling occurs during cancer therapy. The primary mechanism of cardiotoxicity is likely a reduction in contractility. Change in LVESV at 2 months is an early predictor of cardiotoxicity by 5 months.; women3, 5
Abdullah, Silmi Nestel, Sheryl Whose Education? Whose Nation? Exploring the Role of Government Primary School Textbooks of Bangladesh in Colonialist Forms of Marginalization and Exclusion of Poor and Ethnic Minority Children Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2009-12-10T17:07:06ZThrough an analysis of Social Studies textbooks of the government primary school curriculum of Bangladesh, this thesis highlights the role of the education system in pushing poor and ethnic minority children out of school. The texts and graphics are analyzed in order to examine the ways in which they oppress and exclude these children by perpetuating dominant ideologies of nationhood, constructing a notion of the “ideal citizen,” and criminalizing those who do not fit this category. Using an anti-colonial and post-colonial theoretical framework, the study situates the education system of Bangladesh within its histories of colonial domination and argues that the discourses present in these textbooks reflect colonial forms of racism and oppression, and reproduce class and ethnic hierarchies characteristic of the larger Bangladeshi society. Most importantly, this study advocates the need for a just and equitable education system that respects all children of Bangladesh as citizens of the country.MASTeducat; equitable4
Abdulmajeed, RaghadCafazzo, Joe The Use of Continuous Monitoring of Heart Rate as a Prognosticator of Readmission in Heart Failure Patients Biomedical Engineering2016-11In this study we validated the accuracy of heart rate measurements of two consumer-grade heart rate and activity tracking wearable devices in 8 healthy participants. In a clinical setting and using the Holter monitor as the reference, participants exercised on a stationary bike for 10 minutes with a 10-watts step protocol. The two devices reported better correlation with the Holter monitor at higher workload levels, hence, at higher heart rates with a 90% confidence interval for overall measurement accuracy. We also examined the feasibility of the two devices in remote monitoring 8 heart failure patients (NYHA II-NYHA III) for two weeks. The two devices reported lower daily physical activity, lower total step count and higher resting heart rate for NYHA III patients when compared to NYHA II patientsâ data. Therefore, with the wearable devices we differentiated different classes of heart failure based on heart rate and physical activity.M.H.Sc.health3
Abdulnour, Shahad Jenkins, David J. A. Effect of Dopamine Receptor DRD2 and ANKK1 Polymorphisms on Dietary Compliance, Blood Pressure, and BMI in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Medical Science2010-12-14T16:00:30ZReduction in dopamine receptor D2, has been associated with insufficient brain reward, food addiction, obesity, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to assess whether the genetic variability responsible for this reduction is associated with poor dietary compliance and life style habits in T2D patients. Genetic-analysis was done for 109 T2D individuals who completed a 24-week randomized clinical trial and were assigned to follow either a low-GI or a high-fibre diet. Polymorphisms of TaqIA and C957T were compared with physical and biochemical measures. Regardless of dietary treatments, individuals with the C957T-T allele and the TaqIA-A2 allele were significantly associated with blood pressure reduction. Carriers of the T allele significantly lowered their body mass index (BMI) over the 24-week trial. Our findings suggest that the presence of the TaqIA-A2 allele is associated with a decrease in blood pressure. The C957T-T allele was associated with decrease in pressure and body weight.MASThealth3
Aberman, YouvalPlaks, Jason E A Double-Edged Fork: Motivating and De-Motivating Pro-Environmental Food Behavior Psychology2018-06Climate change is a consequence of human behavior, but people tend to construe climate change as an unfathomable, abstract phenomenon that is irrelevant to their individual actions. In the present studies, the high-impact, underrepresented behavior of dietary choices was communicated with numerical information that varied in its frame of reference. We present initial evidence that presenting the footprint of human behavior at a global level, compared to at an individual level, demoralizes individual choices and weakens behavioral intentions to change diet. In addition, we find that participants reported reductions in their meat consumption when an implementation intention intervention was combined with our ‘frame of reference’ intervention. Presenting nation-wide consequences of human behavior is a double-edged sword: Framing in a large scale might reveal the relationship between collective actions and environmental issues, but it hinders the belief that individual actions make a difference.M.A.consum; climate; environment12, 13
Abghari, Bahar Newman, Roger C. Corrosion of Copper in Concentrated Aqueous Chloride Under Anaerobic Conditions Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2013-11Canada’s plan for the long-term disposal of nuclear waste fuel is an approach called Adaptive Phased Management. It includes a two-vessel design for the nuclear waste containers that will be buried in the deep geological repository and kept safe for about a million years.
Copper has long been considered as the outer shell of these waste containers. It shows a good resistance to corrosion and in regards to other noble metals (Pd and Pt) is less expensive.
Corrosion of copper under simulated geological repository conditions is studied in this work. It was shown than thermodynamically, copper corrodes in the absence of oxygen and presence of high concentrations of chloride. However, its rate of corrosion is less than 10 nm/yr, which makes it a suitable candidate for the used fuel containers.
Abidi Tafreshi, SoroushTrbovich, Patricia||Rossos, Peter Privacy and Security of Personal Health Information: A Novel User-­Centric Approach Biomedical Engineering2018-06Privacy and security are highly important to prevent unauthorized access to personal health information (PHI). However, there is currently limited information on clinicians’ experience with privacy and security-related tools and processes. This study took a user-centric approach in identifying the impact of current privacy and security-related tools and processes on clinicians’ workflow in different practice settings. This exploratory study involved the analysis of clinical workflow observations and semi-structured interviews. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patients Safety (SEIPS) framework was used to evaluate the potential incompatibility between the healthcare work system components as they relate to PHI. The results demonstrated four main themes of privacy and security challenges and associated workarounds: hybridization, authentication, authorization, and device management and environmental controls. Also, the challenges and associated workarounds varied as a function of the practice settings where clinicians worked. To optimize clinicians’ experience with PHI privacy and security, system-level practice interventions are recommended.M.H.Sc.health3
Abouassaly, Robert Alibhai, Shabbir Muhammad Husayn Predictors of Partial Nephrectomy Utilization and Inequities of Care in the Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma in Canada Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2010-12-14T16:03:58ZCompared to radical nephrectomy (RN), partial nephrectomy (PN) leads to improved renal function preservation. However, PN may be infrequently utilized, particularly in patients susceptible to chronic kidney disease.
We conducted a population-based, retrospective, observational study using the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database. All patients treated for a renal mass with either RN or PN from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 2008 were included in the analysis. Using descriptive statistics and multivariable regression modelling, we demonstrated low uptake of PN (17.5% overall); year, age, geographic region, Charlson score, hospital volume, and physician volume were independently associated with PN use, whereas DM, HTN and income quintile were not.
In this contemporary analysis PN continues to be underutilized, and the rate of PN in DM, HTN and the elderly was less than expected given their known relationship to chronic renal failure.
Abraham, Andrew Portelli, P John Intellectuality for Liberation: Exploring Anti-oppression, Praxis, and Care Social Justice Education2014-11This thesis will argue that liberal education is inadequate for anti-oppressive praxis. I aim to explore notions of knowledge, intellectuality, praxis, and care that are compatible with anti-oppressive praxis. While intellectuals often traverse the academy, the task of the anti-oppressive intellectuals is to situate themselves such that they can understand and articulate the material conditions of oppressed people. The anti-oppressive intellectual's role is to develop and communicate understandings of the world that contribute to the liberation of people from oppressive conditions. This thesis aims to explore and promote notions of care and integrity that I argue can undergird and guide a viable approach to genuine anti-oppressive intellectual praxis.M.A.educat4
Abrishamkar, SadraYu, Eric Goal-oriented Know-how Mapping: Mapping process, prototype, and empirical studies Information Studies2014-03We elaborate and evaluate a goal-oriented modelling approach for mapping the means-ends knowledge in technology domains. The means-ends relationship connects a solution to a problem, capturing "know-how" of a domain that can be made explicit. Means-ends knowledge from publications is codified and used to create a know-how map in order to organize domain knowledge in terms of problems and their solutions. Domain researchers as well as newcomers, can use the map to search for problems and solutions, and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions. A know-how map is expected to facilitate discovery of knowledge gaps, thus promoting new research and innovation. This work further explores goal modelling approach to know-how. The process of creating and using goal-oriented know-how maps is documented. The user evaluation conducted in this work gathered empirical data about the performance of know-how maps in comparison to a written review of the domain.M.I.S.innovation9
Abualrous, YasarPanesar, Daman K.||Hooton, Douglas R. Characterization of Indian and Canadian Fly Ash for Use in Concrete Civil Engineering2017-06The chemical, physical, and morphological properties of fly ash samples from nine Indian and Canadian coal-fired stations were characterized in this research work. The effect of particle size distribution, not adequately addressed in the standards and the literature, on water requirement and pozzolanic activity of the various fly ash samples was examined. The particle size distributions for the nine Indian and Canadian sources were measured using Laser Diffraction Analyzer (LDA). Each LDA measurement was verified by a corresponding scanning electron micrograph. Particle size analysis appears critical to determining the suitability of the practices
presently in use for collection and processing fly ash. The effects of fly ash variability on concrete properties were determined within three series of experiments. The findings of this study have potential to form the basis for drafting recommendations to modify existing
prescribed limits in the standard specifications for fly ash for use in cement and concrete.
M.A.S.sustainable design12
Acevedo, AndresTate, Joseph E Optimal Generation Redispatch and Visualization of Network Flows Considering Uncertainty Electrical and Computer Engineering2019-11With an increasing amount of renewable generation present on the power grid, grid operators are faced with the challenge of incorporating intermittent energy resources that add uncertainty to the system. In this work, uncertainty in the net load is modeled as a set of forecast errors with known probability distributions. This probabilistic model is used within a robust optimization (RO) framework to formulate an optimal policy for generation redispatch that balances the system in the presence of forecast errors. The optimal generation redispatch policy is compared with conventional approaches to assess its suitability in the presence of large forecast errors. As a secondary contribution, network visualizations are obtained that map the uncertainty present in net load forecasts to transmission line flows; these visualisations can be of use in increasing the situational awareness of grid operators. A case study is performed on a 37-bus test system and conclusions are; renewable7
Acland, Erinn L.Martin, Loren J The Effect of Peripheral Nerve-injury on Depression and Anxiety-like Behaviours in Mice Psychology2017-06Past animal studies examining the relationship between depression and chronic pain have used only male rodents and often only assessed behaviours 7 to 14 days after an injury. To determine whether chronic pain results in a sexually dimorphic presentation of depression-like behaviours, I conducted a series of experiments assessing male and female mice at 14, 28, and 42 days after a peripheral nerve injury. I found that mice did not show any changes in behaviours 14 or 28 days. At 42 days post-surgery male mice with a nerve injury showed significantly more depressive-like behaviours than the sham group, however females did not. This suggest that results from male rodents may not be generalizable to females and that studies assessing mental health and chronic pain in rodents should assess behaviour over longer periods of time as to be more representative of long-term pain experiences.M.A.health3
Acosta Reveco, Joaquin OsvaldoKwon, Oh-Sung A Framework for the Integration of Models in Structural Design and Nonlinear Analysis for Performance-based Seismic Design of Buildings Civil Engineering2019-11The increasing application of Performance-Based Seismic Design to design and retrofit buildings has been possible due to ongoing research, growing computing power, and development of numerical models to simulate cyclic structural behaviour. Performance assessment through nonlinear structural analysis can be cumbersome due to the time and expertise needed to develop a nonlinear model, running analyses, and the subsequent data post-processing, which can prevent a broader adoption of the approach by engineers. Furthermore, the volume of information on nonlinear modelling of structural components is vast and widespread. This thesis explores the formulation of a computational framework for semi-automatic conversion of an elastic structural model, developed with a commercial platform, into a nonlinear analysis model. The conversion method allows the user to focus on choosing the most suitable model for the structural components involved, from a knowledge base built of component models, while avoiding cumbersome work when defining the model.M.A.S.buildings9
Acosta, Alisa Slotta, James D. The Role of Epistemic Cognition in Complex Collaborative Inquiry Curricula Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2013-11-20This thesis examines the role of epistemic cognition within the context of a Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI) curriculum for secondary science. The study employs a new form of design-based research, called Model-Based Design Research (MBDR), which first maps a formal pedagogical model onto the curriculum design, and then assesses how the enacted curriculum adheres to the design. The curriculum design was a ten-week Grade 11 Biology unit that met the Ontario Ministry requirements for evolution and biodiversity, and included activities situated within a unique immersive environment called EvoRoom. The thesis includes an assessment of students' epistemological views about science and science learning, and evaluates the epistemic commitments of KCI using a relevant theoretical framework of epistemic cognition. The analysis reveals the complex interconnections amongst the epistemological, pedagogical and technological elements of the design, resulting in recommendations for future design iterations as well as theoretical insights concerning the KCI model.MASTenvironment; biodiversity13, 15
Acquah, Gifty Ewurama Cooper, Paul ||Krigstin, Sally Characterization of Forest Harvest Residue from the Great Lakes-St Lawrence Forests of South-eastern Ontario Forestry2010-12-14T16:08:45ZThe use of fossil derived products and the environmental and economic problems associated with them have made a shift to abundant renewable resources such as forest biomass more attractive. However before forest biomass can be used as a resource, its properties must be known.
This study determined the physical properties of heterogeneous biomass residues produced during harvesting on two operational forest sites within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence forest of south-eastern Ontario. Properties measured were moisture content, size distribution, bulk density, and wood-to-bark ratio; also thermo-chemical properties including elemental composition, thermal reactivity and energy content were measured. The effects of forest site and harvest type, storage and position in storage pile, on the properties of biomass were also investigated.
Results of the study showed that the various heterogeneous forest harvest residues differed more physically than thermo-chemically for the different variables, and this affected biomass procurement more than the potential utilization options.
MASTenergy; renewable; environment; forest7, 13, 15
Adam, Simon Burstow, Bonnie Elder Care in an Emergency Department: How does Disparity in Practice Come to be? Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-04-05T15:46:42ZElderly patients in the Emergency Department (ED) receive a different level of care than younger patients. The ED disproportionately deploys resources to serve the needs of the younger patient population, a decision that appears to be mediated by the acuity of the patient’s condition as defined by the institution. This study will seek to examine the institutional work processes by which this disparity in care is created. By looking at the needs of the elderly as ED patients and based on what they identify as important to them, this ethnographic study will examine the work organization of the nurses, physicians, and administrators in the ED. The goal of the research is, through the
examination of the organization of work and the texts that mediate it, to explain the ruling relations through which elderly patients are subjugated as patients in the ED.
Adams, Andrew-ChristianAzarpazhooh, Amir Access to Deep Sedation and General Anasesthesia Services for Dental Patients: A Survey of Ontario Dentists Dentistry2015-11Background: Many patients need deep sedation or general anaesthesia (DS/GA) to undergo dental treatment as a result of fear, anxiety, disability, invasive dentistry, medical illness, or age.
Objective: To assess barriers in accessing DS/GA as identified by dentists.
Methods: An electronic survey was distributed to Ontario dentists (n=5507). Descriptive and regression analyses were performed.
Results: With a response rate of 18.3%, one quarter (24.8%) of those surveyed report inadequate access to DS/GA. Those outside the Greater Toronto Area and in rural communities had higher odds of reporting this outcome. General dentists, part-time dentists, urban dentists, and dentists >64 years-old had higher odds of not utilizing DS/GA. Common reasons for not utilizing GA were lack of perceived need and additional costs. Dentists that utilize DS/GA indicate that additional patient costs represent the greatest barrier to care.
Conclusion: Access to DS/GA in Ontario is not uniform and major barriers to care exist.
M.Sc.urban; rural11
Adams, Jennifer Finkelstein, Sarah A. Quantitative Paleoclimate Reconstructions from the Melville Peninsula, Nunavut, Canada Geography2009-12-14T19:14:12ZA transitional climate and the presence of Thule sites make the Melville Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoenvironmental studies. Lake sediment cores and surface samples from Melville Peninsula were analyzed for diatom assemblages. Fragilarioid diatom species dominate assemblages from the interior of the peninsula since the middle Holocene. The greatest changes in diatom communities occurred during the transition from the Holocene Thermal Maximum to the Neoglacial, and in the post-Little Ice Age period. Species richness reached maximum values in the most recent period, reaching 50.8 species in surface sediments. Diatom-inferred pH reconstruction from two lakes did not indicate substantial change throughout the Holocene despite assemblage changes, showing the complexity of interpreting paleoclimate records dominated by Fragilarioids. Analysis of modern assemblages from the interior and East coast of Melville Peninsula confirm the importance of site size and water chemistry, as determined by bedrock geology, in determining diatom species distributions.MASTenvironment; climate; water6, 13
Adamson, Bryce Karen, Knop The New Zealand Food Bill and Global Administrative Law: A Recipe for Democratic Engagement? Law2012-11-20The New Zealand Food Bill is being passed amidst stern criticism of its content and the influence on it by multi-national corporations and the Codex Alimentarius Commission, whose food-safety standards motivated the bill. These concerns illustrate the large democratic and legitimisation deficits in global governance. One response to these criticisms and concerns is global administrative law, which focuses on promoting administrative law tools to enhance accountability. However, an examination of the Food Bill reinforces two main critiques of global administrative law: that it excludes addressing substance of international law and brackets democracy. I argue the limited GAL approach cannot be justified and the significant gaps in its approach require that it engage with democracy. I analyse the possibilities of global administrative law to engage with (to acknowledge and adopt) three theories of global democracy - deliberative, cosmopolitan, and radical pluralism. I argue deliberative democracy offers the most accessible option.MASTfood; governance2, 16
Addnan, NasifJamieson, Greg Design of Mobile Application Using Location Based Adaptive Automation Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2017-06Process industry workplaces are increasingly more automated and require workers to collaborate with an automated agent. Implementing mobile devices in such workplaces is expected to improve task performance and restore multi-sensory cues by providing information to workers at the point of work. Focus group was conducted with 23 field workers to identify challenges that they currently face and proposed opportunities to address them. This resulted in identifying 19 challenges and 7 opportunities to address them using mobile devices. I designed one opportunity that used Adaptive Automation to deliver location-specific equipment operational data to workers at the point of work. Usability results from four participants validated the application and earned an excellent mean System Usability Scale score of 85. The design is expected to provide workers with real-time and projected operational data using a mobile device, providing smart services and allowing them to deliver more accurate equipment diagnosis during maintenance work.M.A.S.worker; industr8, 9
Aden, AyanaDesloges, Joseph R The Impact of the Mount Polley Tailings Pond Failure on the Sedimentary Record of Quesnel Lake, British Columbia Geography2018-06The Mount Polley tailings pond failure that occurred on August 4, 2014 provided an opportunity to understand the effects of point-source sedimentation events in the sedimentary record. Six sediment cores that were taken at both distal and proximal locations in Quesnel Lake (B.C.) were used to identify if turbidity currents or subaqueous debris flows were generated. Geotechnical (grain size and LOI), mineralogical and copper metal concentrations confirmed the presence of turbidite deposits in four cores. All of these turbidites contained a coarser-grained base and an uppermost fine-grained cap. Two out of the four turbidite deposits that were most proximal to the spill mouth contained mixed basal layers that may signify the energy of the current at that depth. Sediment is focused in the deepest part of the basin. The spill sediments will compress over time but will represent sedimentation rates at 4-5 orders of magnitude larger than Holocene natural rates.M.Sc.energy7
Adleman, Jenna Hudson, Chris Retinal Vascular Reactivity Capacity in Healthy Subjects Medical Science2010-12-14T16:09:58ZPurpose: To determine the vascular reactivity (VR) capacity and visual function (VF) response to potent vasoconstrictor and vasodilatory provocations of retinal arterioles in healthy subjects.
Methods: One hyperoxic hypocapnic and two graded hypoxic hypercapnic stimuli were administered. VR in response to gas provocation was assessed using the Canon Laser Blood Flowmeter. VF was assessed using high and low contrast ETDRS logMAR charts, Medmont C-100, and H.R.R. Pseudoisochromatic Plates.
Results: Flow reduced by 23% (p=0.0001) during hyperoxic hypocapnia and increased by 18% (p=0.0129) during hypoxic hypercapnia.
During hyperoxic hypocapnia, high contrast VA improved by -0.026 (p=0.0372). During hypoxic hypercapnia, high and low contrast VA were reduced (+0.033, p=0.0110; +0.025, p=0.0058, respectively). Colour vision was unaffected.
Conclusions: The retinal arterioles demonstrated a greater capacity for vasoconstriction than vasodilation in response to the stimuli used in our study.
Hyperoxic hypocapnia improved high contrast VA while hypoxic hypercapnia reduced high and low contrast VA.
Adler, JohnVeneris, Andreas Novel Approaches to Automated Digital Design Debugging in a Modern Development Cycle Electrical and Computer Engineering2017-11The ever-increasing complexity of modern digital designs has introduced significant challenges to ensuring designs meet specification. Verification alone consumes up to 70% of the cost of designing a chip, with debugging comprising the majority of this cost. In recent years, advances in automated debugging techniques have alleviated this cost, but nevertheless are resource-intensive and offer only design-centric results. This thesis proposes two novel methodologies to address these problems. First, a dual-window approach to analyzing memory-locked errors is introduced. A sliding window is used to model inputs to memory while a fixed observation window is used to model memory outputs. Next, an extensible perceptron-based framework that ranks revisions based on their likelihood of having introduced an error is discussed. A perceptron is trained on past failures and their fixes, then used to make predictions on future failures. Experiments demonstrate the benefits offered by the proposed techniques.M.A.S.INNOVATION9
Adler, Melanie Piran, Niva The Comorbidity of Eating and Substance use Disorders in Women: Explorations of Childhood Maltreatment, Multidimensional Perfectionism and Shame Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2010-12-17T19:39:22ZThis investigation examined multidimensional perfectionism, shame and maltreatment in 45 women with bulimia nervosa, 14 women with binge eating disorder and 26 women with anorexia nervosa, purging type, all of whom suffered from comorbid substance use disorders. Participants completed three perfectionism scales, one shame scale and one maltreatment scale.
Results revealed that in the bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder group, perfectionistic self-promotion and bodily shame were significant predictors of eating disorder severity while other-oriented perfectionism was a significant predictor of alcohol use severity. In the anorexia group, other-oriented perfectionism and bodily shame were significant predictors of eating disorder severity and nondisplay of imperfection was a significant predictor of drug use severity. All participants experienced elevated levels on all types of shame and maltreatment and on most perfectionism dimensions compared to normative samples. Findings should be utilized in developing treatment programs for those with comorbid eating and substance use disorders.
MASTwomen; HEalth3, 5
Adler, Patrick Deborah, Leslie Economies of Speed? Bike Couriers, Pace, and Economic Development in the Global City Geography2011-12-01In this thesis, I propose that bike courier delivery is not merely a convenient service for clients but an important function in the operation of successful economies. By allowing the regions to function at higher speeds, same-day courier networks seem to play an active role in generating positive economic outcomes. The availability of courier networks is found to be as uneven as economic vitality itself. Cities like New York and Toronto have large, dense courier networks, capable of delivering items within an hour while smaller cites, do not support same-day courier service at all. They do this, in part, by allowing for couriers to cope with the precariousness of their work, and in part by providing supportive sub-cultures. These findings point to the role of service workers, and wider eco-systems in fostering regional advantage.
MASTworker; cities8, 11
Adly, Marian Helen Upshur, Ross Limiting the Collateral Damage of SARS: The Ethics of Priority Setting Medical Science2010-12-14T16:12:26ZThe 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Canada highlights a broad range in ethical challenges, particularly in priority setting. Presently, a leading theory in ethical priority setting is Daniels’ and Sabin’s Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R), which enhances fair and legitimate procedural decision making in typical healthcare settings. A4R attempts to mitigate conflicting interests and facilitate fairness in deliberations over priority setting issues. Whether this framework may be applied to public health emergencies has yet to be examined. This qualitative study describes the outbreak through the lens of A4R and explores the applicability of A4R in atypical or emergent circumstances.
Findings from 25 structured key informant interviews of public health officials suggest refinements to the framework may be required for emergency events. The presence of such a framework may minimize collateral damage during and after a response. The lessons may guide future preparedness efforts such as pandemic planning.
Afif, Elie Jose Antonio Farnood, Ramin Catalytic Gasification of Activated Sludge in Near-critical Water Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2011-11-30This thesis was the report of the research done on the near-critical water gasification (NCWG) as an application for activated sludge treatment. The research started with the use of model compounds and binary mixtures of these compounds as feeds for the NCWG. High gasification yields were obtained using a commercial catalyst (Raney nickel), and it was found that interactions between model compounds in the binary mixtures resulted in lowering the gasification efficiencies. The research then shifted to the use of actual activated sludge samples and the search for novel catalysts for that application. Almost 70% of the sludge was gasified in the presence of the high amounts of Raney nickel. Hydrogen was the main product in the gas phase. However, Raney nickel lost half its activity after only 8 minutes of exposure to supercritical water. For some model compounds, novel catalysts formulated in our laboratories had better activities than the commercial ones. This was not the case for the NCWG of activated sludge.MASTwater6
Afshar, ShadiBialystok, Lauren Re-Imagining the Public Value of the Humanities: An Ecological Perspective Social Justice Education2016-11Much of the recent discussion regarding the humanities has been in response to the destabilizing effects economic pressures have on perceptions of their value. I explore the public value of the humanities in light of these contemporary challenges. Chapter One situates this approach in a public conception of the university. In Chapter Two I discuss how the aims of higher education are being reshaped, largely in response to an instrumentalist context that is framed by economic outcomes. In Chapter Three I review three defences of the humanitiesâ subjective, liberal, and democraticâ and how they address the question of public value, respectively. I conclude by arguing for an ecological approach to the humanities, grounded in the broader value of the university to the public it serves, and argue that working inwards from a situated position may provide a more robust account of public value than many of the previous attempts.M.A.educat4
Agate, Adam MBChow, Tiffany Adolescent Disconnection from Brain Health and Impact on Brain Health Behaviour Decision-making Medical Science2015-11This qualitative content analysis study was preformed to understand the views about brain health held by high school students in grades 9 and 10, and how this impacts their adoption of brain healthy behaviours. Three semi-structured focus groups interviews were held with 23 high school adolescents in the Greater Toronto Area. Three themes regarding participants’ views on brain health emerged from the data analysis: (1) Ambiguous Definition, (2) Lack of Understanding and (3) a Struggle for Relevance. These themes contributed to adolescents feeling disconnected from the topic of brain health and its impact on their present and future lives. This emerged as a barrier to the adoption of healthy brain health behaviours. There is a need to address the divide between the youth of our generation and the topic of brain health through the creation and implementation of more meaningful learning experiences about the brain.M.Sc.health3
Agha, SanazNovak, Alison C Biomechanical Evaluation of Nosing Design on Stair Navigation in Healthy and Post-Stroke Older Adults Rehabilitation Science2019-06Stair design can influence the risk of stair falls, with stair nosings intended to provide greater foot accommodation. However, to date little is known regarding the appropriate nosing shape to guide safer stair ambulation. This thesis investigates the impact of different nosing shapes (round, square, tapered, and no-nosing) on foot trajectory measures during stair navigation among healthy and post-stroke older adults. Less resultant foot clearance and greater foot overhang during descent highlighted the increased risk of falls on stairs in the post-stroke group. For both healthy and stroke participants, the tapered and round nosing shapes resulted in the largest horizontal foot clearance, and smallest foot overhang, respectively. However, with greater step-to-step variability detected with round nosings, the tapered nosing presents as the safest choice among all evaluated designs. The results of this work can be used to inform architectural and accessible design standards to create a safer built environment.M.Sc.health3
Aginsky, Danielle Tannock, Rosemary Working Memory and Academic Achievement in Children With Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Human Development and Applied Psychology2009-12-11T19:43:28ZThis study used pre-existing data to examine whether children with ADHD, with and without working memory (WM) deficits, differ in their academic achievement and clinical profiles. 73 children (26% female), aged 6-12 years, with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD had completed standardized achievement tests of reading, mathematics, and written language. Six WM measures and three parent and teacher questionnaires probing behaviour and executive functioning were administered. Of the sample, only 26% met the criteria for a WM deficit. Children with WM impairments were found to perform significantly worse than those without WM impairment on all achievement clusters, with no clinical profile differences. Poor WM is not universal in ADHD, but its presence is associated with lower academic achievement scores. Clinicians and educators should consider that underlying impairments in WM may be the contributing factors to academic difficulties in children with ADHD. Interventions targeting WM skills need to be implemented.MASTeducat; health3, 4
Aguda, Vernie LeighThiele, Tod Identification of Subpallial Neuronal Populations Across Zebrafish Larval Stages that Express Molecular Markers for the Striatum Cell and Systems Biology2019-11Striatal neurons within the basal ganglia play a central role in vertebrate action selection; however, their location in larval zebrafish is not well defined. We assayed for conserved striatal markers in the zebrafish subpallium using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry. Whole mount FISH revealed an inhibitory neuronal cluster rostral to the anterior commissure that expresses tac1, the gene that encodes the precursor peptide for substance P. This molecular profile is shared by mammalian striatal direct pathway neurons. A second partially overlapping population of inhibitory neurons was identified that expresses penka, the gene that encodes the precursor peptide for enkephalin. This molecular profile is shared by striatal indirect pathway neurons. Immunostaining for substance P and enkephalin confirmed the presence of these peptides in the subpallium as well as the presence of dopaminergic innervation. The tac1 and penka populations were both found to increase linearly across larval stages. Together, these findings support the existence of a striatal homologue in larval zebrafish that grows to match the development and increasing behavioural complexity of the organism.M.Sc.conserv; fish14
Aguiar, Anelize Valcke, Catherine The Law Applicable to International Trade Transactions with Brazilian Parties: A Comparative Study of the Brazilian Law, the CISG, and the American Law About Contract Formation Law2011-08-25Despite Brazil’s importance in the world economy and its increasing participation in foreign trade, there is considerable legal uncertainty regarding the law applicable to international commercial contracts involving Brazilian parties because Brazilian judicial courts do not respect parties’ freedom to choose the governing law, thus this determination is only made by a judge, according to Private International Law rules of the forum. Applying these rules, this study demonstrates that there are at least three potential legal regimes: the Brazilian law, the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, and a foreign domestic sales law. Making use of the American law as the foreign law, a comparative analysis of these three legal regimes regarding contract formation demonstrates that their approaches are very distinct, and this confirms the legal uncertainty. In order to reduce this problem, three different strategies are proposed to the Brazilian government.MASTtrade10
Ahmad, Aria Pennefather, Peter ||Kohler, Jillian Clare Addressing Variability in Drug Quality: Finding The Right “Quality” Framework(s) Pharmaceutical Sciences2012-11-20Background: In many countries, a significant proportion of medicines traded and consumed are of poor or variable quality. Meanwhile, failures in appropriately framing and responding to the problem have led to a proliferation of public health and governance challenges.
Objective: To examine the issues exacerbating the trade and consumption of medicines of poor or variable quality, as well as present locally relevant strategies.
Methods: Analytic triangulation was applied to the synthesis of publicly available documents.
Results: Where economic and regulatory environments are less structured, supply chain security strategies that fixate on ‘counterfeits’ often fail in limiting the prevalence of poor quality medicines. In addition to a multivariate drug quality classification chart, three quality frameworks are presented for examining appropriate policy strategies in mediating drug quality.
Conclusion: These tools can assist stakeholders in determining more locally relevant and context-specific strategies, while interrogating the proposition for greater transparency vis-à-vis drug quality.
MASThealth; trade; consum; environment; governance3, 10, 12, 16
Ahmad, Sidrah MaysoonMagnusson, Jamie Invisible Violence Against Hypervisible Women: Understanding Islamophobic Violence in the Greater Toronto Area Through Qualitative Interviews and Arts-Based Inquiry Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2018-06Islamophobic violence against Muslim women is an understudied issue in Canada, even as it is increasing. Using an anti-colonial Muslim feminist theoretical framework and praxis, I conducted 21 interviews of Muslim women survivors of Islamophobic violence in the GTA, and analyzed these interviews to characterize the discourses that sanction Islamophobic violence; the different forms of Islamophobic violence and its impacts, including its relation to trauma; challenges for bystander intervention; and Muslim women’s strength and agency. Notably, several participants employed faith-based methods of understanding and responding to Islamophobic violence. Poetry by six Muslim women survivors of Islamophobic violence supplemented these findings by enriching them with emotional depth; this poetry will be included in a community toolkit on Islamophobic violence that will emerge from this study. Future research should continue to centre diverse Muslim women’s voices and focus on anti-colonial methods of challenging Islamophobia that focus on building relationships with Indigenous peoples.M.A.women5
Ahmari-Moghaddam, Ali Emon, Anver Towards International Islamic Human Rights: A Comparative Study of Islamic Law, Shari’ah, with Universal Human Rights as Defined in the International Bill of Human Rights Law2012-07-24Islamic law, also known as Shari’ah law, is one of the most complex and multifaceted, yet easily misunderstood areas of law. It is complex because its subjects, but not limited to, human rights, politics, religion, economics, and criminal. Islamic law is also misunderstood because it is greatly understudied and grossly over-generalized. This regretfully has lead to a situation where Islamic law is often characterized as an inhumane and discriminatory set of laws which have no respect for human rights. The questions that remain to be answered are whether or not there is a human rights discourse in Islamic law, and is Islamic law compatible with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its two subsequent International Covenants? The aim of this paper is to ascertain whether or not Shari’ah law, as it has been reflected in the Islamic human rights documents discussed, is compatible with universal human rights standards.MASTrights16
Ahmed, MariaDavies, Scott To Conform or Innovate: Organizational Life Cycle of Independent Religious Schools in the Greater Toronto Area Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2017-11This thesis presents the argument that private religious schools in Toronto experience competing forces of isomorphism (from their status as schools in a highly institutionalized setting) and innovation (from their position as a business in an open market environment). Assuming multiple roles as a business, non-profit, and educational institution augments the pressure they experience and forces them to search for strategies to manage the additional strain caused by conflicting forces.
This mixed methods study captures interview data from senior leadership in 20 independent religious schools in the Greater Toronto Area. Findings conclude that schools follow an S-curve on an Organizational Life Cycle, which measures a schoolâ s level of establishment or legitimacy. Furthermore, schools in the study faced competing forces (or logics) of education, religion, financial sustainability, and community. Through an institutional entrepreneurship approach, schools strategically selected their location, identity, leadership, policies, social networks and new practices to improve organizational longevity.
M.Ed. innovation; environment; institution4, 9, 16
Ahmed, Mavra Keith, Mary E. An Investigation of Outcomes in Relation to Thiamin Status of Ambulatory Patients with Heart Failure Nutritional Sciences2012-07-19Thiamin is a required coenzyme in energy producing reactions that subsequently fuel myocardial contraction. Therefore, thiamin deficiency (TD) might contribute to the reduction in myocardial function observed in patients with heart failure (HF) by limiting the available energy and subsequently aggravating cardiac performance. While the prevalence of TD as well as the impact of supplementation has been examined in patients with HF, none of these studies to date has examined the impact of TD on clinical outcomes. Therefore, this study investigated the associations between erythrocyte [TPP] levels and outcomes in ambulatory patients with HF. Time-to-event probabilities were found to be not significant for acute decompensated heart failure, mortality, all-cause hospitalizations, arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions and other adverse events. Further investigations into the longer term impact of TD on outcomes and the effects of thiamin supplementation as an adjunct therapy in delaying the disease progression are needed.MASThealth3
Ahmed, SarahMizrahi, Romina||Kiang, Michael Examining an Event-related Brain Potential Index of Semantic Priming in Cannabis-using Individuals at Clinical High-risk For Psychosis Medical Science2019-11Individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for schizophrenia experience subthreshold symptoms of this disorder, and cannabis use further increases their risk of conversion to psychosis. To seek neurophysiological evidence that cannabis use is associated with semantic processing deficits in the CHR state, we used the N400 event-related potential (ERP) to measure semantic priming. We recorded ERPs in 15 cannabis-using and 12 non-cannabis-using help-seeking CHR individuals, and 10 cannabis-using and 15 non-cannabis-using healthy controls while they viewed related and unrelated prime-target word pairs, at a short and a long stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA). We observed no significant differences in N400 semantic priming between the four groups, but observed a trend towards deficits at the long SOA in all CHR participants compared to all controls (p = 0.07). The results suggest that CHR individuals experience semantic priming deficits similar to those of schizophrenia patients but that cannabis use does not further impair this process.M.Sc.health3
Ahrari, Soha MahmoodiDeAngelis, Carlo DEVELOPING A TEXT MESSAGING INTERVENTION TO SUPPORT MEDICATION ADHERENCE TO ENDOCRINE THERAPY IN ADJUVANT BREAST CANCER: AN INTERPRETIVE DESCRIPTION APPROACH Pharmaceutical Sciences2017-11Most adjuvant breast cancer patients are prescribed long-term endocrine therapy; however, not all patients continue these medications long term. Text messaging programs have been shown to be a low cost means of increasing medication adherence in a wide variety of chronic conditions, but have not been extensively studied in the breast cancer setting. The primary objective of this study was to develop a text messaging intervention to support long term endocrine therapy adherence. First, we sought to understand the breast cancer survivorship experience in the context of endocrine therapy. Second, we were interested in womenâ s experiences when using a theoretically grounded text messaging intervention. Participants were recruited from a single large academic centre. The initial text messaging intervention was informed by the Medication Adherence Model. Data collection comprised of two semi- structured interviews with eight participants, as well as enrollment in the text messaging intervention. Two main themes arose regarding the experience of breast cancer survivorship. First, fear of recurrence and the worry about returning to normal after breast cancer treatment were dominating emotional experiences. As a result, a high degree of uncertainty permeated their lives, and learning to manage uncertainty was identified as a critical coping skill. When participants were asked regarding preferences for a text messaging intervention, women stated they were interested in an intervention that would act as a supporting friend, sending positive messages about overall wellness. In addition, message tailoring was recognized as an important characteristic in order to increase program usefulness. These findings are useful in shaping future work ensuring long term medication adherence to endocrine therapy.M.Sc.health5
Ahsanuzzaman, S. M. Prodic, Aleksandar Interactive Flexible Switch Mode Power Supplies for Reducing Volume and Improving Efficiency Electrical and Computer Engineering2013-07-10The purpose of this thesis is to introduce a family of interactive Switch Mode Power Supplies (SMPS) for reducing the overall volume of the conventional converter topologies in low-to-medium power (up to 60W) applications. As shown in this thesis, the interaction between power supplies and electronic devices can be incorporated with emerging digital controllers for SMPS, to implement flexible converter topologies. These flexible topologies dynamically change the converter configuration, based on the load requirement, to provide near ideal transient response and/or improved efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. This interaction relaxes the energy storage requirement for the converter reactive components and results in a low volume implementation. The interaction with the SMPS can be between the electronic load and the power supply or different conversion stages of a multi-stage converter. The effectiveness of the introduced family of SMPS is verified on digitally controlled dc-dc and ac-dc converter topologies.MASTenergy7
Ai, TaoMann, Steve HDRchitecture: Real-Time Quantigraphic High Dynamic Range (HDR) Imaging on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for WearCam (Wearable Camera) Electrical and Computer Engineering2014-11An important feature of wearable camera systems is that they must work in awide variety of situations under a wide range of lighting conditions. This is truewhether they are used to take pictures, or record video, or even to perform objectrecognition. For these cameras to be used as a real-time seeing aid, we need toproduce High Dynamic Range (HDR) videos at a high frame rate.With the advance of technology in the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)industry, the increasing number of successful implementations of real-time imagingsystems makes FPGA an attractive platform for prototyping HDR video systemfor wearable computers. In this thesis, an scalable and adaptable frameworkis implemented on FPGA for real-time quantigraphic HDR imaging, for solvingthe camera dynamic range limitation. Most of the implementing issues found inthe essential stages of a typical HDR imaging flow are addressed in detail.M.A.S.industr9
Aitken, Madison Lee Martinussen, Rhonda Exploring Predictors of Performance on a Curriculum-based Measure of Written Expression Human Development and Applied Psychology2011-11-28The role of gender, handwriting automaticity, reading proficiency, and verbal working memory in grade 4 and 5 students‟ (N = 42; 23 boys) performance on a curriculum-based measure of narrative writing was examined. Three outcomes were measured: total words written, correct minus incorrect word sequences (accurate production of spelling and grammar in-text), and composition quality. Gender (girls > boys) and handwriting automaticity were significant predictors of total words written, and gender (girls > boys), reading proficiency, and grade (5 > 4) significantly predicted correct minus incorrect word sequences scores. Total words written was the only significant predictor of composition quality. The results suggest that reading proficiency and handwriting automaticity should be assessed alongside written expression in order to identify children at risk for writing difficulties and to inform instructional recommendations for these individuals.MASTgender; girl5
Akanmori, Harriet Dei, George Jerry Sefa A Critical Analysis of the Activities of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) to Promote Equity and Access in the Achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for Education in Ghana: 2005-2010 Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29Canada supports developmental efforts in Ghana through the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). This dissertation investigates how Canada partners with Ghana to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for education by 2015. The study focuses on achieving equity and access to education in Ghana, and examines how far Ghana’s policy and Canada’s aims and objectives (through CIDA) for adressing these developmental issues converge or diverge.
The principal methodology for accomplishing this study includes literature review and a content analysis of CIDA programmes and documents related to education in Ghana. The study concludes that CIDA programmes and operations in education in Ghana have a clear focus on issues relating to equity and access to education, and complement governmental efforts to achieve the Millennium Development Goals for Education in Ghana. The thesis ends with recommendation for further study on using spirituality and indigenous knowledges to enhance and provide holistic education in Ghana.
Akdeniz, CerenPasseport, Elodie Adsorption and Desorption of Naphthalene in Bioretention Cells Civil Engineering2018-11Naphthalene is a toxic contaminant commonly found in urban stormwater. Low impact development stormwater management practices such as bioretention cells are effective in reducing contaminant input into downstream. To this date, the transfer and transformation processes of typical urban runoff trace organic contaminants have not been characterized extensively; particularly in winter conditions. This study investigated the adsorption and desorption of naphthalene in bioretention cells at various temperatures and salinities. In all experiments, more than 70% of the initially added naphthalene was adsorbed on the bioretention soil at equilibrium. Temperature and salinity showed little but inconsistent effects, and the adsorption of naphthalene was partially reversible under some conditions. Despite its reversibility, naphthalene desorption may allow for the regeneration of the sorption capacity of the soil media, and transformation processes to take place. Overall, these results suggest that bioretention cells can store up to 80% of the inflowing naphthalene over short periods.M.A.S.water6
Akhter, Mohammad RazaSimpson, Andre J||Simpson, Myrna In vivo NMR-based Metabolomics of Daphnia magna: Exploring the Potential and Limitations Chemistry2015-06Daphnia magna (a keystone species) is routinely used in understanding the toxicity of environmental contaminants. Traditional ecotoxicity methods use endpoints such as mortality to understand the toxicity of contaminants. To fully understand the impact of a stressor, the underlying biochemical pathways that drive the physiological changes in an organism must be studied. Here in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was developed to understand the metabolomic changes that occur in 13C-labelled Daphnia magna in response to stress. A flow-system which delivered oxygen to daphnia inside an NMR tube allowed for a total experiment time of 48 hours. A baseline metabolomic profile D. magna was established from 1H/13C one dimensional (1D) and two dimensional (2D) NMR. Changes in the lipids/TriAcylGlycerides (TAG) and carbohydrates of daphnids under different physical conditions (male/female and pregnant/non-pregnant) were identified demonstrating the viability of this approach for studying the biochemical response of D. magna to contaminant exposure.M.Sc.environment13
Al Safi, AliBehdinan, Kamran Novel Framework for Reduced Order Modeling of Aero-engine Components Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-11The present study focuses on the popular dynamic reduction methods used in design of complex assemblies (millions of Degrees of Freedom) where numerous iterations are involved to achieve the final design. Aerospace manufacturers such as Rolls Royce and Pratt Whitney are actively seeking techniques that reduce computational time while maintaining accuracy of the models. This involves modal analysis of components with complex geometries to determine the dynamic behavior due to non-linearity and complicated loading conditions. In such a case the sub-structuring and dynamic reduction techniques prove to be an efficient tool to reduce design cycle time. The components whose designs are finalized can be dynamically reduced to mass and stiffness matrices at the boundary nodes in the assembly. These matrices conserve the dynamics of the component in the assembly, and thus avoid repeated calculations during the analysis runs for design modification of other components. This thesis presents a novel framework in terms of modeling and meshing of any complex structure, in this case an aero-engine casing. In this study the affect of meshing techniques on the run time are highlighted. The modal analysis is carried out using an extremely fine mesh to ensure all minor details in the structure are captured correctly in the Finite Element (FE) model. This is used as the reference model, to compare against the results of the reduced model. The study also shows the conditions/criteria under which dynamic reduction can be implemented effectively, proving the accuracy of Criag-Bampton (C.B.) method and limitations of Static Condensation. The study highlights the longer runtime needed to produce the reduced matrices of components compared to the overall runtime of the complete unreduced model. Although once the components are reduced, the assembly run is significantly. Hence the decision to use Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is to be taken judiciously considering the number of iterations that may be required during the design cycle.M.A.S.industr9
Al-Dajani, Mahmoud Azarpazhooh, Amir ||Quiñonez, Carlos Hospital-based Visits and Admissions for Maxillofacial Injuries in Ontario: An 8-year Retrospective Study Dentistry2013-11-20Objectives: (1) To calculate rates for maxillofacial (MF) injury-related visits in emergency departments (EDs) and hospitals in Ontario; (2) To investigate socio-demographic distribution of MF injuries; (3) To identify common causes for MF injuries.
Methods: An 8-year retrospective study design was implemented. Two datasets were used: Discharge Abstract Database and National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. Color-coded maps were created using ArcGIS.
Results: From 2004 to 2012 in Ontario, 1,457,990 ED visits and 41,057 hospitalizations due to MF injuries were registered. MF injuries are most frequent in males and occur mainly in evenings (7:00 to 9:00 pm) and weekends. Higher rates of MF injury are seen in rural areas and low-income neighborhoods. The leading cause of MF injuries is falls.
Conclusion: 3 out of 100 ED visits and 1 out of 200 hospitalizations were caused by MF injury. Male youth and female older people suffered high rates of MF injury.
Al-Dajani, Nadia Uliaszek, Amanda Differences in Emotion Reactivity between Individuals with Features of Borderline Personality Disorder and Depression Psychology2013-11-20Depression and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly comorbid and are both characteristic of affective disturbance. In this study, it is hypothesized that the disorders share a common etiological factor of emotion reactivity. In addition, an investigation of specific emotional experiences that may differentiate the two symptom clusters is undertaken. A mood induction task was used to elicit emotional reactions in a sample of 121 university students. Regression analyses were conducted to examine emotion reactivity as a common factor. Unique associations between specific emotions and features of BPD, depression, and an interaction term (BPDxDep) were investigated. It was found that all models tested were significant, with the exception of joy. Features of BPD were uniquely associated with sadness, guilt, and anger, as were depressive features. BPDxDep symptoms were negatively associated with guilt. A discussion of the findings obtained and their significance in theory and in practice is undertaken.MASThealth3
Al-Khalidi, Banaz Vieth, Reinhold Casein Proteins as a Vehicle to Deliver Vitamin D3: Fortification of Dairy Products with Vitamin D3 and Bioavailability of Vitamin D3 from Fortified Mozzarella Cheese Baked with Pizza Nutritional Sciences2012-11-20Current vitamin D intakes in Canada are inadequate. The extension of vitamin D fortification to additional foods may be an effective and appropriate strategy for increasing vitamin D intakes in the general population. Cheese is potentially an ideal candidate for vitamin D fortification. We introduce the potential use of casein proteins as a vehicle for vitamin D3 fortification in industrially made cheeses where we found that over 90% of vitamin D3 added to milk was retained in both Cheddar and Mozzarella cheeses. Use of casein proteins for vitamin D3 fortification did not fully prevent vitamin D3 loss into whey. However the loss was minimized to approximately 8%. We then show that vitamin D3 is bioavailable from fortified Mozzarella cheese baked with pizza suggesting that the high temperature baking process does not significantly breakdown vitamin D3. Our findings could have important implications in increasing fortified food options for Canadians.MASTfood; industr1, 8
Al-Rudainy, Oras Lawrence, Herenia P. Role of Acculturation, Social Capital and Oral Health Literacy on Access to Dental Care among Preschool Children of Arabic-speaking Immigrants in Toronto, Canada Dentistry2011-12-01Objectives: To determine access to dental care among preschool children of Arabic-speaking immigrant families; to investigate the influence of social and cultural factors on access to dental care; and to measure preschool children’s oral health as reported by their parents. Methods: This survey used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 100 Arabic-speaking parents of children under the age of 5 who were identified from community centres. Five scales were used to measure acculturation, social capital, oral health literacy, oral health knowledge, and health literacy. Results: Only 34% of families had visited the dentist to obtain dental care for their preschool children. Nineteen-percent of Arabic parents in our sample rated their children’s oral health as being fair or poor. None of the scales used in this study had a significant impact on access to dental care; however, higher scores on these scales tended to be associated with better access to dental care.MASThealth3
Alaca, BetülPyle, Angela Kindergarten Teachers' Perspectives on Culturally Responsive Education Applied Psychology and Human Development2017-11Researchers and policymakers have been making efforts to build more inclusive Canadian schooling experiences that reflect the diversity of its student bodies. The present study examined kindergarten teachersâ experiences of culturally responsive education. Qualitative interviews were conducted with six kindergarten teachers in the Greater Toronto Area to learn about how they understand and approach cultural diversity in their classrooms and the challenges that they experience. Participating teachers most often referred to ethnicity in relation to studentsâ cultural backgrounds, and believed that culturally responsive practices have an important place at the kindergarten level. Teachers described implementing practices that are both structured components of the classroom, and spontaneous in that they are unplanned accommodations or instruction. They spoke of challenges relating to their access to resources both within and outside of their schools and establishing strong relationships with school personnel and families.M.A.educat; inclusive4
Alaeddini, Mohammadreza Austin, Lisa M. Cyberspace: The Gated Public Sphere Law2011-12-01Cyberspace, as a notional environment, is a reality that comes into existence only through the proprietary technologies, platforms, and infrastructures of private industry. This has given “Internet companies”, as the non-substitutable pathways to the virtual world, a truly unique and tremendously powerful role in exercising their discretion in regulating
citizens’ behavior online. Consequently, citizen’s fundamental rights and liberties in the virtual world, such as freedom of speech, thought, assembly and association, access to information and dissemination, are at the mercy of a handful profit seeking enterprises.
With the ever-increasing role of the Internet in our social life, it seems that the time is ripe for revisiting some of the foundational questions in cyberspace in order to preserve the cornerstones of our liberal societies in the information era.
MASTinfrastructure; industr;9
Alagraa, Bador SaadeldinRuddick, Susan "Known to the Police": A Black Male Reflection on Police Violence in Toronto Geography2015-06In response to the increased prevalence of gun violence in Toronto, local politicians and media have focused on how to more efficiently police the city's most violent neighborhoods. Because of the racialized nature of this violence, much attention has been given to the role of structural and institutional effects of systemic racism and marginalization on the manifestation of violence in the City of Toronto. Obscured from these discussions however are the ways in which narratives of criminality are internalized by Black and Brown bodies and their communities. In light of this, this research will highlight the lack of attention given to the discursive remapping, and the reimaging of the Black male body in urban spaces. Ultimately, what I propose is a radical decentering of this institutional paradigm in favour of one that takes the subjectivity of the Black male as its point of entry.M.A.institution; urban11, 16
Alary, Mary Catherine ClaireBoydell, Katherine M Listening to Marginalized Women in Toronto: A Dialogue about Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Medical Science2015-06This study explored the perceptions of women living in homeless shelters and women with severe mental health challenges about the factors influencing their decision-making processes regarding breast and cervical cancer screening. Twenty-six qualitative interviews were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis. The aim of this exploratory study was to focus on meanings and actions with a broader view to identify the interplay between participants' narratives and social structures, medical praxis and policy implications.
Results provided insights on both positive and negative prior cancer screening experiences, the role of power and trust in women's decision-making, and areas for improvement in health care provider/patient interactions. Outcomes of this investigation contribute to the future development of appropriately designed intervention programs. Tailored and effective health promotion strategies leading to life-long cancer screening behaviours among marginalized women may improve clinical outcomes, decrease treatment costs and save lives.; women3, 5
Albaun, Michael Jordan Cadarette, M Suzanne Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis Management Among Seniors Pharmaceutical Sciences2014-11Background: Chronic oral glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is the leading cause of secondary osteoporosis, resulting in rapid bone loss and increased fracture risk. Objective: To examine trends in GC-induced osteoporosis management, by sex and over time. Methods: Using Ontario healthcare utilization data, we determined the proportion of chronic oral GC users (age 66+) who received a bone mineral density test and/or osteoporosis treatment within 6 months of starting chronic GC therapy. Results: We identified 72,099 male and 95,975 female patients on chronic GC therapy between 1996 and 2012. Overall, 15% of men and 36% of women on chronic oral GC therapy received osteoporosis management. However, among patients without prior osteoporosis management, only 12% of men and 23% of women received osteoporosis management within 6 months. Conclusion: GC-induced osteoporosis management improved significantly over time in both sexes yet remains low, particularly among men. This represents a missed opportunity for fracture prevention among patients requiring prolonged GC therapy.M.Sc.health2
Albert-Green, StevenThomson, Murray Understanding the Effects of Nozzle Design and Spray Characteristics for Optimizing Pyrolysis Liquid Biofuel Ignition and Combustion Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2017-11This thesis examines how nozzle design and spray characteristics influence the combustion and emissions of a pure pyrolysis liquid biofuel (PLB) flame in a 10kW, insulated, swirl burner using an internally mixed air-blast nozzle. PLB is a carbon-neutral fuel made from waste wood, but its properties make efficient combustion challenging. First, atomization trends were examined with distilled water to elucidate the important parameters and design aspects and to determine the nozzle's primary atomization mechanism(s). With this information, combustion experiments studied how carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, carbonaceous residue, flame stability and coking were influenced by the nozzle's mixing chamber diameter and outlet number/diameter, angle and total area in order to optimize the design of the nozzle. Ultimately, an optimized nozzle was designed that achieved a self-sustaining PLB flame with good stability, low emissions and low coking. In addition, it allowed for "cold-starting" and pilot flame extinguishment at steady-state while maintaining stability.M.A.S.waste; water6, 12
Albert-Vartanian, Alenoush McGlade, Jane ||Zadeh, Gelareh Role of Hexokinase 2 (HK2) in Modulating Tumor Metabolism and Response to Therapy in Glioblastoma Medical Biophysics2013-11-20Glioblastoma (GBM), similar to many other cancers, exhibits enhanced aerobic glycolysis with concomitant lactate production, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. We have demonstrated that preferential expression of Hexokinase 2 (HK2) is a critical mediator of metabolic reprograming in GBMs and its inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for sensitization of GBM tumors to radiation (RAD) and/or temozolomide (TMZ). Our results
indicate that conditional HK2 inhibition disrupts energy homeostasis and sensitizes GBMs to radiochemotherapy under hypoxia. In GBM xenografts, conditional HK2 loss sensitizes GBM tumors to concomitant RAD/TMZ and results in a significant survival benefit in the mice. Moreover, loss of HK2 resulted in GBM remodeling with HK2 knockdowns showing increased necrosis, hypoxia, inflammatory infiltration and reduced vascularization. We anticipate that targeting a key metabolic enzyme involved in the Warburg effect might improve the efficacy of current therapeutic regimen and provide a unique paradigm for the management of GBMs.
Albilia, Jonathan Tenenbaum, Howard ||Clokie, Cameron Serum BMP-2, 4, 7 and AHSG in Patients with Heterotopic Ossification Following Arthroplasty Dentistry2010-12-14T16:25:48ZPurpose: To determine whether reduced serum levels of AHSG and elevated levels of BMP-2,
4, 7 are associated with post-arthroplasty HO. Patients: Thirty arthroplasty patients were
included, 15 with evidence of peri-articular HO and 15 without (NHO). Methods: Blood
samples were collected from all patients ≥ 8 weeks after arthroplasty. Analytes were measured
using ELISAs. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed to compare serum analyte concentrations
between HO and NHO groups, and between arthroplasty patients and healthy humans. Results:
There is no difference in serum concentrations of AHSG, BMP-2, 4, 7 between HO and NHO
patients. Arthroplasty patients showed significantly higher BMP-2 and BMP-4 and lower AHSG
serum levels compared to healthy humans (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Baseline BMP-2, 4, 7 and
AHSG serum levels are not markers of acquired HO. However, elevated baseline levels of BMP-
2, 4 and reduced levels of AHSG appear to be markers of severe inflammatory arthritis.
Alderman, EmilieMcCabe, Brenda||Hyatt, Douglas Construction Safety Climate in Ontario: A Longitudinal Study Civil Engineering2015-11The aim of this paper is to document changes in the relationship between demographics, attitudes, physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and accidents over time in the construction industry. This longitudinal study compares periodic measures of the construction safety climate in Ontario in 2004/6 and 2014. A total of 442 self-administered questionnaires were collected from 22 construction sites in 2014. The 2014 data were compared to 911 valid questionnaire responses obtained in 2004/06 from 84 construction sites across Ontario. The questionnaire contained 105 questions and took participants 15 minutes to complete. Demographic data remained consistent over time. The participants had an average experience level of 15 years, having spent a median of 2.5 years with their current employer. Considerable attitudinal improvements were observed in the areas of leadership, coworker perception, supervisor perception, management perception, and safety program perception. The prevalence and occurrence of physical symptoms, psychological symptoms, and accidents decreased over time.M.A.S.worker; industr8, 9
Aldossari, AlaaHayhoe, Ruth Experience, Struggle and Change: Saudi Women Studying in a Canadian Context, under the King Abdullah Scholarship Program Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2015-06This study will trace the impact of the King Abdullah Scholarship Program KASP on Saudi women currently studying in Canada, as well as the academic and socio-cultural complexities that participating in this scholarship program entails. In particular, issues of religion and gender are explored, with an emphasis on the experiences, struggles and changes elicited through the educative process.M.A.educat; gender; women4, 5
Aleem, Idris Syed Chau, Tom Online Environmental Control of Multiple Devices using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) Ultrasonography Biomedical Engineering2012-11-20Individuals with severe impairments may use brain-computer interface (BCI) technologies in order to interact with their external environment. One non-invasive brain-monitoring technology which may be suitable for this purpose is transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). Previous research has shown that TCD is useful in detecting changes in cerebral blood flow velocities after the performance of cognitive tasks which are often lateralized towards a specific hemisphere of the brain. However, to date, TCD has not been used in a BCI system. This thesis first explores TCD in an offline study, showing that on average, accuracies of 80.0% are attainable with user-specific training data and 74.6% with user-independent training data. Furthermore, consecutive sequential lateralizations do not decrease classification accuracies. In a subsequent online experiment, a TCD-BCI system yielded an average accuracy of 61.4%, but revealed key findings about the effects of user motivation and error streaks in an online system.MASTinnovation9
Alexander Kowalewski, Dylan JanThomson, Murray J||Tran, Honghi N Emissions and Properties of Bio-oil and Natural Gas Co-combustion in a Pilot Stabilised Swirl Burner Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-11Fast pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, has been investigated to replace traditional fossil fuels in industrial burners. However, flame stability is a challenge due to its high water content. In order to address its instability, bio-oil was co-fired with natural gas in a lab scale 10kW swirl burner at energy ratios from 0% bio-oil to 80% bio-oil. To evaluate the combustion, flame shape, exhaust and particulate emissions, temperatures, as well as infrared emission were monitored. As the bio-oil energy fraction increased, NO emissions increased due to the nitrogen content of bio-oil. CO and particulate emissions increased likely due to carbonaceous residue exiting the combustion zone. Unburnt Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions increased rapidly as combustion became poor at 60-80% bio-oil energy. The temperature and infrared output decreased with more bio-oil energy. The natural gas proved to be effective at anchoring the bio-oil flame to the nozzle, decreasing instances of extinction or blowout.M.A.S.water; energy; industr6, 7, 9
Alexander, EmilyAlain, Claude Speech-in-Noise Perception in Older Adults: Impact of Emotional Semantic Valence and Clinical Depression Psychology2019-11Depression influences and can be influence by interpersonal interactions, which rely on speech-in-noise comprehension. The semantic emotional salience of words may influence listening abilities in noise. This study examined the effects of emotional valence and depression on speech-in-noise comprehension in older adults (OA). Participants were 28 older adults (Mage = 72.75, SD = 5.93) with current depression (n = 9), remitted depression (n = 9), or healthy controls (n = 10). In an experimental-word-in-noise task, participants heard spoken words that were neutral, positive, or negatively-valenced. It was hypothesized that older adults with depression would show a reduction in the expected positive bias observed in healthy older adults on speech comprehension. No group differences were found in speech-in-noise comprehension ability in older adults. Across groups, there were main effects of signal-to-noise ratio and valence on EWIN task accuracy. Findings partially support a positivity bias in older adults, regardless of depression status.M.A.health3
Alexander, Rachel Ng, Roxana ||Sumner, Jennifer Connecting with the Global Garment Industry: Can Ethical Consumption Promote Sustainability? Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2010-07-21T15:04:59ZIn the globalized garment industry (GGI) most clothing is involved in complex networks that exploit both people and the environment. This system is unsustainable yet supported by Canadian consumers, who have become disconnected from their clothing’s production and disposal processes as a result of the development of increasingly complex social and technological systems since the Industrial Revolution. Canadians currently learn about the industry from public portrayals in which the dominant messages are designed by corporations promoting consumption. Nevertheless, growing numbers of consumers are realizing that this system is unsustainable and attempting to take action. This study uses methods based on institutional ethnography to explore the challenges faced by Canadians trying to engage in ethical consumption. Promoting sustainability is seen as requiring broad structural change, which can be supported by individual Canadians seeking to learn about the industry and working with its global stakeholders to build the civil commons.MASTconsum; industr9, 12
Alexander, Sarah Mehta Lee, Ian B. Directors Duties under the CBCA:Shareholder Theory versus Stakeholder Theory Consideration of Stakeholder Theory's Legal and Moral Supremacy Law2012-11-20Traditional scholarship on corporate law evidences the lack of analysis undertaken to understand the interconnectivity between businesses and the societies in which they operate where , scholarship and case law had favored shareholder primacy. However, an analysis of Section 122 of the Canadian Business Corporations Act (CBCA), reveals that the ambiguous language of director’s duties under the CBCA allows for the courts to continue modernize the law inclusive of stakeholder rights without requiring statutory amendments. Therefore, this thesis argues that courts have the flexibility to interpret that directors are within their duties to balance the rights of both shareholders and stakeholders. In fact, this thesis argues that stakeholder theory is superior to shareholder theory in consideration of law and morality. By concluding that stakeholder theory is the new accepted standard in Canadian Corporate law, this paper offers directors guidance on how to perform their role in accordance with the CBCA.MASTrights16
Alexander, Shea Basil Roach, Kent An Accountability Reality Check: Evaluating Key Review Mechanisms for Policing and Demonstrations Law2014-11When a major incident occurs between police and demonstrators where there are questionable police and state actions, there are regularly calls for corresponding accountability. This thesis analyzes the realities of potentially using civil litigation and other non-court mechanisms to achieve such accountability, especially regarding how the mechanisms reinforce "conflict-solving" or "policy-implementing" tendencies. Injunctions are also specifically examined as they commonly occur in the context of demonstrations. It is suggested that property "rights" (as defined by Hohfeld) repeatedly trump the demonstrators' "privilege" of freedom of expression. As a result of the analysis, three solutions are proposed: 1) an independent body who can initiate comprehensive reviews for a major incident when needed; 2) incorporating an independent legal advisor into the planning and incident command structure for major events to help prevent the concerns from arising; and 3) courts conducting inquiry-like hearings that incorporate the best aspects of both "conflict-solving" and "policy-implementing" approaches.LL.M.rights16
Alghamdi, MaryamAllard, Johane P Oral inflammatory load and salivary flow rate in morbidly obese patients: relationship with diabetes and effect of bariatric care protocol Nutritional Sciences2018-11Obesity and diabetes promote periodontal disease (PD). The bariatric care protocol, which is a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) followed by bariatric surgery (BSx), is an effective treatment for obesity and diabetes but little is known about its effect on oral health. Study objectives are: 1) to assess PD prevalence in obese subjects using oral inflammatory load (OIL); 2) to determine the difference in OIL and salivary flow rate (SFR) between obese patients with and without diabetes; and 3) to assess the effects of VLCD, BSx and bariatric care protocol on OIL and SFR. Findings suggest that, based on OIL, PD prevalence is similar to that reported in the literature. Both VLCD and BSx improve glucose metabolism and weight but have no impact on oral parameters. However, patients with low SFR at baseline are more prone to increased OIL post-surgery, suggesting a higher risk of developing PD.M.Sc.health3
Alhadid, KendaValiante, Taufik A Cerebrovascular Reactivity (CVR) in mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (mTLE) Medical Science2016-11Epilepsy surgery can achieve excellent outcomes with regards to seizure freedom in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. This is contingent upon accurate pre-operative localization of the epileptogenic zone. Cerebrovascular reactivity refers to the blood vesselsâ response to vasoactive stimuli. We hypothesized that cerebral vasculature in epileptogenic tissue have impaired reactivity that can be detected with CVR imaging.
Methods: we acquired fMRI images in unilateral mesial TLE patients (n=13) who had undergone pre-surgical investigations for seizure localization, while changes in arterial carbon dioxide were induced. CVR datasets for 12 healthy volunteers who had undergone an identical study protocol were retrieved from a pre-existing database.
Results: We report significantly increased CVR in the epileptogenic posterior and middle cingulate cortices compared to the contralateral hemisphere within the patient group.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that CVR is altered in regions ipsilateral to the epileptogenic zone. Impaired CVR in the PCC has significant implications for the interpretation of fMRI studies in TLE patients.
Alhussain, Ahmed Azarpazhooh, Amir Knowledge, Practices and Opinions of Ontario Dentists when Treating Patients Receiving Bisphosphonates Dentistry2013-11-20Background: Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) is a severe but extremely rare complication of prolonged treatment with bisphosphonates. Improper treatment or misdiagnosis can have serious repercussions. Objective: is to measure the awareness of Ontario dentists about BRONJ and to identify any gaps in their knowledge of the condition and its treatment. Material and Methods: A survey was sent to a random sample of dentists in Ontario, Canada. Information about their awareness of bisphosphonates, and their awareness of an established BRONJ guideline was collected. Results: 60% of responding Ontario dentists had good knowledge of BRONJ, only 23% followed the guideline when surgical treatment was indicated. However, about 50% of responding Ontario dentists are not comfortable treating BRONJ patients. Conclusion: The finding reveals that Ontario dentists have moderate knowledge about BRONJ, which suggest greater educational efforts should be made to promote their knowledge.MASTINNOVATION9
Ali, Asma Maryam Restoule, Jean-Paul Islamic Environmental Stewardship through Aboriginal Spirtual Ecology: How Muslim Students can learn Stewardship through Aborginal Teachings Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-01-12This study investigates the challenges and opportunities of using the Aboriginal principles of “Respect,” “Reciprocity,” “Relationship,” and “Responsibility” (known as the “4 R’s”), Seventh Generation Stewardship, and an Aboriginal circle of giving and receiving, to teach Muslim students in one Islamic elementary school setting about environmental stewardship. The research tracked the thoughts and emotional connections of students as they undertook to establish the Aboriginal circle of giving and receiving, with plants they planted for their science unit. Through lessons and practices around the 4 R’s, the majority of students demonstrated an increased emotional attachment to the plants in their respective circles, which was documented in journals. While establishing these practices, the students expressed a heightened awareness of the various ways in which they may enhance the practice of environmental stewardship mandated in traditional Islamic texts.MASTenvironment13
Ali, Ghulam Fadel, Mohammad Polygamy and the Nature of Marriage in Islam and the West Law2012-11-20Section 293 of the Criminal Code of Canada provides that polygamy is an indictable offence. In a recent reference to the Supreme Court of British Colombia, the court held that this section was constitutionally valid and did not infringe upon religious freedom because of the harm polygamous marriages caused to women, children, society and most importantly, “the institution of monogamous marriage”.

This paper will revisit the court’s analysis of polygamy and discuss why it was considered harmful and preserved as a criminal act. The paper will canvas the underlying differences between the roles ascribed to marriage in Islam, as an example of a non-Western religio-legal tradition, and the collective liberal West. Ultimately, the paper will consider whether a balance can be struck between the measures required to protect women and children from harm, and preserving religious freedom, while remaining within the bounds of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
MASTwomen; rights5, 16
Ali, HibaMcCabe, Brenda Site Logistics Planning for High Rise Building Construction on Congested Downtown Sites Civil Engineering2018-11Construction planning for tall buildings becomes more complex with small land parcels in urban cores, fast-paced schedules and a growing number of domains involved in decision-making. This research consists of evaluating the literature regarding construction planning techniques, decision-making models, constraints in the current construction industry and holding interviews with domain experts to summarize their implicit knowledge regarding construction site logistics planning. It was found that there is no existing tool that adequately optimizes a construction site plan as all research is carried out in isolation, only optimizing a certain piece of equipment or operation. In this research, a multi-domain decision-making tool was developed to assist project planners in site planning on complex construction projects so multiple domain decisions and impacts are simultaneously realized, and a framework for construction site planning that can be applied to the industry was introduced.M.A.S.urban; buildings9, 11
Ali, Mehrab Greenblatt, Jack F. Chemical Genetic Interactions for Antibiotics in Escherichia coli Molecular and Medical Genetics2012-07-24The discovery of penicillin ushered in the era of the mass use of antibiotics in clinical settings. Today the development of antibiotic resistance and lack of discoveries of new antibiotics have created a serious public health concern. Recently, new experimental tools, such as bacterial genome-wide deletion collections, have provided exciting new possibilities for studying biological networks in bacteria that could potentially also be exploited for antibiotic research. In this study, I used the Keio knockout collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) strains, along with an in-house collection of hypomorphic alleles of essential genes, to study the effects of chemical perturbations by twenty-two antibiotics and four other chemicals on the biological pathways of E.coli. These experiments uncovered a set of mutants hypersensitive to drugs of different classes, information which could potentially be exploited for future antibiotic research. The results also shed light on how different classes of antibiotics behave with respect to their target pathways and the various functional modules with which they are associated.MASThealth3
Ali, Mir AbbasWallace, James S Study of Ignition in a Direct Injected, Compression Ignition Natural Gas Engine with Modified Hot Surfaces Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2018-03The ignition of direct injected natural gas coupled with modified glow plug ignition
assist technologies was explored in a single cylinder, optically accessible, compression
ignition engine. The geometric effects of injector nozzle tip and glow plug shield opening
orientation were significant due to the presence of a small window of combinations that
produce repeatable combustion. A novel diamond pattern glow plug shield design was
implemented and compared to the standard single hole shield design on the basis of
ignition delay and engine performance. The ignition delay for the new shield design
was found to be longer than the standard shield design due to engine swirl momentum
aggravating poor fuel jet impingement on the glow plug shield surface. The longer ignition
delay caused combustion with the diamond pattern shield to occur at longer durations
in the engine cycle, resulting in a reduced degree of work output and fuel conversion
Ali, Mohamed Zee, Robert E. Design and Implementation of Ground Support Equipment for Characterizing the Performance of XPOD and CNAPS & Thermal Analysis of CNAPS Pressure Regulator Valve Aerospace Science and Engineering2009-12-14T20:40:31ZAs the potential uses of nanosatellites become apparent, their numbers keep increasing. This is evident at the Space Flight Laboratory (SFL) located at the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies which has seen a rapid growth in satellite missions in recent years. By leveraging the use of the Generic Nanosatellite Bus developed at SFL, satellites can be rapidly developed to carry science payloads or demonstrate the capabilities of new technologies on orbit.

Testing satellite systems in an Earth environment is an important step in qualifying them for space. This thesis describes the development of ground support equipment for testing SFL’s nanosatellite separation system, XPOD, and characterizing the performance of the propulsion system, CNAPS. Also, the thermal behaviour of a pressure regulator valve on CNAPS is examined for various flow conditions.
Ali, SafaChen, Charles P. A Self-determination Theory Perspective of the Work-life Adjustment of Professional Immigrants Applied Psychology and Human Development2016-06New professional immigrants, who are accepted to Canada explicitly because they have desirable skills and professional training, are often unable to find employment or are forced to accept employment below their skill level. This study was part of a larger Canada Research Chair project exploring the career experiences of new professional immigrants to Canada. Using a grounded theory approach, this current study examined the role of the fundamental psychological needs posited by Self Determination Theory (SDT), namely, autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and their influence on immigrants’ vocational motivation. Results indicated that when circumstances thwarted the satisfaction of these needs, immigrants experienced greater difficulty adapting to their work-life in Canada. However, immigrants also were able to find creative and self-determined ways of at least partially fulfilling these fundamental needs. These results have theoretical implications for career psychology, and practical implications for helping professional immigrants successfully adapt to the challenges they face.M.A.employment8
Ali, Sana Niyozov, Sarfaroz The Experiences of Muslim Girls with Curriculum/Schooling in Public Secondary Schools in Ontario, Canada Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2012-11-28This study examines the experiences of nine hijabi and non-hijabi Muslim girls from diverse backgrounds with curriculum/schooling in public secondary schools in Ontario. The study uses individual interviews and a focus group discussion to delve into how Muslim girls understand their educational experiences. The participants were independent, thoughtful, and conscientious students who were evolving as individuals through their curriculum/schooling experiences. School was a forum where they questioned themselves, discovered their interests, and made sense of their multiple identities. The differences between a participant’s home and school life varied, and each girl had a unique manner in dealing with the various ideological and practical conflicts. As Muslim girls, they were confronted with certain challenges in school; however, this did not detract from the overall positive aspects of their public schooling experiences. My participants felt respected and validated as individuals in their schools and optimistic regarding their futures as Muslim Canadian females.MASTeducat; girl4, 5
Ali, YaseenTitchkosky, Tanya Nourishing Hunger and Embodied Resistance: Men's Narratives of Eating Disorders Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2014-11This qualitative research study curates the voices of five male-identified subjects who experience or who have lived with anorexia nervosa. The purpose of this endeavour is to engage with a reading of anorexic embodiment that sidesteps the lenses of psychopathology and somatic abnormality in order to highlight the interpretations articulated by the men via their own vocabulary. Although this research does not discount anorexia's dangerous implications, it still asks us to consider what the willful practice of hunger does to our understandings of performed masculinity and "healthy" bodies. What emerges is a notion of anorexia as a form of alterity and resistance alongside normative, etiological interpretations of it as a disease/disorder. This complex rendering of subjectivation - both by and about the participants - may further inform researchers and practitioners in negotiating anorexia as a phenomenon of knotted intersections and meaningful manifestations as opposed to a strict medical problem that requires intervention-based solutions.M.A.health3
Aliaga, Brenda Polar McDonald, Lynn The Navigation of Non–English Speaking Elderly Hispanic Immigrants through the Service System Social Work2011-08-25This qualitative study examined three areas of social service provision through the experiences of non-English speaking older Hispanic immigrants. These three areas included availability and accessibility of services and culturally competent practices of service providers. The qualitative approach of phenomenology was used to interview ten participants in order to explore their experiences with service provision.
An analysis of the interviews pointed to the following themes: (a) experiences with services were deeply connected to issues of immigration and adaptation; (b) language barriers were especially difficult to overcome in services; (c) the role of families as primary supports needed to be reconsidered in order to offer better quality of services; and (d) culturally competent practices needed to be reinforced at the organizational level of workers, agencies and government in order to become more effective. From these themes, recommendations and implications for social work and services for non-English speaking elderly Hispanics are detailed.
Alimardani, Masoud Kwon, Roy H. ||Melek, William W. Stochastic Mixed-integer Programming for Financial Planning Problems using Network Flow Structure Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2014-03-17Portfolio design is one of the central topics in finance. The original attempt dates back to the mean-variance model developed for a single period portfolio selection. To have a more realistic approach, multi-period selections were developed in order to manage uncertainties associated with the financial markets. This thesis presents a multi-period financial model proposed on the basis of the network flow structure with many planning advantages. This approach comprises two main steps, dynamic portfolio selection, and dynamic portfolio monitoring and rebalancing throughout the investment horizon. To build a realistic yet practical model that can capture the real characteristics of a portfolio a set of proper constraints is designed including restrictions on the size of the portfolio as well as the number of transactions, and consequently the management costs. The model is solved for two-stage financial planning problems to demonstrate the main advantages as well as characteristics of the presented approach.MASTfinancial market10
Alirezaee, MinaCarter, Michael W. Testing the Resource Allocation of Dialysis Center at Scarborough Health Network Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2019-11Nursing ratios are viewed as a significant contributor to the quality of care. They vary across health care facilities due to several factors, including patient numbers and workload policies. Identifying the optimal ratio holds the potential to improve both cost efficiency and patient experience.
As home to the Central East Regional Nephrology Program, one of the highest demand communities in the province for nephrological care, it was felt that there might be a benefit in applying a pre-defined model at Scarborough Health Network, General Hospital. The model, which is tested on dialysis unit at Scarborough Health Network, deals with the nurses’ quantity in each timeslot; especially when complications arise with the patients (reactions to the treatment) or machines (technical issues). This model also optimizing patient schedules.
The objective is to help dialysis units schedule their patients and minimize nursing costs while having enough nurses to maintain an adequate quality of service.
Alksnis, Anastasia NicoleMansoor, Barati Kinetics of Roasting of Pyrrhotite Materials Science and Engineering2019-11Pyrrhotite tailings are generated through the beneficiation of nickel ores in Canada, and are stored in shallow lakes where it presents serious environmental risks to the local environment. This thesis investigates the possibility of converting pyrrhotite into a valuable resource through the recovery of its Ni, Fe, and S content, specifically focusing on converting FeS to iron oxide through the application of a fluidized bed roaster. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to study the kinetics of dead roasting pyrrhotite, determining that rate decreases with increasing particle size and increases with increasing PO2, correlating to a first order reaction. Bench scale fluidized bed roasting was determined to be a sufficient means of producing a low sulfur calcine, however, roasting time was found to be sensitive to particle size. In this set-up, pyrrhotite particles reacted following the unreacted shrinking core model. Lastly, a materials and energy balance was carried out to establish the basic parameters for roasting.M.A.S.energy7
Allahyari, NooshinFox, Mark S. City Knowledge Patterns: A Standard for Smart City Knowledge Management Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2014-11The main focus of this dissertation is to identify the concepts required to represent municipal knowledge. Based on our analysis of Toronto 311 web pages, we were able to identify nine patterns of knowledge: service, permit, organization, infrastructure, public facility, citizen, education, complaint/compliment, and species. We then used these patterns to determine the extent to which four existing reference models and ontologies can represent municipal knowledge, as defined by the Toronto 311 KB. With these patterns, it is now possible to evaluate how well a reference model or ontology meets the need of a municipality. Finally, we provide a formal representation of these patterns using OWL.M.A.S.infrastructure9
Allalou, AminaWheeler, Michael B||Osborne, Lucy Delineating a Metabolomic Signature for the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes Medical Science2015-11Although gestational diabetes (GDM) is of a transient nature, up to 50% of women with GDM develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) within 5 years. Despite this extremely high risk, post-partum screening remains low. Here, we delineated a predictive metabolomic signature of disease transition. The study patients were part of the SWIFT Cohort, which follows 1010 GDM women, 109 of which developed T2D two years post-partum. Future cases were matched to future controls based on ethnicity, age and pre-pregnancy BMI. Hexoses, specific amino acids, specific sphingomyelin and specific phosphatidylcholine species associated with T2D. Through a J48 decision tree predictive modelling in the training set, future T2D incidence was predicted in an independent testing set with discriminative power 0.769 (PM.Sc.women5
Allard, Stephanie AnneDavies, Scott Provincial Funding of Faith-based Schools in Ontario: Contemporary Framing Contests Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2020-06Ontario is the only province in Canada that continues to exclusively provide government funding to Catholic schools while not providing any funding to schools of other faiths. The research question asks; how do stakeholders, advocates for funding, and proponents of one public school system make their perspective persuasive? The project explores perspectives on how arguments about funding for faith-based schools have shifted over the past sixty years. Frame analysis is used as both a theoretical framework and a method to explore how participants frame their argument in today’s sociocultural climate. All participants were found to frame their arguments using social justice rhetoric - its themes, terms, imagery, and priorities - in some form. The use of social justice language represents a shift in framing of this topic from older styles that focused on multiculturalism (1990’s) and even older ones that saw religious instruction as a moral duty (pre 1980’s). The findings highlight that there are many tensions between advocates of social justice who are concerned with how faith groups will treat women and members of the LGBTQ+ community and advocates for funding faith-based schools who believe they face discrimination by their lack of funding.M.Ed.educat; women4, 5
Allemang, Elizabeth Mae Morgan, Cecilia Alegal Midwives: Oral History Narratives of Ontario Pre-legislation Midwives Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education2013-07-10This study examines the oral histories of midwives who practiced in Ontario without legal status in the two decades prior to the enactment of midwifery legislation on December 31, 1993. The following questions are answered: Who were Ontario’s pre-legislation midwives? What inspired and motivated them to take up practice on the margins of official health care? Current scholarship on late twentieth century Ontario midwifery focuses on a social scientific analysis of midwifery’s transition from a grassroots movement to a regulated profession. Pre-legislation midwives are commonly portrayed as a homogenous group of white, educated, middle class women practicing a “pure” midwifery unmediated by medicine and the law. Analysis of the oral history narratives of twenty-one “alegal” Ontario midwives reveals more complex and nuanced understandings of midwives and why they practiced during this period. The midwives’ oral histories make an important contribution to the growing historiography on modern Canadian midwifery.MASTwomen; health2, 5
Allen, Brett AustinMandrak, Nicholas E Effects of multiple stressors on historical changes in the fish communities of the Credit River watershed Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2017-11Watersheds in southern Ontario are of high conservation concern due to their diverse fish communities, productive environments, and threats from numerous anthropogenic stressors. The Credit River watershed, located west of the Greater Toronto Area, has 63 fish species and multiple stressors, including urbanization, climate change, and aquatic invasive species (AIS). This research examines fish community change in the Credit River watershed in relation to these multiple stressors. Historical fish datasets collected in the watershed from 1954 to present were analyzed to examine richness patterns and homogenization at the site and subwatershed levels. Richness and faunal homogenization increased at the site and subwatershed level over time. AIS and temperature were responsible for causing the most variation in the fish communities over time. The cumulative effects of AIS and temperature also caused increased variation in the communities over time.M.Sc.water; environment; fish13, 14
Allen, Jeffrey JFarber, Steven Mapping Inequalities of Access to Employment and Quantifying Transport Poverty in Canadian Cities Geography2018-11Millions of Canadians rely on public transportation to conduct daily activities and participate in the labour force. However, many are disadvantaged because existing public transit service does not provide sufficient access to destinations. Limited transit options, compounded with socioeconomic factors like not having a private vehicle, can result in transport poverty, limiting travel to important destinations, like employment opportunities. Accordingly, the objective of this thesis is to develop accurate measures of accessibility to examine the degree to which the Canadian urban population can reach employment opportunities via public transit. These measures are used to analyze inequalities in accessibility with respect to socioeconomic status and estimate where, and to what extent, Canadians are at risk of transport poverty. This knowledge is able to inform policy aimed to increase transit ridership, reduce inequalities of transit accessibility, and limit transport-related barriers to activity participation.M.A.poverty; socioeconomic; urban1, 11
Allen, SashaGoldstein, Abby L Emotion Regulation, Motives and Personality Risk for Cannibis Use Problems in Emerging Adulthood: A Person-centred Approach Applied Psychology and Human Development2019-11Legalization of cannabis in Canada and parts of the United States has created a need for additional research on factors that contribute to cannabis problems among vulnerable populations, including emerging adults (ages 18 to 29 years of age). There is substantial evidence pointing to cannabis use motives, personality, and emotion regulation difficulties as important correlates of cannabis-related problems, however, there is little research integrating these factors. This study sought to examine the combined effect of cannabis use motives, personality, and emotion dysregulation in a North American sample. Participants were 126 emerging adults (ages 19-29, 38.1 % women). Using latent profile analysis, a four-group solution was extracted. Two high risk groups were identified, suggesting that different patterns of motives for use, emotion dysregulation, and neuroticism might have greater combined risk than in isolation, and may be useful targets for future approaches to preventing or treating cannabis use problems in emerging adulthood.M.A.health3
Allen, Shannon Gough, William A. Changes in Extreme Temperature Trends in the Greater Toronto Area from 1971 to 2000 Geography2011-12-01The impacts of extreme temperatures on human health and morbidity have been well documented in many studies. In literature, changes in the trends of extreme temperatures have been studied using percentiles, indicators and climate modeling. The aim of this study is to determine if the trend exhibited in the literature of statistically significant increases in extreme minimum temperatures, is also exhibited in the Greater Toronto Area during the 1971 to 2000 timeframe. A methodological approach using counts is the basis for the analysis. Statistical significance is determined through the use of Spearman’s Rank, Kendal-Tau and T-tests. A total of five stations are analysed, three being urban and two representing the surrounding suburban areas. The results indicate that statistically significant decline in extreme minimum temperature counts have occurred. In agreement with the literature, statistically significant increases in extreme maximum temperature counts can not be determined.MASTenvironment13
Allison, Riley MayMaguire, Jonathon L Milk volume, milk fat and childhood fracture Nutritional Sciences2018-11Background: Although cows' milk is believed to be an important dietary component for supporting bone health, limited research has addressed whether cows' milk consumption in childhood can reduce bone fracture risk.
Methods: This was a prospective cohort study of healthy urban children aged 1-10 years. Modified Poisson regression was used to test the association between milk volume and milk fat consumed between 1 and 3 years of age and risk of fracture between 3 and 10 years of age.
Results: Among the 2466 children, 153 sustained at least one bone fracture. Participants drank on average 1.9 cups of cows' milk daily (2.5% average milk fat). Neither milk volume or milk fat consumed in early childhood were associated with fracture risk in later childhood.
Conclusion: Cows' milk consumption in early childhood was not protective against fracture in later childhood. These findings do not support increasing cows' milk consumption for fracture prevention.
Almokbel, Abeer AbdulazizTomlinson, Christopher Tryptophan Requirements in School Age Children Determined by the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Method; Preliminary Results Nutritional Sciences2016-06Background: The Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation (IAAO) technique has shown that amino acids requirements are underestimated. The current tryptophan requirements for healthy school age children are based on factorial method and have never been re-evaluated using IAAO.
Objective: To determine tryptophan requirements in healthy school age children by measuring the oxidation of L-[1-13C]phenylalanine to 13CO2 in response to graded intakes of tryptophan.
Design: Three healthy school age children participated in 14 study days. Each study day had a different tryptophan intake. Stable isotopes were used as tracer to determine the oxidation level. Breath and urine samples were taken to compare the oxidation level..
Conclusion: With our current data, we were not able to define tryptophan requirements in healthy school age children using the IAAO method. However, we observed a decrease in L-[1-13C]phenylalanine oxidation level in relation to increase intake of tryptophan.
Almuhaish, JamalConnelly, Christine D||Kerekes, Julie A English Language and Identities in Qatari Educational Reform: Pedagogical and Social Implications Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-11There is a growing disconnect between learning English and the status of Arabic in Qatar. English is seen as an effective means to expose learners to Western culture and ideology; Arabic remains the only official state language in Qatar. Accordingly, English language education has become a site of cultural and linguistic imperialism, potentially causing linguistic and cultural deficits. To examine these processes, I first examined relevant policy documentation then used Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) to analyze the content and revisions made to one set of English textbook materials used in Qatarâ s independent schools, supplemented by a follow-up interview with a representative of the publishing company. The thesis identifies hegemonic processes associated with English language teaching materials in Qatar, adds to existing debates about the conflicting status of English and Arabic in Qatar, and initiates critical analysis of Qatarâ s education policies.M.A.educat4
Alter, Guy Voinigescu, Sorin Low Power Building Blocks for a MM-wave Distance Sensor Electrical and Computer Engineering2015-03Recent advances in Silicon-Germanium BiCMOS technologies have made it possible to design power efficient millimeter-wave sensors. In days where power consumption is a critical design consideration, circuit designers are looking for alternative approaches in which they can gain a valuable function at a reduced overall power intake. This thesis proposes a 60 GHz low power distance sensor transceiver building blocks for short range distance measurements based on the Doppler frequency shift effect.The transceiver takes advantage of the 55nm SiGe BiCMOS technology to combine MOSFETs and HBTs on the 60 GHz signal and LO path and thus to obtain optimal functionality in terms of output power, number of receiving/transmitting channels, bandwidth, isolation, and minimal power dissipation.The sensor is intended for integration in a portable device capable of short range distance measurements with a precision of a few millimeters.M.A.S.consum12
Altidor-Brooks, Alison GenevieveCumming, Alister Citation Use and Identity Construction: Discourse Appropriation in Advanced Academic Literacy Practices Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2014-11Using a case study approach, this research investigated the intersection between citation use and identity construction by examining, as examples of advanced academic literacy practices, referencing in the Discussion sections of 5 completed Masters' theses. To understand how the authors of the theses constructed their identities as educators and researchers, I analysed semi-structured interviews, identity questionnaires, and the Discussion sections of their Masters' theses. I interpreted the data using Ivanič's (1998) framework for the discoursal construction of identity to examine how citation choices contributed to identity formation in graduate students' thesis writing. Analyses revealed connections between citation practices and identity construction. Participants' responses were most frequent for the citation functions of support and alignment. These findings promote an understanding of the processes involved in using others' words and ideas to legitimize knowledge. Consequently, I call for the demystification of academic integrity and pedagogies that recognize the complexities of citation practices.M.A.educat4
Altoijry, Abdulmajeed Lindsay, Thomas Vascular Injury Hospitalization Trends in Ontario: A Population-based Study Medical Science2013-11A retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional time series analysis was performed utilizing Ontario’s administrative claims database to examine vascular injury temporal trends between 1991 and 2010. The overall trend in the annual rate of vascular injury-related hospitalizations in Ontario shows a slight but statistically significant decline over the study period (p<0.01). Vascular injury events were higher among young males and rural areas with low-income population. The upper limb was the most common site of injury. Transport associated vascular injuries accounted for only 22%, leaving the majority with other mechanisms of injury. However, hospital mortality was 5.5% for all vascular injury admissions with high rates among seniors with thoracic and abdomen blunt injuries. Vascular injuries were highest during June, July, and August in a regular pattern over the study period. Such findings provide a broad image with important preliminary and supplementary public health and clinical oriented implications for injury management and prevention strategies.MASThealth3
Alves Sobrinho, Pedro HenriqueThorpe, Steven J In-situ Electrochemical Characterization of Ni and Amorphous Ni-based Nanoparticles in an Anion Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyser Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2020-06Alkaline water electrolysis has regained interest as a promising technology for converting renewable energy into H2 due to the recent developments in anion exchange membranes. In this study, an anion exchange membrane water electrolyser (AEMWE) was fabricated to study the in-situ electrocatalytic performance of Ni-based materials. Ni is of particular interest due to its wide availability and intrinsic activity. Commercial Ni and amorphous (Ni, Co)-Nb-Y nanoparticles (NPs) were applied to AEMWE as electrocatalysts showing promising performance. Amorphous (Ni, Co)-Nb-Y NPs were produced through a novel two-step ball milling process. Fabrication methods (i.e. membrane electrode assembly (MEA) hot-pressing and optimized ionomer content) were critical for improving cell performance. AEMWE operating conditions (i.e. temperature and MEA compression) were investigated to enhance activity. The concentration of a supporting electrolyte dramatically increased the cell performance. Electrochemical testing showed that Ni displayed higher in-situ activity than the amorphous alloys. Cycled amorphous catalyst layers were more stable.M.A.S.water; energy; renewable7, 14
Alzahrani, MahaPiccardo, Enrica "I Got Accepted": Perceptions of Saudi Graduate Students on Factors influencing their Application Experience Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-03This qualitative study aims at examining a number of challenges faced by Saudi students in the process of learning English while studying in an anglophone country. Through the lens of gatekeeping scholarship, progressive educational theory and formal, non-formal and informal learning modalities, certain factors such as the students’ linguistic background and their current experience were explored in an effort to shed light on these challenges. This study sought to uncover lesser known factors which come into play when predicting the success of Saudi students who study overseas. I examined students’ perceptions about their English learning experience in Saudi Arabia and Canada and how prior learning facilitates acceptance into graduate programs. Discourse analysis was conducted on data collected mainly through semi-structured interviews and analysis of the students’ letters of intent and curriculum vitae. Barring special circumstances, the IELTS was found to be the defining factor in successful graduate applications.M.A.educat4
Alzubairi, Fatemah Roach, Kent Kuwait and Bahrain’s Anti-terrorism Laws in Comparative and International Perspective Law2011-12-01Counter terrorism is one of the contemporary issues that concerns both the international community and Arab states. A problematic issue in this regard is the lack of a definition, which allows states to criminalize “terrorism” based on the best interest of each individual state. This thesis examines the laws that deal with terrorism in Kuwait, which rely on Kuwait’s broad national security laws. Problems with these laws include the lack of the rule of law and violation of human rights. This thesis highlights Bahrain’s experience with counter terrorism and the human right violation during the February 2011 revolution. The thesis emphasises the importance of having an appropriate definition that coincides with the rule of law and human rights, by adhering to the international guidance provided by the 1999 ‘International Convention on Suppression of Terrorism Financing’ and the UN Security Council Resolution 1566 (2004) as a first serious step in combating terrorism.MASTrights16
Amador, Maby Boado Zu, Jean W. Study of Fluid-structure Interactions of Communication Antennas Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2011-12-05Large structures exposed to the environment such as the collinear omni and large panel communication antennas in this research suffer damage from cyclic wind, rain, hail, ice load and impacts from birds and stones. Stresses from self-weight, ice loading and wind gusts will produce deformations of the structure that will lead to performance deterioration of the antenna. In order to avoid such a case, it is important to understand the static, dynamic and aerodynamic behavior of these structures and thus optimization can be achieved. In this research the current fluid-structure interaction methods are used to model, simulate and analyze these communication antennas in order to assess whether failure would occur under service loads. The FEA models developed are verified against analytical models and/or experiments. Different antenna configurations are compared based on their capacity to minimize vibration effects, stress-induced deformations and aerodynamic loading effects.MASTenvironment13
Amin, Parthiv Allen, Grant Primary Sludge Addition for Enhanced Biosludge Dewatering Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2014-11Biosludge disposal is a costly challenge for pulp and paper mills. Primary sludge is often combined with biosludge, and while this is known to improve downstream dewatering, quantification of the effects of primary sludge addition is not well studied. Evaluation of sludge properties, including mechanical dewaterability, has shown that primary sludge improves biosludge dewaterability by a factor of 2-4 when combined with biosludge at levels as low as 20 wt%. The improvement follows a consistent pattern between different primary sludge types, however a model derived from filtration theory is unable to fully capture the trend. Primary sludge pretreatment is proposed as a means to improve primary sludge usage with regards to excess water and monovalent cations. Primary sludge pretreatment, particle size and nature, and field trials are areas recommended for further investigation in line with the objective of better understanding dewatering enhancement by primary sludge addition.M.A.S.water14
Aminvaziri, Bahar Tran, Honghi Reduction of TRS Emissions from Lime Kilns Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2009-12-15T16:01:24ZThe pulp and paper industry has been struggling to meet the new and stringent TRS (Total Reduced Sulphur) emission compliance standards established in recent years. However, a new approach by some regulatory bodies gives intricate operational parameters a new and important role in achieving environmental compliance. TRS compounds that cause the distinctive pulp mill odour, originate from sodium sulphide in white liquor used in the kraft pulping process. Up to 20% of TRS emissions could originate from the lime kiln and lime mud solids content is one of the operational parameters that could help reduce the TRS emissions from the lime kiln. Residual sodium sulphide in the lime mud that results in TRS gases, is dissolved in the moisture content of the mud. Although efficient lime mud washing can remove most of the residual sodium sulphide, the remaining moisture content of the mud still contains some sodium sulphide. Therefore, improved lime mud dewatering can be effective in reducing the TRS emissions from the lime kiln. Data presented in this study confirms that as the lime mud solids content increases, TRS emissions from the lime kiln decrease. Data analysis demonstrates a negative linear correlation at 5% significance level between TRS emissions and lime mud solids.MASTenvironment; industr9, 13
Amirchoupani, Ardavan Hooton, Robert Douglas Effect of Surface Finish on Concrete Properties Civil Engineering2013-11-20The purpose of this project was to evaluate two types of concrete surfaces and analyze the effect of each finish on the air content, paste content, aggregate fraction and rate of absorption at various depths from the surface. For this project, nine concrete mixtures were evaluated with varying cement, water and air contents. Slabs were cast and two types of finishes were considered: a trowel-finished made with a magnesium trowel and a form-finished from the plywood molds used. Cores were taken from the slabs and tested at 0, 5, 10, and 20mm below the surface.MASTwater6
Amiri, Touraj Watson, Jeanne The Role of Personality and Emotion Regulation on Psychological Health among Trauma Survivors Human Development and Applied Psychology2012-11-28A growing body of literature is focusing on the influence of personality and emotion regulation on psychological health. Using archival data from an expressive writing project, the current study investigated the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation and emotion regulation, and the influence of the interaction of these variables on psychological health among trauma survivors. The results indicate that both perfectionistic self-presentation and more difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to symptoms of distress. As well, higher levels of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with more difficulties in emotion regulation. Further, emotion regulation mediated the relationship between perfectionistic self-presentation and psychological distress but not common physical complaints. More specifically, the non-acceptance subscale of emotion regulation was found to be significant in a test of multiple mediator model.MASThealth3
Amoroso, Bice Kirsh, Bonnie ||Polatajko, Helene J. Finding Meaning in Place: The Perspectives of People with Severe Mental Illness Living Long Term in a Psychiatric Hospital Rehabilitation Science2012-07-24This study explored the perspectives on place of eight people with severe mental illness living, for one year or longer, in an urban psychiatric hospital. The research questions were: how do people with severe mental illness view the psychiatric hospital as place?; and how do they make meaning of the experience of living in hospital. The research employed a phenomenological approach, as described by Giorgi (1985). Using purposive sampling, one time, semi-structured, individual interviews were conducted. The audio recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically coded using Giorgi’s (2005) method. The meanings of the participants’ experiences are captured by the meta-theme: this is not a home; it’s a hospital. Four additional major themes emerged; and each of the major themes also had sub-themes The findings of this study challenged commonly held assumptions on how people living long term in a psychiatric hospital view the hospital as place and on institutionalization.MASThealth3
An, Diana AnnMiller, Fiona A Nurses' Experiences with Providing Newborn Screening Education to Mothers in the Hospital: An Exploratory, Qualitative Research Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2014-11Newborn screening (NBS) parent education is an important component of a well-functioning NBS program. Postpartum nurses are in an important position to educate parents about NBS, but their experiences have not yet been captured in the literature. This qualitative study sought to explore nurses' experiences with providing NBS education to mothers on the postpartum unit by conducting one-on-one interviews with postpartum nurses and nursing leaders. An explanatory framework was developed which showed that although postpartum nurses were actively involved in providing both written and verbal information about NBS to mothers and viewed it as their responsibility, organizational factors and nurses' desire to be responsive to mothers' perceived preferences and needs limited the amount of time postpartum nurses spent on this education and the depth to which they provided it. This research illuminated the context in which NBS education occurred and suggests several research and policy implications.M.Sc.health3
Anderson, KimLee, Douglas S. Sex Differences in Health Care Utilization Preceding an Initial Heart Failure Hospitalization Dalla Lana School of Public Health2019-11Timely diagnosis of HF is recognized as a challenge and there is a paucity of knowledge about health care utilization before HF is diagnosed. In a retrospective population-based study, health care contacts leading up to an incident HF hospitalization were examined and compared to two control groups: incident chronic pulmonary obstructive disease hospitalization and non-hospitalized matched population. Multivariable negative binomial regression models for repeated events were used to evaluate predictors of higher rate of health care contacts preceding incident hospitalization. A total of 55,743 adults were hospitalized with de novo HF. HF patients had a higher rate of health care contacts per 28-day period prior to hospitalization compared to controls. Sex was not a significant predictor of rate of health care contacts, but women had significantly less investigations performed. There are missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis and prevention of HF hospitalization in patients with de novo HF.M.Sc.health3
Anderson, Milo TaylorCaraway, Brett Bread or Circuses? Parsing Representative and Representational Democratic Discourse on U.S. Political Blogs Information Studies2014-11This thesis finds empirical support for Jodi Dean's theory of declining symbolic efficiency through a qualitative content analysis of discourse concerning the 2013 U.S. government shutdown on political blogs. Themes of this thesis explore reflexivity, decontextualization, and an erosion of meaning brought about by changing media technologies and practices. Humanistic analyses of media and politics by scholars such as Benkler (2006) and McChesney (1999) are contrasted with works by Gitlin (1980), Postman (1985), and Dean (2010), who see media systems operating outside human control. This study's methodology relies upon Knight and Johnson's (2011) pragmatic justification for democratic institutions. The analysis uses a system of categories to describe statements about political strategy along four dimensions: operant; method of action; operand; and the consequence of the strategy. This study identifies important distinctions between textual descriptions of nominal and instrumental strategy; it is argued that nominal discourse represents the influence of symbolic inefficiency.M.I.S.institution16
Anderson, ThomasFarb, Norman Personalizing the Training of Attention: Predicting Effectiveness of Meditation using Traits and Abilities Psychology2016-11Precision medicine involves tailoring interventions to the individual, but superior health outcomes are only possible if individuals follow the advice of healthcare professionals. Current meditation interventions have high drop-out rates despite the great benefits continued practice offers. Secular meditation interventions have heretofore used somatosensory objects as the anchor of attention, but other less-studied modalities may be preferred by certain individuals. Investigating the influence of individual differences on preference of meditation modality is the purpose of this research. In this study I use personality traits and sensory discriminability to predict preferences among three modalities of meditation anchor: breath, phrase, and image. Results indicate that sensory discriminability predicts preference, as do incoming bias and motivation. These results imply multiple anchor modalities should be made accessible and that new meditators should be involved in anchor-selection. This study begins a line of research into personalizing meditation instruction and will allow more precise individualized recommendations.M.A.health3
Ang, Cheen AikAzimi, Gisele Green Processing and Waste Valorization: Sulfur Removal and Hematite Recovery from High Pressure Acid Leach Residue for Steelmaking Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2017-11The current study investigates a novel and environmentally friendly waste valorization process to refine hematite from the residue of the high-pressure acid leaching (HPAL) of nickel laterite ore. The process consists of an alkaline leaching step utilizing sodium hydroxide to reduce the sulfur impurity content in the HPAL residue. This novel process is very efficient because it runs at room temperature with a significantly short residence time (10 min). The refined HPAL residue has a sulfur content below the threshold accepted by the steelmaking industry; hence, it can potentially be used as a raw material. The proposed waste valorization process has the double advantage of generating a commercially valuable product from a waste stream and simultaneously providing environmental benefits by reducing the amount of scrapped leach residue and costs associated with constructing and maintaining storage facilities.M.A.S.industr; waste; environment9, 12, 13
Angaran, PaulLee, Douglas S Association of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction with Mortality and Hospitalization in an Unselected Echocardiographic Cohort of both Ambulatory and Hospitalized Patients Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2019-03The prognostic impact of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a broad range of patients, including those hospitalized for cardiac or non-cardiac reasons and unselected ambulatory patients has not been fully evaluated. Echocardiography is the most commonly used imaging modality used to assess LVEF given its versatility and availability, however it does have limitations in accuracy. We sought to examine the association between an echocardiographic-derived LVEF and risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and heart failure hospitalization in an unselected consecutive cohort of patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent echocardiography in three large-scale tertiary healthcare systems in Ontario, Canada between 2007 and 2013 using linked administrative databases. We found that an echocardiographic-derived LVEF was able to stratify risk of multiple outcomes across a diverse spectrum of patient profiles encountered in everyday clinical practice in both ambulatory and hospitalized patients, including those admitted for non-cardiac reasons.M.Sc.health3
Angel, BenMalcolm, Jay R. Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management in the Northern Hardwood Forests of Central Ontario Forestry2019-06Ecological sustainability is a priority in the management of Ontario’s northern hardwood forests. It is important to assess harvesting impacts, as well as the likelihood of recovery prior to the next harvest. In this thesis, I use carabid communities as indicators of forest management in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) dominated stands in Central Ontario to compare different partial harvesting systems within a recently cut experimental forest, as well as between old-growth and mature logged stands. Greater basal area removal resulted in greater deviations in carabid communities from uncut conditions among experimental treatments, while communities were similar between old-growth and mature logged sites, despite strong difference in forest structure. These findings suggest that pre-harvest conditions may sufficiently recover between partial harvests to support ecological sustainability over time. However, the ability to recover may depend on initial logging intensity and harvesting rotation length.M.Sc.forest15
Ani, Vanesyan Rodd, Helen ||Ryu, William 3D Tracking of Anti-predator Behaviour in Guppies Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2012-11Guppies from high- and low-predation habitats are well known for the differences in their anti-predator behaviours. However, little has been reported on the differences between social versus asocial stimulus responses. In this study, we conducted a detailed analysis of shoaling and other anti-predator behaviours of guppies from two populations, in pairs and as single fish, in three dimensions. Using custom programs in MATLAB, we quantify the behavioral responses before shoaling and during its dissipation. Our 3D reconstruction allowed us to track the inter-fish distance, velocity and orientation of both fish. Our results demonstrate a positive correlation between the relative orientation of the fish and the interfish distance, for pairs from the high-predation population. We also report that the anti-predator behaviour of guppies is comprised of the following sequence: freezing, darting/skittering, and recovery to pre-stimulus swimming behaviour. Upon repeated encounters with the stimulus, a reduced shoaling and anti-predator response was observed.MASTfish14
Annakkage, Udeesha SupundiLehn, Peter W Hybrid LCC and Multi-terminal Full-bridge Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Electrical and Computer Engineering2015-11This thesis investigates the control and operation of an HVDC hybrid topology utilizing a
line commutated converter (LCC) rectifier and a multi-terminal connection of modular multilevel converter (MMC) inverters. The hybrid LCC-MMC system leverage the features of both LCC and MMC technologies. The LCC is more economical, mature, and has a higher power capacity, while the MMC has a smaller footprint, reactive power control, no risk of commutation failure and can connect to weak AC systems.
This thesis has four main objectives: (1) development of HVDC characteristic control curves for the proposed hybrid LCC-MMC system which describe operation under normal, DC fault, and AC three-phase-to-ground fault conditions, (2) manage current sharing amongst a multi-terminal connection of inverters, (3) define controls for FB-MMC operation, and (4) demonstrate operation of the proposed system through PSCAD/EMTDC simulations.
The hybrid LCC-MMC topology represents a viable candidate to integrate remote energy sources to congested weak AC systems.
Anson-Cartwright, Majella Hooton, Robert Douglas Optimization of Aggregate Gradation Combinations to Improve Concrete Sustainability Civil Engineering2011-12-01By optimizing the packing of the combined aggregate gradations, the cement paste content needed to make concrete can be reduced, improving sustainability, cost, performance, durability, and workability. Optimization can be achieved using theoretical and empirical techniques, or waste concrete material as an intermediate size fraction. However, the potential for improvement is currently limited by prescriptive grading specifications that require meeting individual requirements for fine and coarse aggregates.
From this study, using various optimization techniques, it was found that by inclusion of an intermediate sized aggregate material, a reduction in cement paste up to 16% is possible for 35 MPa and 50 MPa mix designs typically used in Ontario bridge decks. The aggregate materials used were a natural sand, and two crushed limestones of 19.0 mm and 6.7 mm maximum size. From these findings, recommendations are made for improving the current Ontario Provincial Standard Specification (OPSS) 1002 used for concrete aggregates.
Antoine, Jessica Trebilcock, Michael Recognizing a Sustainable Relationship between International Human Rights and International Trade Law in a Pursuit to have Human Rights Taken More Seriously: A Case Study of the People’s Republic of China and the WTO Law2009-12-15T19:48:29ZAcknowledging a relationship between international human rights and international trade law adds to the legitimacy of economic, social and cultural rights already enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the central institution for international trade law and it has demonstrated a commitment to enhance human rights. This commitment has been realized through WTO efforts to enhance human dignity and eradicate poverty. These WTO efforts ought to be fostered and used to promote human rights.

The purpose of this study was two fold – first, demonstrate that a relationship between international trade law and international human rights exists; and second, that this relationship is useful in promoting economic, social and cultural rights. This relationship will be examined through WTO initiatives, case studies and the Accession of the Republic of China in 2001.
MASTtrade; institution; rights10, 16
Antonacci, Patrick AdamBazylak, Aimy X-ray and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Diagnostic Investigations of Liquid Water in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Layers Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2016-03In this thesis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and synchrotron x-ray radiography were utilized to characterize the impact of liquid water distributions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) gas diffusion layers (GDLs) on fuel cell performance. These diagnostic techniques were used to quantify the effects of liquid water visualized on equivalent resistances measured through EIS. The effects of varying the thickness of the microporous layer (MPL) of GDLs were studied using these diagnostic techniques. In a first study on the feasibility of this methodology, two fuel cell cases with a 100 µm-thick and a 150 µm-thick MPL were compared under constant current density operation. In a second study with 10, 30, 50, and 100 µm-thick MPLs, the liquid water in the cathode substrate was demonstrated to affect mass transport resistance, while the liquid water content in the anode (from back diffusion) affected membrane hydration, evidenced through ohmic resistance measurements.M.A.S.water6
Antony-Newman, Max Farmer, Diane Social and Cultural Capital of Ukrainian University Students in Canada and their Educational Experience Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2014-11This qualitative research involved semi-structured interviews with Ukrainian international and immigrant university students in Canada to get an insight into their educational experience using the concept of social and cultural capital put forward by Pierre Bourdieu. Ukrainian students constitute an under-researched group of diverse students in Canada and it is important to understand their specific attitude towards education, adaptation and achievement. I found that Ukrainian students possess high levels of social and cultural capital. Social capital showed low level of portability due to the weak ties between Ukrainian students and Ukrainian Canadian community. While more equal approach to the availability of print, access to extracurricular activities and enriched curriculum provided Ukrainian students with advantage in Canada, they experienced obstacles due to the lack of presentation skills and dissatisfaction with curriculum. These results will enable educators and administrators to get an insight into educational patterns and expectations typical of Ukrainian students.M.A.educat4
Antze, Emily Mundy, Karen “They Should Stand on Their Own Feet”: Mothers’ Accounts of Education, School Choice and Their Children’s Uncertain Futures in Varanasi, India Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29The heavily privatized and socially stratified schooling system in Uttar Pradesh, India offers low income children limited opportunities for social mobility via education. In that context, this thesis presents the results of interviews with low-income mothers in the city of Varanasi, gathering their perspectives on the relationship between their children’s current schooling and anticipated adult futures. The results indicate that these mothers see education as an essential investment in both their boys’ and girls’ ability to “stand on their own feet” as independent adults. Study participants dream of a life for their children, especially their daughters, which differs dramatically from their own, and pursue this dream through strategizing to secure the highest quality education possible within their means. Alongside their strong commitment to education, mothers are filled with uncertainty about the adult futures their children will face, especially given the current climate of economic, educational and social change in India.MASTeducat; girl4, 5
Apostoli, Melissa AshleyCareton, Terry J Thirty to Fifty Years of Change in Forests of the Western Lake Ontario Region Forestry2015-06The woody and herbaceous vegetation in forests of the increasingly urbanised western Lake Ontario region, first sampled 30 to 50 years ago, were resurveyed for an inter-decadal comparison with current forest vegetation. Using multivariate ordination techniques, this research aimed to: 1) explore change to two forest layers', overstory and understory, composition and structure with time; 2) determine the extent to which any changes can be interpreted in terms of progressive urbanisation. In the overstory, nearly half of forested stands are progressing through forest development but rural selective cutting has also strongly influenced forest structure. Significant losses to native understory species in protected areas, and the ubiquitous increase of an exotic species, garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), indicate that the understory layer has experienced a wave of damage over the 30 to 50 years. Much of this was linked to forest fragmentation and heavy browsing by deer.M.Sc.forest15
Arakelian, Raphael Joseph GregoryAllen, David G||Tran, Honghi N A Comparative Study of the Electro-dewatering of Pulp and Paper Mill Biosludge Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2019-11The activated sludge process, often used in pulp and paper mills, generates biosludge that requires dewatering. Wastewater treatment practices and upstream processes impact biosludge characteristics, including dewaterability. Electro-dewatering, compared to other dewatering methods, has a high dewatering potential while requiring low amounts of energy. The main objective of this study was to determine the variation in the characteristics of mill biosludge and its impact on electro-dewatering. Biosludge was sampled from four different wastewater treatment plants, including a municipal one as cross-reference, and characterized for various properties. Using a bench-scale electro-dewatering device, thickened biosludge was subjected to constant-voltage electro-dewatering at 20 V. Electro-dewatering successfully removed 68-74% of the water while consuming between 0.15 and 0.56 kWh/kg additional water removed. Overall, varying biosludge characteristics did not impact the total amount of water removed, but certain characteristics, particularly the electrical conductivity, dictated the routes of water removal (evaporation, filtration) and energy consumption.M.A.S.water; waste6, 12
Aranguren van Egmond, Derek AlexandreHibbard, Glenn D||Hatton, Benjamin D Designing for Disorder: The Mechanical Behaviour of Bioinspired, Stochastic Honeycomb Materials Materials Science and Engineering2018-11In nature, structure, material and function are constantly evolving in tandem. This work employs polymer 3D printing to study new honeycomb materials inspired by disordered, hierarchical architectures in biomineralized organisms. The primary aim is to elucidate mechanical effects of structural order vs. disorder in natural cellular solids. New honeycomb materials are proposed with improved damage tolerance. A mathematical “regularity parameter” controls cell stochasticity. Uniaxial tension, compression and fracture experiments reveal significant crack path deviations and strain delocalization. These lead to enhancements in e.g. ductility and fracture toughness between 30-90% beyond periodic geometries. Optimal cell irregularities are suggested, revealing a relationship between damage tolerance and cell size. Conserving spatial density, hexagonal honeycombs composed of hierarchical micro-truss ligaments are also presented. Depending on design objective, 100% increase in compressive strength and three-fold energy absorption limits were achieved. These results comprise novel design spaces, where disorder and hierarchy are embraced as design variables.M.A.S.energy7
Araujo, Michelle Kant, Shashi Forest Certification in Brazil: Choices and Impacts. Forestry2008-07-30T19:04:21ZThe challenges faced by the Brazilian forest industry dealing with the natural forests and plantations have provided favourable ground for the establishment of forest certification. This study presents the first investigation of the two certification systems (FSC and Cerflor) in Brazil from the private sector perspective. Through an exploratory factor analysis (EFA), market, learning, and signaling were validated as governance mechanisms of forest certification in Brazil. The results from the importance and performance analysis (IPA) indicated that companies did not see any return in terms of a better price for certified products; however, they demonstrated high satisfaction with the performances of non-economic benefits. Descriptive statistics revealed external pressures influencing companies to pursue forest certification and overall accomplishments of certification from economic, social and ecological points of view. Finally, suggestions for future research and conclusions are made in order to provide information for the industry, certification systems, and the Brazilian government.MASTgovernance; forest15, 16
Aravossitas, Themistoklis Trifonas, Peter From Greek School to Greek's Cool: Heritage Language Education in Ontario and the Aristoteles Credit Program - Using Weblogs for Teaching the Greek Language in Canada Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2010-12-17T19:50:21ZHeritage Language Education is considered the cornerstone of Canada’s multiculturalism policy. In Ontario, the mission to preserve the cultural capital of the various ethnic communities is carried out primarily by non-profit organizations and groups with limited official support.
My thesis is the autobiographical inquiry of an internationally educated teacher who is involved in a Greek language credit program in Toronto. My commitment to understanding the needs of the new generation of learners guided me through a series of professional development initiatives and the creation of an educational blog which is currently used by students, parents and teachers of the Aristoteles Credit School.
By presenting my experiences as I navigated the multidimensionality of HLE in Ontario, I hope to offer a case of a bottom-up reform attempt which is based on transformative pedagogy and brings heritage language education to the epicentre of community activity and educational change in the 21st century.
Archibald, Sarah CarlyleIsaac, Marney E From the Ground Up: Herbaceous Community Diversity and Management in Coffee Agroforestry Systems Geography2019-06The herbaceous community (HC) is an understudied yet critical aspect of tropical agroecosystems. I measured the diversity and perceptions of the HC within organic coffee systems in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. The HC was taxonomically and functionally
diverse; comprised of 39 species from 20 taxonomic groups. Farms below the regional mean size and those with canopy openness of 20-30% had higher HC functional diversity. Farmers perceived tall species with low SLA and LNC, but high height and LDMC to be undesirable, due to slow decomposition rates and management limitations. Farmers’ cognitive map complexity was positively related to HC functional richness, and negatively related to functional evenness and functional dissimilarity. All farmers placed higher emphasis on soil health and organic matter than coffee yield, which may be indicative of their role as land stewards. Workshops are needed to disseminate HC management information to optimize labour and ecosystem functioning.
Arefin, MuhsanahReilly, James A. Cultivating an American Worldview: A Comparative Analysis of Perspectives of the Middle East, Arabs, and Muslims in US Public High School “World History” Curricula Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations2018-11The institution of public education in democratic societies has been used as an effective tool for regulating national identity. In the last four decades, “World History” courses have become a fundamental part of mainstream American social studies. These courses offer a standardized narrative regarding the histories of non-Western regions. This study explores high school social studies curricula in Texas, New York, California,Virginia, and North Dakota focusing on how the frameworks address Islamic, Middle Eastern, and North African history. The analysis addresses the state frameworks’ ability to effectively present Islamic and Arab history within proper context and critiques various problematic paradigms rooted in modernization theory and orientalism. In critiquing the content of these frameworks and contextualizing policy in American public education, this paper intends to scrutinize the challenges of teaching the Middle East in the United States public high schools.M.A.educat4
Arezoumand, SaeedLeon-Garcia, Alberto End to End Orchestration of Distributed Cloud Applications Electrical and Computer Engineering2017-11Centralized management provides benefits for cloud providers in terms of efficient and simple management of their infrastructure. However, tenants who use these infrastructures to deliver a software service to the end-users, are handicapped by having to work with traditional network primitives. Current service orchestration tools can automate most of the service configuration and deployment process, but these do not yet include significant SDN capabilities. In this thesis, we propose and examine high-level abstraction models for the orchestration of distributed cloud applications over multiple network domains and multiple infrastructure providers. We provide cloud application developers with a set of useful network functionalities that require no programming effort to provision and use. Our design relies on Hyperexchange, a protocol-agnostic exchange point for peering of virtual networks, to enable orchestration among multiple virtual network providers.M.A.S.infrastructure9
Arh, Marisa Reese Fullard, James H. Foraging Ecology of a Bat Assemblage Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2009-12-15T20:52:38ZHere I examine five non-migratory sympatric bat species that are similar in their morphology and general ecology: Eptesicus fuscus, three myotid bats, Myotis leibii, M. lucifugus, Myotis septentrionalis, and Pipistrellus (= Perimyotis) subflavus. By examining echolocation call structure, wing and jaw morphology and diet, I defined finer niche differences between species. M. lucifugus and M. septentrionalis differ in the relative abundance of moths in their diet. My results on skull morphology suggest M. lucifugus consumes harder insects than M. septentrionalis. Conversely, my data suggests M. leibii is not as efficient within a cluttered habitat but is capable of foraging in edge habitats. Eptesicus fuscus is capable of efficiently consuming larger insects whereas P. subflavus has echolocation and jaw characteristics that indicate specialization in smaller insects. Significant differences amongst these 5 species are evident based on my data of overall morphology and diet.MASTecology15
Ariano, Sarah SydneyBrown, Laura C An Investigation of Temperate Region Lake Ice in Central Ontario Geography2017-11This study investigates ice formation for three lakes in central Ontario, detailing the climatological influences on the ice phenology for two seasons. This study also presents an investigation of the use of the Canadian Lake Ice Model (CLIMo) for simulating ice and snow cover for two of the study lakes during the 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 ice season. Field-based measurements combined with data collected from an on-shore automatic weather station, camera imagery during both seasons, as well as the addition of ice thickness from a Shallow Water Ice Profiler (SWIP) for the 2016-2017 ice year, form the basis of the results presented in this thesis. Snow cover, lake ice and climate interactions at lower latitudes have rarely been studied and the results of this thesis form the basis for further exploration of these interactions as lakes ice impacts climate, regional energy and water budgets, aquatic productivity, and socioeconomic activities.M.Sc.climate; weather13
Arjomand, Shalini Lydia Levin, Ben Research Use and its Impact on Secondary Education: Take-up of Different Knowledge Mobilization Strategies Theory and Policy Studies in Education2010-12-17T20:12:53ZThis project is based on a study supported by the Canadian Education Association. The project examines how research activities have been implemented and carried out in nine secondary school districts across Canada. The main research questions are to understand how school districts organize to embed knowledge from external research in their secondary schools and to understand the impacts of small-scale interventions intended to increase the use of research in secondary schools and districts. This thesis documents a part of the greater project with a focus on educators’ knowledge about two main areas related to secondary school improvement: success factors for students and student pathways/trajectories. Data were collected through questionnaires, teleconference calls and individual communication with district leaders. The study concludes that it is difficult to know the impact of the interventions; impact seems modest but a few key elements have been identified that facilitate take-up of the research activities.MASTeducat4
Armes, Cori Basiliko, Nathan Methane Production, Oxidation, and Emissions under Simulated Enhanced Nutrient Deposition in a Northern Peat Bog Geography2009-12-15T19:32:49ZNorthern peatlands play a significant role in the global carbon (C) cycle by functioning as sources of atmospheric methane (CH4). Peatlands are becoming polluted as a result of nitrogen (N) deposition, which is likely to impact CH4 dynamics. This thesis presents research at the Mer Bleue bog (Ottawa, Canada) in the longest known simulated atmospheric nutrient deposition experiment. After 8 years of simulated N (and other nutrient) deposition, activities of microbial communities involved in CH4 cycling have been analyzed in the laboratory and CH4 fluxes measured using chamber techniques in the field. High rates (>10 times ambient deposition) of simulated N deposition decreased CH4 production, and enhanced CH4 oxidation in vitro. However, in situ CH4¬ emissions were greater in the high N plots. I hypothesize that CH4 production is therefore driven by short-lived root exudates in the field, consistent with increased shrub biomass that occurs concomitantly with high N deposition.MASTpollut14
Armioun, Shaghayegh Farnood, Ramin ||Wolfaardt, Gideon Understanding the Effect of Wastewater Flocs Properties on UV Disinfection Kinetics Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2013-11-20Wastewater microbial flocs can protect microorganisms from inactivation by UV light. This effect is detected as tailing at high UV doses in the UV dose response curve. A double-layer structure composed of an inner compact core surrounded by a loose outer layer was proposed by earlier studies to describe UV resistance of microbial flocs. Due to limited oxygen diffusion into the compact cores, the UV inactivation of compact cores and microbial flocs under anaerobic conditions needed to be addressed. The UV disinfection kinetics under anaerobic culturing condition was nearly identical to that of the aerobic study. Moreover, the role of iron concentration on the differences in the UV inactivation kinetics of flocs and cores was assessed. The increase in UV absorbance of floc material due to iron addition could dominate the UV disinfection kinetics of flocs and cores such that they exhibited similar UV disinfection kinetics.MASTwater; waste6, 12
Arnason, Liza Olson, Paul The Trimentoring Program: A study of a Unique Mentoring Program to Engage Students Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2010-07-21T15:26:42ZThis research project explores the Tri-mentoring Program’s impact on enhancing the student experience, specifically for the new emerging population of racialized and first generation undergraduate students in a Canadian urban university. The study examines how the TMP model attempts to address these students’ unique challenges by creating a holistic student experience, that acknowledges and addresses their lived experiences; encourages them to retain their racial/cultural identities (and values) and external community commitments and beliefs; and facilitates them becoming more empowered and engaged on campus. This research also contributes to the production of knowledge in the area of student engagement. This study introduces and validates the voices and lived experiences of racialized students into the literature, which will be valuable in the future development of new models of student engagement where power is shared and indigenous knowledge and epistemologies are valued- leading to a more engaged and successful student experience.MASTeducat4
Arnold, SamuelThomson, Murray Steelmaking Process Control using Remote Ultraviolet Atomic Emission Spectroscopy Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-11Steelmaking in North America is a multi-billion dollar industry that has faced tremendous economic and environmental pressure over the past few decades. Fierce competition has driven steel manufacturers to improve process efficiency through the development of real-time sensors to reduce operating costs. In particular, much attention has been focused on end point detection through furnace off gas analysis. Typically, off-gas analysis is done with extractive sampling and gas analyzers such as Non-dispersive Infrared Sensors (NDIR). Passive emission spectroscopy offers a more attractive approach to end point detection as the equipment can be setup remotely. Using high resolution UV spectroscopy and applying sophisticated emission line detection software, a correlation was observed between metal emissions and the process end point during field trials. This correlation indicates a relationship between the metal emissions and the status of a steelmaking melt which can be used to improve overall process efficiency.M.A.S.industr9
Arsenault, Eric Ozin, Geoffrey Alan Three-dimensional Transparent Conducting Oxide Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Chemistry2011-08-11Electron transport and recombination are two competing factors within Dye-Sensitized Solar-Cells (DSSCs) which have a great influence on their performance. By drastically increasing the speed of electron transport to the electrode, it is believed that these cells could reach new record efficiencies.
To achieve this result, an all-in-one integrated DSSC was attempted, in which the electrode material is extended into the active area of the solar cell material. The research conducted can be separated into two stages. The first stage is the production of a three-dimensional macroporous electrode. The second stage is the production of an all-in-one DSSC by a simplified co-casting technique. The structures and materials presented were examined using electron microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, 4-point and 2-point probe electrical measurements as well as experimentally by the testing of solar cells. The methods of fabrication, characterization, experimental results and future directions are also presented.
Arthur, Christopher Norris, Trevor Financial Literacy: Neoliberalism, the Consumer and the Citizen Theory and Policy Studies in Education2011-11-29This thesis argues that consumer financial literacy is not a solution but a tool that mystifies and supports the very problems it could help solve: exploitation, economic crises, the spread of neoliberalism, alienation and the further disempowerment of the citizen. The characterization and implementation of financial literacy programs influence the resources and subjectivities that we use to act, see, reflect, create the world and create ourselves, resources and subjectivities that should support our free actions and enable us to do more than conform to the dictates of capital and be more than neoliberal entrepreneurial consumers. In the place of consumer financial literacy, we need a critical financial literacy that supports active citizens. The citizen is not the alienated investor or consumer who can only choose what the market provides; instead, he or she can assist in altering or abolishing the market to create a new economic system that offers better choices. A critical financial literacy would encourage citizens to reflect on and transform the social relations of production in order to create a world, free from capital’s dictates, in which individuals are as free from necessity as possible and better able to develop their human capacities to the fullest.MASTconsum; financial market10, 12
Arulananthan, NirojaQuarter, Jack An Evaluation of the Ethic of Neutrality in the Ontario Public Service Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2019-06Work of Ontario Public Servants is determined in part by the government of the day as they set their priorities. This commitment to serve the government, regardless of individual affiliation or support, is built on the ethic of neutrality – a value that can shape the personal lives of public servants. This study sheds light on how workplace ethical values impact the personal political participation decisions of public servants. What measures does the employer take, if any, to reduce any ambiguity or burden posed by the ethic of neutrality? This research examines the measures, if any, that the employer takes to reduce any ambiguity or burden posed by the ethic of neutrality. This is important as it provides a window into the employer’s motivation to help strengthen the health of the democracy, and thereby the public service, and the employer’s motivation to support public servants through the conflict of interest process.M.A.governance16
Arumugam, PalaniappanPark, Chul Bun Understanding the Fundamental Mechanisms of a Dynamic Micro-bubble Generator for Water Processing and Cleaning Applications Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-11The micro-bubble technology in water is widely known and effectively used, but the fundamental mechanisms of the micro-bubble generation and characteristics are not clearly established. To better the understanding, extensive literature survey coupled with theoretical and experimental bubble size estimations and volumetric mass transfer rate calculations were carried out. Observed multitude of increase in the volumetric mass transfer rate is essentially due to the specific interfacial area rather than the liquid mass transfer co-efficient. This signifies the effectiveness of pressurized dissolution type over its counterparts. A second set of experiments were focussed on particle size analysis using Bluewave particle size analyzer. Measurements for bubble size distribution were made alongside two cases of surfactant addition, tween20 at concentrations of 10mM and 1mM. The effect of surfactant on bubble dynamics and stabilization is interpreted and the axial rise distance hence the rise velocity are computed for both experimental and theoretical data.M.A.S.water6
Ascanio Graffeo, Doug FrancescoMollett, Sharlene||Roberts, David Non-binary Belongings in Toronto: Problematizing the Gay-friendly City Geography2019-06This thesis examines the experiences of non-binary transgender people in the city of Toronto through the use of photovoice and semi-structured interviews. It is concerned with the ways such individuals articulate their sense of belonging towards Toronto itself as well as the LGBTQ+ spaces of the city. This thesis argues that the ongoing gentrification of Toronto, the persistence of transphobic discrimination, and the prevalence of right-wing politics in the region marginalize non-binary individuals and challenge their ability to belong in spaces throughout the city. While participants particularly identified LGBTQ+ spaces in Toronto as important sites of belonging, networking, and ontological security, these positive experiences stand in contrast with the number of homo- and transnormativities at play within these sites, further cementing the exclusion of non-binary individuals. Therefore, I argue that the envisioning of non-binary inclusive, transgender-friendly urban spaces is a utopian endeavour as it requires a radical rethinking of social, political, and economic structures and hierarchies.M.A.inclusive; gender4, 5
Ashdown-Franks, GarciaSabiston, Catherine M From Intervention to Evaluation: Assessing the Effectiveness, Acceptability and Feasibility of a Physical Activity Intervention for Individuals with Serious Mental Illness Exercise Sciences2018-11Individuals with serious mental illness experience physical health comorbidities and report a lower quality of life. Physical activity may be one way to target both the mental and physical health of this population. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a PA intervention with a local mental health housing organization. Program effectiveness was measured through changes in mental health, quality of life, and physical activity from pre- to post intervention. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance and effect sizes were used to compare changes between intervention (N=5) and control (N=5) groups, while deductive thematic analysis was used to analyze interview responses. There were no significant group effects on the outcomes; there was a significant effect of time on total mental health scores, as well as anxiety and depression subscales. Participants, trainers and a key organizational stakeholder viewed the program as acceptable and feasible, and provided suggestions to improve future programs.M.Sc.health3
Ashraf, TanjinBascia, Nina The Voices of Teachers on Mandated Changes to Math Curriculum and Policy Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2019-11This study explores the issue of teacher underrepresentation in curriculum and policy development. The specific focus is on elementary public-school teachers in Ontario and their experiences with mandated changes to math curriculum and policy. Eight teachers were interviewed on this topic and a document analysis was conducted of curriculum, policies, and guides that are related to math education. The findings from the interviews and documents were triangulated through a conceptual framework that integrates sensemaking and contingency theories, to explore the relationship between individual responses to change and the constituents of an organization. Results from the analysis indicate that teachers are currently underrepresented in math curriculum and policy change processes even though they directly impact those changes. The findings carry significant implications for teacher roles and curriculum and policy development outcomes, emphasizing the need for congruent alignment between teachers’ voices and how the education system is structured.M.Ed.educat4
Ashtar, Reuven Drassinower, Abraham Generation, Yes? Digital Rights Management and Licensing, from the Advent of the Web to the iPad Law2012-12-03The Article discusses digital-era courts’ distortion of (para)copyright principles, deeming it borne of jumbled underlying legislation and a misplaced predilection for adopting licensing terms—even at the expense of recognized use exceptions. Common law
evolutionary principles, it is shown, have been abandoned just when they are most
needed: the ethereal rightsholder-user balance is increasingly disturbed, and the incipient “generative consumer” is in thrall, not liberated. Finally, the Article puts forth a proposal for the reestablishment of the principle of substantially noninfringing use, showing it to be in the interests of innovation, democracy, and the greater public interest.
MASTinnovation; consum9, 12
Asi, Navdeep Singh Fullard, James H. Coding of Bat-like Auditory Features in the AN2 Interneuron of the Pacific Field Cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus and its Relation to Decreasing the Conspicuousness of Synthetic Bat Echolocation Calls Cell and Systems Biology2010-12-14T17:54:02ZMany insects have auditory systems capable of detecting the ultrasonic calls of insectivorous bats and use these cues to evade capture. I tested the hypothesis that bats can decrease the conspicuousness of their echolocation calls by varying three call features: duration, repetition rate and ramp times. This was done by examining the AN2 command interneuron’s response to these features in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, after describing the firing pattern necessary for evasive behaviour. Past studies on duration and repetition rate suggest increased thresholds for short durations and low repetition rates. Measurements of the AN2 response, which controls evasive behaviour, indicated that increased thresholds were a result of a decrease in bursting, raw spike numbers and an increase in latencies in the AN2. Results suggest that there is pressure on bats to evade early detection and that this can be done by employing large ramp times in search phase echolocation calls.MASTocean14
Asiedu-Akrofi, Harvey Trebilcock, Michael Chinese Influence on the African “Resource Curse” Law2011-12-01This thesis explores the impact that Chinese aid and investment has on the political economy of resource-rich African countries. In particular, it examines the effects of Chinese resource-for-infrastructure agreements on the political economy of the resource curse. Using Ghana as a case study, this thesis highlights the peculiar obstacles that countries face with regard to managing their resources. In turn, it argues that general prescriptions against the resource curse, such as resource revenue transparency initiatives, like the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative, are insufficient. As a result, African recipients of Chinese aid require specific institutional arrangements that accurately reflect the specific “rules of the game” that exist under their respective political economies. In the case of Ghana, this thesis argues that vetting Chinese
resource-for-infrastructure agreements through the Public Procurement Act serves that need.
MASTinfrastructure; industr9
Asik, Christine Rose El-Sohemy, Ahmed Genetic Variation in Bitter Taste Perception, Food Preference and Dietary Intake Nutritional Sciences2012-03-20The role of variation in the TAS2R50 bitter taste receptor gene is unknown, but may influence taste perception and dietary habits. Individuals (n=1171) aged 20 to 29, from the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study, completed a food preference checklist and a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire to assess their preference and intake of potentially bitter foods and beverages. DNA was isolated from blood and genotyped for 3 polymorphisms in the TAS2R50 gene (rs2900554 A>C; rs10772397 A>G; rs1376251 A>G). Taste intensity was examined using taste strips infused with 3µg of naringin. The rs2900554 SNP was associated with naringin taste intensity, grapefruit preference and grapefruit intake in females. Homozygotes for the C allele reported the highest frequency of experiencing a high naringin taste intensity, disliking grapefruit and not consuming grapefruit. The rs10772397 and rs1376251 SNPs were associated with disliking grapefruit. These results suggest that naringin may be a ligand for the T2R50 receptor.MASTfood; health2, 3
Aslam, Jabeen Wane, Njoki Nathani Why are you “Active”? - Voices of Young Muslim Women Post-9/11 Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29Contributing to the literature on the Muslim experience post-9/11, the purpose of this study was to engage with a group that is often talked about, but not with: Muslim youth. Using an integrative anti-racist and anti-colonial approach with an emphasis on a spiritual way of knowing, this study gives voice to young Muslim activists in Toronto who have made the choice to “do something”. The study aims to understand what motivates these young activists, particularly in the context of post-9/11 Islamophobia, with the goal being to challenge stereotypical perceptions of Muslims, while contributing to the body of knowledge that aims to disrupt dominant notions of what “Canadian” identity is. The following analysis helps answer this question, which includes the role of spirituality, the attachment to Canadian identity and the desire to educate. Key challenges and what these youth prescribe for Canada’s future are also discussed.MASTwomen5
Aslam, Mariam Dietsche, Peter Muslim Pakistani-Canadian Women's Experiences in Canadian Higher Education: A Case Study at One Ontario University Campus Theory and Policy Studies in Education2011-11-29Seven women that identify as Muslim, Pakistani and Canadian in varying capacities participated in this qualitative research to discuss how their cultural and/or religious norms shaped their educational and career aspirations and overall decision-making. Areas of discussion included identity formation, understandings of culture and religion, familial influences on educational and career pursuits and overall experiences and interactions with faculty, peers and student service providers. This research brings together Chickering and Reisser’s (1993) Theory of Identity Development and feminist critical understandings of intersectionality (Collins, 1990; Knudson, 2005) and Orientalism (Said, 1978) in order to theoretically frame the students’ experiences. The research constitutes a major contribution from the Canadian perspective in terms of theory development as well as practical implications for faculty and campus services to ensure that students experience a learning environment that is supportive and inclusive.MASTeducat; inclusive; women4, 5
Assia, DorVieta, Marcelo A||Ryan, Sherida From Clients to Service Providers: The Workplace Learning Experience of Young Adult Peer-support Workers Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2020-03Despite the known and documented benefits of peer-support work in young adult mental health services, there is a limited understanding of the learning and development processes that young adults in these roles experience. This study explores the workplace learning experience of young adult peer-support workers in community-based mental health organizations in Toronto, Canada. Self-Determination and Situated Learning Theories guided the research design and analysis. Five semi-structured interviews with young adult peer-support workers were conducted and the data was thematically analyzed. The findings illustrate that young adults who work as peer-support workers are autonomously motivated to take on the role, learning is common through participation in communities of practice, and they develop a unique professional identity through the work. Recommendations for practice and future research are made based on these findings.M.A.health3
Athanasiu, Eva MarieCaraway, Brett||Shade, Leslie Survivance Stories: Indigenous Resistance and Cultural Labour in Canada Information Studies2016-11How do Indigenous cultural workers, practicing in Canada, think about their labour? Cultural work includes a broad array of activities: making art, writing, teaching, organizing programs, and other community projects. In this thesis, literature by Indigenous authors foregrounds ways of thinking about the meaning and function of cultural contributions, with support from complementary non-Indigenous scholarship. Interviews with three cultural workers and thematic analyses of transcripts and pre-existing texts show how cultural workers create living archives; by giving to their communities through multifaceted practices, they imagine and will Indigenously-determined paths into the future. Findings are organized into three themes, representing three practices of cultural work: contribute, gather, and proclaim.M.I.S.inclusive; worker4, 8
Atkins, Lindsey Kosnik, Clare Being on the Inside of a Professional Learning Community: A Reflection-on-practice Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2013-11-20This qualitative inquiry used a reflection-on-practice to examine my experiences facilitating professional learning within an Ontario public elementary school. My research revealed that my non-traditional approach to teacher professional development might constitute a form of Professional Learning Community (PLC). The data show that as a facilitator I found myself both inside and outside the communities I tried to form and support. Further, this inquiry exemplifies the ways I both nurtured and impeded professional learning as a result of my facilitation. I hope that the information and insights gleamed from this study may be broadened to include professional learning as it relates to occupations outside the realm of education. As a result, this thesis offers approaches to facilitation that might be able to transform professional practice through PD and consequently, improve student success.MASTeducat4
Au-Yeung, RodneyVuksan, Vladimir The Effect of Konjac Glucomannan Fibre Gel on Satiety and Energy Intake Nutritional Sciences2016-11Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a viscous dietary fibre that forms a firm, low-energy gel (KGM-gel) with shapes resembling common food staples. Despite a history of use in Asia, no study to date as assessed the effect of replacing energy-dense foods with KGM-gel foods. Therefore, we conducted two acute, randomized, controlled, crossover trials in healthy individuals to assess KGM-gel food substitution at a moderate and high level in single and repeated meals on appetite and energy intake. In both studies, KGM-gel substitution proportionally reduced the energy content of test meals compared to control. While high substitution lowered satiety, moderate substitution did not reduce satiety and cumulative energy intake was inversely proportional KGM-gel substitution. KGM-gel foods may assist in reducing energy intake without increasing appetite when replacing a modest amount of energy-rich foods. These results may have relevance in weight loss regimes and should be evaluated in overweight or obese; health; energy2, 3, 7
Aucoin, Robin JosephZee, Robert E Development of a Geolocation and Tip-and-cue Observation System for the DEFIANT Platform Aerospace Science and Engineering2019-11Surveillance capabilities in remote regions are currently limited by the low availability of permanent ground-based infrastructure. The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies Space Flight Laboratory’s next-generation DEFIANT-class spacecraft offers a solution to this problem through spaceborne monitoring. It features a wide suite of payloads to enable geolocation and autonomously cued observation of targets of interest. This work will detail the author’s efforts to develop this spaceborne surveillance system, with particular focus on the design of the attitude control system, the development of an algorithm for geolocation of radio-frequency-signal-emitting targets, and the formulation of an attitude path-planning algorithm to enable target observation and rapid spacecraft reorientation under a variety of dynamic and kinematic constraints. The developed concepts are validated through simulation and testing with reference to a hypothetical sample mission involving a controlled formation of DEFIANT spacecraft.M.A.S.infrastructure9
Audrain, SamanthaMcAndrews, Mary Pat Investigating Accelerated Long-term Forgetting: The Effects of Associative and Item Memory, and Semantic Relatedness on Long-term Retention Psychology2015-11We sought to create a test that could delineate memory for semantically related and unrelated associative and item information, for future use with patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in the study of accelerated long-term forgetting. Healthy participants studied semantically related and unrelated object-scene pairs and completed forced-choice recognition tasks for item and associative memory over variable delays. Participants recognized significantly less associative than item stimuli by 6-hours post-study due to degraded memory for associative stimuli. While item memory remained stable, memory was boosted for associative stimuli after a night of sleep but continued to decline thereafter. These effects were particularly robust for pairs that were semantically unrelated, as semantically related pairs demonstrated superior memory across the delays with relatively minimal decay over time. Possible neurobiological correlates of forgetting for the different types of stimuli in the context of current theories of consolidation are discussed, and implications for the phase II patient study are explored.M.A.health3
Augustinavicius, Jura Shapiro, Colin M. Sleep and Circadian Markers for Depression in Adolescence Cell and Systems Biology2013-11-20Early-onset major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with significant morbidity in adolescence. The interview-dependent diagnostic process used in psychiatry leaves a subset of adolescents with MDD undiagnosed. Sleep disturbances are a central feature of depression and adolescence is a period of rapid change in sleep physiology. The aim of this study was to test physiological features of sleep and circadian rhythms as markers of adolescent MDD. Adolescents completed a two-week protocol that included a formal psychiatric interview, polysomnographic (PSG) assessment, actigraphy, salivary melatonin sampling, and holter monitoring. Depressed adolescents (n = 18) differed from controls (n = 15) on features of sleep macroarchitecture measured by PSG, and on autonomic nervous system functioning measured by 24-hour heart rate variability. Depressed adolescents had shorter REM latency and decreased stage 4 sleep. Adolescents with MDD also showed decreased parasympathetic activity over 24-hours and during the day, and decreased sympathetic activity during the night.MASThealth3
Avila, Ruben SergioOlson, Paul Transgressing Heteronormativity in Militarism: Sexual Diversity in the Canadian Forces Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education2014-06This intent of this thesis is to probe deep into hidden and rigid structures, which regulate gender and sexual minorities in the Canadian Forces. We will see the development of hegemonic military masculinity from its early stages in nation building to its currant gender and sexual structures in a post-911 era.
My personal narrative experiences as a radicalised, sexual minority in the Canadian Forces provided me a point of departure in understanding the underlying lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, two-spirit, queer or questioning (LGBTQ) service members. In preparing this thesis current serving members, Defence offices, and leading academics were investigated, LGBTQ legislation and military policies were researched, and case study interviews were conducted in order to understand the key and underlining structures, which regulate gender and sexual identity in the Canadian Forces.
M.A.gender; queer5
Awad-Dosen, JacquelineRaboy, Becky E||Fortin, Marie-Josee Restoration Strategies to Improve Animal Movement in the Atlantic Forest Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2016-06Habitat loss and fragmentation are leading causes of biodiversity decline worldwide. Animals sensitive to fragmentation suffer from decreased dispersal, breeding opportunities, and genetic diversity, making them vulnerable to extinction. Over the last decades the Atlantic Forest of Brazil has been extremely fragmented, with only 11-16% of forest remaining. Fortunately, ecological restoration is occurring throughout Brazil. Using computer modelling, I investigated how alternative restoration strategies improve the functional connectivity of the landscape. I used lion-tamarins of Southern Bahia, Brazil as a case study. I imposed three restoration strategies, Landowner Focused, Biodiversity Focused, and Random, on each of six sample landscapes, and five amounts of restoration (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%). I found both restoration strategy and amount had a significant effect on connectivity. Landowner and Biodiversity Focused strategies were significantly better at increasing connectivity than the Random strategy, and greater restoration amounts resulted in greater connectivity.M.Sc.biodiversity; forest15
Ayanian, TsoleenCarter, Michael W Health Human Resource Planning of Physiotherapists and Occupational Therapists in Newfoundland and Labrador Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-06This research seeks to substantiate the gap between demand and supply of physiotherapists (PTs) and occupational therapists (OTs) in Newfoundland and Labrador through the development of a system dynamics (SD) model. The model was used to test "what-if" scenarios by exploring various school sizes at Memorial University of Newfoundland (MUN). A needs-based modeling approach was used to define the population's requirement for PTs and OTs. Data obtained from Newfoundland Centre for Health Information was used to populate the demand model, and the workforce data obtained through Canadian Institute for Health Information was used to populate the SD supply model; both demand and supply were projected to the year 2055. The results show a shortage of PTs and OTs, with this gap expected to increase over time. It is recommended that schools with eventual sizes of 90 PT and 34 OT students be opened at MUN to gradually close the gap.M.A.S.health3
Ayliffe, Brett William Bressmann, Tim Evaluation of the Toronto Palatal Lift Prosthesis for Patients with Hypernasal Resonance Disorders Dentistry2013-07-11Statement of the problem. Hypernasality resulting from velopharyngeal insufficiency or incompetency is a resonance disorder that has negative consequences for speech production and intelligibility of afflicted individuals.
Purpose. The purpose of this prospective study is to ascertain if a palatal lift prosthesis with a generic silicon velar lamina, termed the Toronto Palatal Lift Prosthesis (TPLP), can assist velopharyngeal valve function to reduce hypernasality in patients.
Methods. A prospective study of six patients treated with the TPLP was compared by the outcome measures of nasalance scores, perceptual evaluations, and patient satisfaction to those obtained using a contemporary acrylic palatal lift prosthesis.
Results. The six patients had varying degrees of reduction in hypernasality and acceptance of the TPLP.
Conclusion. On the basis of this preliminary study on the TPLP it is possible to fabricate a palatal lift prosthesis with a generic silicon velar lamina that reduces hypernasality in select patients.
Ayoub, MariamStewart, Suzanne||Moodley, Roy Successes and Challenges for Two-spirit Youth in the Workplace Applied Psychology and Human Development2019-03Abstract
The unemployment rate of Indigenous youth is significantly higher than non-Indigenous youth. Two-spirit youth are at an even greater disadvantage due to barriers such as lack of education, poverty, discrimination, and intergenerational trauma. Additionally, Two-Spirit youth report feeling a disconnect between their ethnic and sexual identities. This feeling of incongruence contributes to a heightened risk of street involvement, drug or alcohol misuse, and homelessness. This study utilizes a community-based, narrative approach, operating within an intersectional framework. The research question is: What are the intersections of cultural identity, LGBTQ identity, and work-life experiences for Two-Spirit youth as they relate to employment outcomes? Two-Spirit youth, living in the Greater Toronto Area were interviewed to explore their employment experiences in relation to their intersecting identities. This research is significant as there is minimal research investigating the intersection of Two-Spirit youth and employment, particularly from the perspective of the youth, themselves.
M.A.poverty; educat; employment1, 4, 8
Azzam, AbdullahLavoie, Philippe On the Generation of Unsteady Mean and Turbulent Flows in a Wind Tunnel using an Active Grid Aerospace Science and Engineering2018-11Unsteady flows are pervasive in nature and engineering applications such as UAVs. Simulating these flows in an experimental setting is key to avoiding detrimental changes in the performance of such applications. This study explores the capabilities of an active grid in producing unsteady flows in a recirculating wind tunnel. The grid is operated in different modes that allow control over the flow frequency, amplitude and turbulence intensity. Hot-wire measurements demonstrate the grid's capabilities in generating flows typical of those used in experiments of unsteady aerodynamics. Mean grid blockage, freestream speed and tunnel size were all found to be factors influencing the resulting flow. The response of turbulence to the oscillating flow was also investigated and results showed a modulation of the turbulence intensity and dissipation rate that is dependent on the frequency of the imposed oscillations. A change in the scaling behaviour of the dissipation rate was also noted.M.A.S.wind8
Azzam, Raneem Razack, Sherene Teaching Civility: How Teachers Negotiate Race, Culture and Citizenship in the Multicultural School Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29In this project, I ask: How do Ontario public schools participate in the construction and perpetuation of a racial hierarchy of Canadian citizenship? I argue that the discourse of white civility produces and organizes a governable Canadian populace that serves to legitimize the nation-state. Employing a critical anti-colonial, anti-racist framework, I analyze the narratives of teachers as they relate to the notions of citizenship, multiculturalism and professionalism. I aim to shed light on the role of the teacher within the circuits of power that serve to regulate ‘Canadian-ness’ and respectability. Through a discourse analysis of the statements of educators working with newcomer students, I illustrate some of the obstacles to equitable praxis. I conclude by challenging teachers to consider their investments in the systems that perpetuate oppression.MASTeducat; equitable4
Azzopardi, Paul JohnHayeems, Robin Health Care Providers' Perspectives of Uncertainty in Newborn Screening Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-11There is a paucity of research exploring the issues of uncertainty in the context of newborn screening and metabolic care. This work explores these issues of uncertainty through qualitative description. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with health care providers at specialized metabolic centers across Canada. Data was coded and thematically analyzed. This study found that health care providers experience personal, practical, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic issues of uncertainty when managing the care of patients affected by mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP), very long chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency, medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, and partial biotinidase deficiency. Heath care providers described nosological inadequacy as a source of uncertainty when managing 3-methylcrotonyl CoA (3-MCC) deficiency. Participants emphasized caution, while avoiding overmedicalization, when managing medical uncertainty. Providers indicated that greater communication and consensus is required across care centers, which may open a dialogue for a pan-Canadian newborn screening strategy.M.Sc.health3
Ba, QingGuenther, Axel Microfluidic Bioprinter for Hydrogel Sheet Formation Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2014-11We present a microfluidic bioprinter that is compatible with a wide range of biopolymers and is able to continuously or periodically produce intact homogeneous or heterogeneous hydrogel sheets in Couette flow condition with different throughputs through different cross-linking mechanisms with control over the sheet geometries and mechanical properties. The printer includes a movable platform to achieve the automated production, collection and transportation of the hydrogel sheets, a microfabricated printing device that defines the geometry and composition of the printed hydrogel sheets, pressure controls upstream for introducing biomaterials with different flow rates, and temperature features to fulfill the thermal requirement during the material processing. According features can be enabled for different gelation mechanisms including ionic cross-linking gelation and thermal gelation. Using the concept of Couette flow with controls over printing parameters, homogenous and heterogeneous hydrogel sheets with different geometries and mechanical properties can be produced as predicted using the theoretical model.M.A.S.industr9
Babayants, Artem Kerekes, Julie Acting and Second Language Pragmatics: Pedagogical Intersections Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2012-03-20The study sheds light on the interrelations between interlanguage pragmatics and the use of a popular acting method, the Stanislavsky System, for second language (L2) acquisition. The theoretical investigation explores various uses of acting in second language education. The empirical enquiry represents an exploratory case-study of two adult EFL learners attending a theatre course in English. Through teacher journals, interviews, and the analysis of the students’ pragmatic performance as captured by a video camera, the researcher hypothesizes that the pragmatic development of the students involved in drama comes from three main sources: the script, the acting exercises, and the necessity to communicate in English during the theatre course. In all three cases, the zone of proximal development in relation to pragmatic competence emerged as a result of a teacher-generated impetus to use L2, numerous opportunities for imitation and repetition, continuous peer-support, and the collaborative spirit created in the classroom.MASTeducat4
Babier, AaronChan, Timothy C. Y. Knowledge-Based Automated Planning for Oropharyngeal Cancer Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2017-11We automatically generate intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans for oropharyngeal cancer by combining knowledge-based planning (KBP) predictions with an inverse optimization (IO) pipeline into a single automated treatment planning pipeline. We extended two existing KBP methods, which use patients' anatomical geometry to predict achievable dose volume histograms (DVHs), and developed the first IO method that takes DVHs as direct inputs. The DVH predictions from KBP are put into the IO pipeline to automatically generate treatment plans via an intermediate step using objective function weights and an inverse planning problem. This step enables our automated planning pipeline to seamlessly fuse with the current treatment planning paradigm to increase its efficiency. Our automated pipeline can replicate, and often improve upon the clinical treatment plans by reducing the dose to healthy tissue and increasing primary target coverage. These results have been validated using a large cohort of 217 oropharyngeal cancer patients.M.A.S.innovation9
Bach, YvonneHorlick, Eric Functional Moderate to Severe Tricuspid Regurgitation in Adults undergoing Transcatheter Atrial Septal Defect Closure Medical Science2019-11Background: A large proportion of patients continues to have moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) after transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure.
Objective: To determine the clinical significance of functional TR in ASD patients and identify the baseline predictors of persistent TR after ASD closure.
Methods: Clinical data were collected from hard-copy and electronic records at the University Health Network (UHN), Toronto, Canada. The clinical registry was linked to Ontario population-based health administrative databases.
Results: Age ≥65 years, severe TR, and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) were independent baseline predictors of persistent TR. ICES analyses showed patients with baseline moderate to severe TR (n=750) were not associated with higher cardiovascular mortality compared to patients with baseline mild/no TR (n=199) after adjust for cardiovascular co-morbidities.
Conclusions: Perhaps offering early ASD closure or concomitant tricuspid valve intervention may be of benefit to patients at risk for persistent TR.
Baczynskyj, Anastasia Troper, Harold M. Learning How to Be Ukrainian: Ukrainian Schools in Toronto and the Formation of Identity, 1947-2009 Theory and Policy Studies in Education2009-12-11T21:06:47ZThis thesis follows the development of the Ukrainian identity in Toronto since World War II. It explores the formation of collective memory by the Third Wave of Ukrainian immigration who arrived in Toronto in the early 1950s and the crystallization of a particular Ukrainian identity within this community. In particular, it looks at the role of the Ukrainian schooling system as an important institution shaping the community’s understanding of Ukrainian identity. It also discusses the challenges to that identity since the arrival of the Fourth Wave of Ukrainian immigration which began in 1991. It charts the intra-group tensions which arose in the community due to different understandings of what it means to be Ukrainian and describes how competing Ukrainian identities found within the Fourth Wave of immigration have shifted the dynamic in the Ukrainian community, explaining low involvement of Fourth Wave members within community institutions such as the Ukrainian school.MASTeducat4
Badr, Mario Jerger, Natalie Enright Synthetic Traffic Models that Capture Cache Coherent Behaviour Electrical and Computer Engineering2014-06-24Modern and future many-core systems represent large and complex architectures. The communication fabrics in these large systems play an important role in their performance and power consumption. Current simulation methodologies for evaluating networks-on-chip (NoCs) are not keeping pace with the increased complexity of our systems; architects often want to explore many different design knobs quickly. Methodologies that trade-off some accuracy but maintain important workload trends for faster simulation times are highly beneficial at early stages of architectural exploration.

We propose a synthetic traffic generation methodology that captures both application behaviour and cache coherence traffic to rapidly evaluate NoCs. This allows designers to quickly indulge in detailed performance simulations without the cost of long-running full system simulation but still capture a full range of application and coherence behaviour. Our methodology has an average (geometric) error of 10.9% relative to full system simulation, and provides 50x speedup on average over full system simulation.
Bae, KoeunBruce, Ashley Analysis of Yolk Cell Microtubule Network Dynamics and Organization during Zebrafish Epiboly Cell and Systems Biology2015-11Epiboly, the first morphogenetic event in zebrafish development, is a coordinated process of the blastoderm and yolk syncytial layer spreading over the yolk cell. In the yolk cell, microtubule arrays extend longitudinally and their dynamics have been suggested to be important for normal epiboly. Despite these findings, the function of the yolk cell microtubules remains unclear. Live imaging of EB3-GFP, a microtubule plus-end tracking protein, revealed a change from active microtubule growth during early epiboly to a non-growing state during late epiboly. Antibody staining for tyrosinated and detyrosinated tubulin, markers of dynamic and stabilized microtubules respectively, revealed the presence of stable microtubules during late epiboly but not during early epiboly. The yolk microtubule network also appeared to be more resistant to the microtubule depolymerizing agent nocodazole at late epiboly stages. For the first time, I report a change in microtubule dynamics and suggest different roles of microtubules throughout epiboly phases.M.Sc.fish14
Baek, Sun HwaGeva, Esther L1 and L2 Narrative Development in Emergent Bilinguals Applied Psychology and Human Development2015-06This study investigated the development of oral narrative production in L1 and L2 in English-Hebrew emergent bilingual children and the associations between narrative abilities in both languages. Participants included 33 younger cohort in JK and 24 older cohort in SK. The children's scripts (general descriptions about events) were elicited at two time points over one year. The study included various measures of macro and micro dimensions of narratives that reveal cognitive and linguistic development. Children were able to produce generalized scripts in both languages. L1 narratives have been developing on various complexity indices of macro and micro dimensions, while emergent L2 has been developing on narrative productivity. A cross-linguistic association was noted at the end of grade1 with increased Hebrew language proficiency. The findings suggest that cross-linguistic relations may be independent of linguistic distance. Educational and clinical implications were discussed.M.A.educat4
Bagchi, RaunaqLian, Keryn K. Modified Biomass Carbons for Electrochemical Capacitor Electrodes Materials Science and Engineering2020-03The demand for energy storage devices has led to the increased development of cost-effective and sustainable electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors (ECs). This project investigated low-cost biomass waste pinecone to produce activated carbon (AC) and biochar in comparison with commercial coconut shell-based AC (YP-50F) as EC electrode materials.
Pinecone-based AC produced via KOH chemical activation demonstrated a gravimetric capacitance of 214 F g-1¬ (at 50 mV s-1 in acidic media). Biochar (Flashed pinecone) synthesized without KOH showed a good capacitive performance at the same rate.
Nitrogen doping was used to introduce pseudocapacitance in both ACs and led to an improvement in gravimetric capacitance at 50 mV s-1 for doped YP-50F (154 F g-1). Good rate capacitance retention was achieved in doped YP-50F (62.5 %), doped pinecone-based AC (60.0 %), and Flashed PC (78.1 %). This showed the promise of pinecone as a feedstock for low-cost, sustainable electrode materials.
Baharvandy, Mohammad Fernie, Geoff Safety of a Fully Powered Mechanical Patient Lift for Bariatric Patients Biomedical Engineering2009-12-16T16:45:04ZThe work in this thesis was concerned with the safety evaluation of a fully powered mechanical patient lift for bariatric patients. A working prototype of this system, called RoboNurse, was designed and manufactured at iDAPT technology team at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute. There are currently no lifting technologies similar to RoboNurse in the healthcare industry. The methods that are used to evaluate the system included: 1) Series of mechanical tests to evaluate the static strength and stability of the design 2) Computer simulations to evaluate the dynamic stability of the system and 3) Failure mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) as risk analysis tools. These techniques helped to perform thorough and systematic evaluations on the system and its components. This study significantly assisted in understanding the problems associated with the current design prototype and provided the necessary resources and guidelines for the future generations of this technology.MASTinnovation9
Bai, Ji Dong K.Wen, Xiao-Yan Novel Gluconeogenesis Regulators for Anti-diabetic Drug Repurposing using Transgenic Zebrafish pck1 Reporters Medical Science2015-11Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of gluconeogenesis and is encoded by the pck1 gene. High levels of pck1 gene expression are associated with type 2 diabetes. The main goal of the present study is to identify compounds that can modulate pck1 expression. Furthermore, the knowledge gained from this study can streamline the process of identifying regulators by high-throughput screening in the future. A luminescent zebrafish reporter Tg(pck1:luc2) was used to screen the NIH Clinical Collections library containing 727 small molecules. Four leads were identified and validated using the fluorescence reporters Tg(pck1:Venus) and Tg(pck1:eGFP) as well as endogenous pck1 expression using quantitative PCR, where they down-regulated pck1 expression in larval zebrafish. One of the validated compounds (levofloxacin) altered glucose metabolism in adult zebrafish as determined by glucose tolerance tests. Methods were also established for efficient screening of future chemical libraries to identify novel anti-diabetic therapeutics.M.Sc.fish14
Baia Medeiros, Deyvison Talmo BaiaCarter, Michael W Improving Timely Access to Emergency Diagnostic Imaging via Data Analysis and Discrete Event Simulation Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2019-11As one of its initiatives to improve timely access to diagnostic imaging and expedite care in the emergency department (ED), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre implemented a 24/7 in-house attending radiologist coverage model to service its ED in 2017. This thesis initially describes how this new coverage model impacted imaging report turnaround times (TAT), it then discusses how a discrete event simulation was used to evaluate the impact of process changes on emergency computed tomography (CT) overall TAT. The 24/7 coverage evaluation indicated that the new model led to significant reductions in report TAT for almost all imaging modalities; and the scenarios tested with simulation model showed that simplifying exam protocols, changing staff schedules, and improving exam booking processes can considerably shorten CT overall TAT and likely contribute to enhanced patient care.M.A.S.health3
Baines, Beatrice Celina Rowe, Locke The Effects of Food Availability on Body Condition and Dispersal in the Backswimmer, Notonecta undulata Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2014-11Dispersal is the movement of organisms across space that has the potential to cause gene flow. It therefore has important implications for ecological and evolutionary processes. Previous studies have demonstrated that dispersal is influenced by body condition; however, the results of these studies have been inconsistent with respect to the direction of this relationship. I asked whether predation risk interacts with condition to cause variable effects on dispersal. I tested this by imposing diet treatments on backswimmers (Notonecta undulata) in the laboratory. I measured the effects of food availability on condition. I then measured the effects of condition and predators on dispersal in a field experiment. I found that dispersal was a positive function of both body condition and predation risk. However, their effects were additive, not interactive.Therefore, the interaction between condition and predation risk is likely not contributing to the inconsistency in the results of condition-dependent dispersal studies.M.Sc.food2
Baird, Katherine MelaniePuric-Mladenovic, Danijela Floristic Quality as an Indicator to Inform Natural Areas Management in Lake Simcoe Watershed Forestry2020-06Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is used to describe the quality of natural areas based on plant species composition. Despite widespread application of FQA in the USA, less research exists in Ontario. To better understand FQA’s monitoring, reporting, and management relevance to southern Ontario I investigated: (1) performance of FQA against a composite disturbance gradient; and, (2) differences in FQA between different vegetation communities and successional stages. My work utilized monitoring data from 422 Vegetation Sampling Protocol plots sampled throughout Lake Simcoe watershed. FQA indices were found to significantly decrease in response to increasing disturbance, outperforming native species richness and percent exotic species as indicators of disturbance. Values of FQA indices differed among vegetation communities and successional stages, indicating comparisons should not be made across natural area classes. I demonstrate FQA as an effective tool for assessing natural cover quality; however, appropriate interpretation and management application require understanding FQA’s properties.M.Sc.water; forest6, 15
Bak, Katarzyna Dobrow, Mark Factors Affecting the Implementation of Complex and Evolving Techniques: A Multiple Case Study of Intensity-modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) in Ontario. Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2009-12-16T16:48:22ZBackground: Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is a method of delivering high-dose radiation to tumours while sparing surrounding healthy tissues. Despite its wide availability IMRT utilization varies across Ontario. The study’s objective was to examine key steps in the implementation process and identify factors that facilitate or impede IMRT implementation.
Research Methods: An embedded multiple case study design, utilizing document analysis and key-informant interviews, was employed. Four cancer centres were selected and key-informant interviews were conducted with radiation oncologists, physicists, radiation therapists, and administrators.
Results: Eighteen of 21 invited key-informants participated (86% participation rate) providing a range of insights on the factors influencing IMRT implementation. Overall, three cases made progress in the implementation of IMRT, while one case had limited implementation over the same time period.
Conclusion: These findings help explain the observed variation in IMRT implementation across Ontario, which is multifaceted and reflects ongoing processes of change and reinvention.
Baker, SydneyMaclaren, Virginia||Kepe, Thembela Exploring Extended Producer Responsibility: Waste Tyres as a Resource for Job Creation in South Africa? Geography2018-11Extended producer responsibility (EPR) has emerged globally as a means to shift the increasing costs of waste management of end-of-life products onto the producer. This research focused on an EPR scheme for waste tyres that was legislated by the South African government in 2012. While sharing many similarities with other EPR schemes, the South African program was unique in its focus on creating employment. More specifically, in response to the injustices of South Africa’s apartheid there was a focus on the upliftment of previously disadvantaged individuals. Based on semi-structured interviews with actors from various roles in the waste tyre system, this research investigated how the EPR affected employment and whether EPR can be used to create jobs. The EPR scheme for waste tyres in South Africa was found to have increased employment, however, potential challenges with using EPR as a tool for job creation were identified.M.A.employment; waste8, 12
Bakhsh, Manar AbduljalilTomlinson, Christopher||Pencharz, Paul Body Composition of Infants with Gastroschisis Assessed by Air Displacement Plethysmography Nutritional Sciences2017-06Background: Measuring body composition (BC) in infants enables monitoring their growth pattern. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP), a BC technique that is practical for infants, but has not been adequately assessed in different infant populations.
Objective: To demonstrate the suitability of the ADP in a high-risk population and to evaluate their BC.
Methodology: The study was observational; subjects were recruited from the Hospital for Sick Children. A total of 12 Infants â Ľ 33 weeks corrected gestational age at birth, diagnosed with gastroschisis, were studied. BC was measured post-surgery and a month thereafter.
Results: fat mass (FM) did not show a significant difference in our study group compared to healthy infants at both measurements. However, fat free mass (FFM) was significantly lower in our study group than healthy infants at both measurements.
Conclusion: There were no procedure-related complications. A smaller gain in FFM than expected was shown in this group of patients.
Bakkelund, AleeshaPorter, Trevor J Holocene Perspectives on Hydrogen Isotope Ratios of Boreal Plant Waxes in Northwestern Canada Geography2018-11This thesis provides novel insights into plant wax characteristics and fractionation in high latitude boreal forests in the Holocene. The isotopic composition of precipitation is a tracer for climatic changes. The hydrogen isotopic composition of plant waxes (δDwax) in sediments is a proxy for precipitation δD and paleoclimate but is offset from δDprecip due to a large net fractionation from several biotic and abiotic factors. The net fractionation is constrained for the northern boreal forest based on topsoils from a 13-site network in NW Canada. This will help future studies quantitatively reconstruct δDprecip from plant waxes. This thesis also presents the first δDwax record that extends through the full Holocene in Eastern Beringia from a lake sediment core in SW Yukon. Good coherence with other isotope proxies in the region suggests that this record accurately reconstructs variability in δDprecip and is likely driven by changes in atmospheric circulation and aridity.M.Sc.climate13
Balata, LenaWaterman, Stephanie Closing the Gap: Comparing Reconciliation and Indigenismo Policies in Higher Education Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2020-06Education is a critical human right, yet Indigenous groups globally face a crisis in higher education (HE) systems. Colonial processes have intentionally and systematically used HE for assimilation which has disrupted cultural connection and economic benefits to Indigenous communities. Drawing on Postcolonial Theory (Loomba, 2002) and the Theory of Justice (Fraser, 2003), this policy review explores factors that have contributed to the pattern of HE exclusion and comparatively poorer outcomes for Indigenous groups in Canada and Mexico. These frameworks will be used to evaluate a range of policies that aim to remedy these gaps.
The results indicate that there was a considerable attempt to adopt the principles of Reconciliation and Indigenismo when responding to the needs of Indigenous students. However, the policies do little to redress the racist constructs that are inherent to colonial education, impacting chances for transformative change for Indigenous students.
M.A.educat; justice4, 16
Baldo, Amanda NicoleWilson, Kathleen Urban to Rural Migration for Employment Reasons: An Examination of Immigrant Settlement Needs in Rural Ontario Geography2019-03Canada depends on immigration to contribute to the growing economy and to stabilize the population. Although the majority of immigrants to Canada are highly skilled and educated, they experience high rates of unemployment and underemployment, typically in urban areas. Meanwhile, small towns and rural areas require more skilled labour to satisfy economic and demographic declines. Working in partnership with the Newcomer Centre of Peel (NCP), this research examines the potential of NCP’s Rural Employment Initiative, which seeks to connect talented newcomers with employment opportunities in rural areas of Ontario. Using focus groups with 50 skilled newcomers interested in urban to rural relocation, this research examines perceived newcomer settlement and integration needs and challenges to be faced in rural areas. Findings show employment and welcoming communities are fundamental to newcomer integration, and collaboration between stakeholders is necessary to ensure that these economic and socio-cultural integration needs of newcomers are met.M.A.employment; rural; labour; urban8, 11
Balfour, Cameron Walks, R. Alan Inclusionary Zoning, Brownfield Development and Urban Governance: Understanding Affordable Housing Production in Concord's City Place and Pacific Place Developments Geography2010-04-06T13:30:06ZMaintaining affordable housing in Canadian cities remains a challenge for municipal governments. With few political and financial resources, local governments often turn to zoning bylaws to protect affordable housing opportunities. This research focuses on the development and implementation of inclusionary zoning programs in Toronto and Vancouver. In order to understand the value of these policies, this research asks how planners implemented inclusionary zoning and with what outcomes. Interviews with key actors in the public and private sector form the basis of an account that details the implementation of affordable housing requirements negotiated at two new-build gentrification sites in Toronto and Vancouver. The findings from this research show mixed results and highlight the barriers to the successful implementation of inclusionary zoning. While capable of securing subsidized units in gentrifying neighbourhoods, the poor results of these policies demonstrates the difficulty of managing gentrification unleashed by the state.MASTcities11
Balouchestani Asli, NargesBehdinan, Kamran Team Level Factors Affecting Innovation in Multidisciplinary Capstone Design Course Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2016-11Multidisciplinary capstones form student teams from different engineering disciplines to design, build, and test proof of concepts for an industry based project. To provide insight on multidisciplinary capstone’s performance and innovative outcomes, we explored innovation and factors related to innovation in both multidisciplinary and monodisciplinary capstones at the University of Toronto. Our investigation includes self-reported data and data from external assessments. We conducted both quantitative and qualitative research by collecting data from surveys, interviews, and video-recordings. External examiner’s and self-reported data show that multidisciplinary students are more innovative than mono-disciplinary ones. Our results show correlation between innovation and psychological safety, collaborative learning, internal and external communication, support for innovation from all parties, vision and feedback. Our research shows that aside from team’s diversity, support for innovation and culture of innovation is essential to realization of student’s creativity potential.M.A.S.industr9
Balsam, Corey Nestel, Sheryl The Appeal of Israel: Whiteness, Anti-Semitism, and the Roots of Diaspora Zionism in Canada Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-08-09This thesis explores the appeal of Israel and Zionism for Ashkenazi Jews in Canada. The origins of Diaspora Zionism are examined using a genealogical methodology and analyzed through a bricolage of theoretical lenses including post-structuralism, psychoanalysis, and critical race theory. The active maintenance of Zionist hegemony in Canada is also explored through a discourse analysis of several Jewish-Zionist educational programs. The discursive practices of the Jewish National Fund and Taglit Birthright Israel are analyzed in light of some of the factors that have historically attracted Jews to Israel and Zionism. The desire to inhabit an alternative Jewish subject position in line with normative European ideals of whiteness is identified as a significant component of this attraction. It is nevertheless suggested that the appeal of Israel and Zionism is by no means immutable and that Jewish opposition to Zionism is likely to only increase in the coming years.MASTinstitution16
Balsamo, Antonina MariaPiccardo, Enrica Effects of Self-regulated Strategy Development on the Writing Performance and Sense of Self-efficacy of Postsecondary English Language Learners Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2019-06English language learners (ELLs) comprise a growing contingent in North American postsecondary institutions. However, success in postsecondary requires competence in written expression, a taxing activity for most ELLs. To foster writing development, this study adapted the strategy instruction model of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD; Graham Harris, 1996) to teach strategies for research writing and vocabulary expansion. Six postsecondary ELLs received 36 hours of instruction over six weeks. Collecting data through a mixed methods design, the study measured performance gains as high as 10%, which, though moderate, contribute to growing evidence for the effectiveness of SRSD among postsecondary ELLs. Participants also reported positive transformations in their sense of self-efficacy alongside elevated confidence and lowered anxiety and stress. The study highlights the importance of guiding postsecondary ELLs through the framework of writing strategy instruction and suggests that SRSD may benefit writers by both teaching new strategies and validating existing writing practices.M.A.educat4
Baltzer, Heather LucretiaKrahn, Murray The Health Burden and Direct Health Care Costs of Acute Isolated Upper Extremity Trauma in Ontario Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2020-03Acute hand and wrist trauma, a top reason for emergency department (ED) visits internationally, is an understudied public health issue in Canada. This research sought to characterize the burden of isolated hand, wrist and specific proximal upper extremity trauma (UET) in Ontario, Canada using linked administrative healthcare data between 2006-2016. Study one identified that UET in adults age 18-65 is the most common reason for ED visits (incidence rate: 211/10,000 person-years). Repeated episodes represented 24.8% of all ED visits, creating a large burden of preventable visits. Study two estimated the three year attributable cost (AC) of surgical UET using an incidence-based propensity score matched cohort study. The estimated AC of severe UET was $7519.80 and $8528.90 at one and three years, respectively. The AC translates into approximately $36 million annually for surgical UET, which accounts for only 2.5% of all episodes, indicating a substantial burden created by the entire cohort.M.Sc.health3
Bance, Sheena Links, Paul Evaluation of an Educational Intervention for Employees Exposed to Workplace Trauma Medical Science2011-05-27T17:57:19ZIntroduction: This thesis evaluated the effectiveness of an educational intervention for Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) employees exposed to a traumatic event at work.

Methods: This study used a sequential mixed methods design. The primary outcome was the proportion seeking mental health treatment after an educational intervention (BPI) compared to a group not receiving an educational intervention (TAU). Qualitative interviews aimed to understand what compelled participants to seek help and perceptions of the educational intervention.

Results: 60 TAU and 50 BPI participants were recruited. A larger proportion of BPI participants sought specialty mental health treatment compared to the TAU (p=0.034). Reasons for seeking treatment were varied and we found overall positive responses to the educational intervention, particularly normalization of reactions.

Conclusions: A greater proportion of those receiving the educational intervention sought help. However, the interviews showed that although the educational intervention was helpful, it was not central to this decision.
Banerjee, David Trifonas, Peter Ideology and Reality: Putting Belief and Behaviour in Context Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2010-12-17T20:15:26ZThis paper investigates how belief, social power, and ideology work together to create the subjectivities and social structures that guide our behaviour. Phenomena such as cognitive shortcuts, memory, bias, empathy, and dissonance are used to trace the effects of power and ideology on social construction and role-taking behaviour. Research on mass opinion in the United States is then used to identify the effects of information and salience on construction. Different conceptions of ideology and interest, drawn from the work of Hume, Marx, Gramsci, Althusser, Foucault, and others were referenced to explore the larger social dynamics of ideas and structures. Academic, ethical, and democratic implications are investigated at different points. The paper concludes by connecting parenting style to moral development in order to find strategies for resisting the tendency towards institutional behaviour.MASTinstitution16
Banjo, Yetunde Mirchandani, Kiran Welcome to Canada! An Inquiry into the Choice of Nursing as a Career among Immigrant Women of Nigerian Origin Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-11-28This thesis investigated the choice of nursing among immigrant women from Nigeria in Canada. I sought to understand why increasing numbers of immigrant women from Nigeria with degrees and professional backgrounds are opting for careers in nursing. The study was conducted through an antiracist feminist lens and uncovered the many dimensions in which African immigrant women encounter marginalization and discrimination in the Canadian labour market, resulting from entrenched norms and values. I placed centre stage the voices of the Nigerian women, and through their narratives found that the decision to change careers was based on barriers they faced, the availability of jobs within nursing, as well as personal perceptions and interactions with other Nigerian women who had successfully changed careers.
The conclusion reached is that despite the structural barriers faced, the choice of nursing had overall benefited the women, elevating their status and improving their economic situation.
Banka, JohnKarney, Bryan A RESEARCH PLAN FOR ASSESSING THE POWER AND ENERGY CAPABILITY OF A RIVER NETWORK UNDER AN INTEGRATED WIND/HYDRO–ELECTRIC DISPATCHABLE RÉGIME Civil Engineering2017-11The world strives for more clean and renewable energy, but the amount of dispatchable energy in river networks is not accurately known and difficult to assess. When wind is integrated with water, the dispatchable yield can be greatly increased, but the uncertainty of the wind further degrades predictability. This thesis demonstrates how simulating the flows is a river network integrated with wind over a long time domain yields a solution. Time-shifting the freshet and pumped storage will ameliorate the seasonal summer drought; the risk of ice jams and uncontrolled flooding is reduced. An artificial market eliminates the issue of surplus energy from wind at night. Furthermore, this thesis shows how the necessary infrastructure can be built to accomplish the goals of the intended research. While specific to Northern Ontario and sensitive to the lives of the Native peoples living there, it indicates where the research might be applicable elsewhere in the world.M.A.S.infrastructure; renewable; water; energy6, 7, 9
Bannister, Louise McCrindle, W Brian Role of Nutrition Support in Energy Delivery and Growth in Children Requiring Heart Transplantation: A Pilot Study Nutritional Sciences2014-11Heart transplantation is indicated for children with cardiac disease that is not amenable to medical or surgical interventions. These children are vulnerable to nutritional challenges, yet energy requirements and the role of nutritional interventions are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends in growth, determine energy requirements and identify associations with nutrition support. METHODS: This pilot study followed children from listing for transplant to 6 months posttransplant. RESULTS: 22 subjects (36% male) were enrolled. Of the 14 (64%) transplanted, weight-for-age z-scores improved from listing to endpoint (EST: +0.74 (+0.11; +1.38), p=0.03). Percent predicted resting energy expenditure was not significantly different pre vs. posttransplant. At listing, 68% were tube feeding but oral feeding increased to endpoint (EST: 2.18 [0.97], p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Pretransplant tube feeding is prevalent but catch-up in weight-for-age and transition to oral feeding are achievable posttransplant. Medical complexity impacts growth and energy delivery; however, nutrient and energy requirements require further investigation.M.Sc.nutrition;2
Bansal, AiyushDaskalakis, Zafiris J||Wong, Willy Pre-TMS Phase of Ongoing EEG Oscillations Modulates Cortical Activity Response at the Prefrontal Cortex Biomedical Engineering2019-11Background
Rhythmic brain activity and its influence on the brain, remains to be elucidated. Our study aimed to evaluate the influence of pre-TMS phase of different rhythms in the brain on the TMS-induced potential (TIP) through TMS-EEG at the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
To investigate the relationship between pre-TMS phase and TIP.
This study involved 19 healthy controls who underwent single pulse TMS at the DLPFC and M1. Alpha (8-13 Hz), beta (14-30 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), and delta (1-3 Hz) were analyzed. Normalized TIP amplitudes were compared at the positive peak (0±30°), negative peak (180±30°), and random phase.
At the DLPFC, a significant increase was found in AUC25-250 at the peak of the delta rhythm (Mdn=105.6%) compared to the negative peak (Mdn=93.06%), z=3.99, p
Bansod, Vinita A. Jaglal, Susan B. Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) Framework: Application to the Fracture Fighters Program Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2009-12-16T18:07:40ZThe purpose of this thesis is to apply the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARiHS) framework to a provincial osteoporosis management program to describe unit level factors that may have influenced implementation among participating inpatient rehabilitation units. A toolbox of measures was proposed to operationalize the frameworks elements of evidence, context and facilitation. A cross-sectional survey was completed with clinicians responsible for championing the program and their managers. Results demonstrated that leadership behaviours, organizational climate traits and champion behaviours varied among practice environments indicating that attention to unit level factors outlined by the PARiHS framework could increase the uptake of research evidence in practice. The proposed toolbox could be utilized as a diagnostic and prescriptive tool to identify potential implementation barriers, and guide the selection of appropriate tools/strategies to overcome them. Furthermore, it will enable future studies to provide further empirical support for the PARiHS frameworkMASThealth3
Barbato, Giuseppina Perovic, Doug ||Newman, Roger C. Electrodeposition of Tantalum and Niobium Using Ionic Liquid Materials Science and Engineering2009-12-16T18:13:40ZIonic liquids are molten salts with melting points below 100 °C and they consist entirely of cations and anions. The development of ionic liquids, especially air and water stable types, has attracted extensive attention since they have outstanding physical properties. Part I of the study focused on the pre-electrolysis process performed to remove impurities from the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis(tri-fluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, ([BMP]Tf2N). Part II investigated the electroreduction of TaF5 and NbF5 from room temperature ionic liquid at 100 °C at a wide range of potentials and different time durations for the purpose of determining the optimal conditions for the electrodeposition of tantalum. The study was carried out using potentiostatic polarization for the pre-electrolysis treatments and electrodeposition and cyclic voltammetry to study the behaviour of the liquid at various stages. Potentiostatic depositions were complemented by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) for characterization of the electrodeposits.MASTwater6
Barchet, David KarlKherani, Nazir P Low-Temperature Ozone Native Oxide – Silicon Nitride Bilayer Passivation of the Silicon Surface Electrical and Computer Engineering2015-11Passivation of crystalline silicon is critical for the development of high efficiency, low cost solar cells. The objective of this project is to advance low temperature passivation of silicon substrates for use in photovoltaics and in particular to investigate the recently reported native oxide – silicon nitride bilayer passivation scheme. Specifically, we report on the passivation of silicon using an ozone ambient native oxide – silicon nitride bilayer where the nanometer thin ozone native oxide layer is grown at low temperatures while the silicon nitride layer is deposited at 400oC. Further, we investigate the chemical composition across the crystalline silicon interface. Advanced ion spectroscopy techniques including medium energy ion spectroscopy (MEIS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) are used to determine the resulting compositional layers on the silicon surface as well as the hydrogen concentration in both the film and underlying crystalline silicon substrate.M.A.S.energy7
Bardon, Emma Magnusson, Jamie Lynn Career Goals and Decisions: An Intersectionality Approach Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2013-11-20This project explores the career paths to date of seven graduates of the University of Waterloo’s Mechanical Engineering program, and examines the influences that led them to choose their university program. I particularly considered the participants’ status as members of underrepresented or overrepresented groups, using the contexts of the history of the profession of Mechanical Engineering and prior research on underrepresentation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields. I used semi-structured interviews and an intersectionality framework to investigate aspects of identity, interests, and career influences. I found three key themes among the participants: human influences, including information sources, role models, and mentors; influences of educational and outreach activities; and personal interests and aptitudes. I use the uncovered themes to recommend a combination of future studies and outreach programs.MASTeducat4
Baril, Jonathan-F.Cafazzo, Joseph A The Use of Activity Monitoring and Machine Learning for the Functional Classification of Heart Failure Biomedical Engineering2018-11Background: Assessing the functional status of a heart failure patient is a highly subjective task.
Objective: This thesis aimed to find an accessible, objective means of assessing the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification (FC) of a patient by leveraging modern machine learning techniques.
Methods: We first identified relevant quantitative data and upgraded Medly, a remote patient monitoring system (RPMS), to support data collection. We then proceeded to build six different machine learning classifiers including hidden Markov model, Generalized Linear Model (GLM), random forest and neural network based classifiers.
Results: The best overall classifier was found to be a boosted GLM, which achieved a classification performance (Cohen’s Kappa statistic κ=0.73, balanced accuracy=85%) comparable to human level performance (κ=0.75).
Conclusions: Although the investigated classifiers are not ready for implementation into a real RPMS, they show promise for making the evaluation of NYHA FC more universally consistent and reliable.
Barkley, Erica Patricia Smith, Sandy Insect Communities and Multicohort Stand Structure in Boreal Mixedwood Forests of Northeastern Ontario Forestry2009-12-16T20:34:24ZCurrent forest management in boreal northeastern Ontario results in young, even-aged forests; however, fire history research has found old stands with multiple cohorts of trees are common, supporting the value of Multi-cohort Management. I investigated relationships between insect communities and stand live-tree diameter distribution, cohort class and structure. Results showed that variation in abundances of Carabidae, Diapriidae, Diptera and Hymenoptera were not strongly predicted by cohort class. The concept showed greater strength when parameters of live-tree diameter distributions were used. Forest structure, not age, was important for all communities, including heterogeneity of understory and/or overstory vegetation. Trap height was a strong predictor of aerial insect community structure, with insect abundance higher in the understory than in the canopy. In summary, a more diversified classification approach which includes important habitat features in addition to simple characterization of diameter distributions should be considered to better assess forest structural variation and management.MASTforest15
Barnes, Julia Clare MacDonald, Kenneth The Fiction of Globally Important Biodiversity: The Production of Scale through the Global Environment Facility’s Biodiversity Policy and Programming Geography2010-12-14T21:01:41ZThe gap observed between the rhetoric and reality of biodiversity conservation draws critical attention to the discourse of conservation and to claims that local and global interests can be balanced. In this work, I suggest that the spatial framing of organized biodiversity conservation inhibits attempts to produce such 'balance'. I examine the processes by which biodiversity conservation projects are brought into being through the discursive production of scale within the institutional framework of the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Using five case studies of projects proposed under the GEF’s operational program for agrobiodiversity, I analyze how the GEF brings actors and sites into relation and engages them in the reproduction of articulations of scale through the GEF project cycle. In so doing, I reveal how the mechanisms that structure conservation projects around global goals systematically undermine the claims of situated resource users and prevent questions of justice from being raised.MASTproduction; environment; conserv; biodiversity; institution; justice12, 13, 15, 16
Barr, CaolanFarish, Matt||Ekers, Michael Developing Dispossession: Infrastructure, Cultural Production and Legal Discourse in Treaty 3 Geography2018-11This thesis examines how dispossession was produced for Anishinaabeg communities of Treaty 3 through interlocking processes of legal discourse, cultural production and development. It traces the genealogical origins of infrastructure through a series of dams built across Northwestern Ontario from 1871 until 1926. In Treaty 3, the discursive foundations for infrastructure and development were laid through a series of expeditions and legal decisions that justified and facilitated settler expansion. Likewise, development involved a set of mutually constitutive and reciprocal forms of epistemic, ontological, symbolic and material violence. In this work, I argue that dispossession is structural to settler colonialism and the defining feature which ties a set of seemingly disparate histories and processes together in Treaty 3. Recognizing gaps in the literature and colonial archive, I call for the development of new practices of inquiry that allow us to provincialize and unsettle the normativity of colonial violence and narratives.M.A.production; infrastructure9
Barr, Graham Andrew Burch Lemmens, Trudo Disingenuous or Novel? An Examination of Apology Legislation in Canada Law2009-12-16T18:19:18ZThis Thesis provides an analysis of Apology Legislation in Canada, more specifically focusing on its influence on Canadian Courts & Contracts of Insurance. Apology legislation, as an amendment to the Evidence Act of a province or a stand-alone piece of legislation, was created to restrict the admissibility of acts or words of remorse or benevolence given by one person to another. Apology Legislation in Canada is said to be a positive measure on the road to making the justice system more accessible, affordable and effective. This piece will explore the framework of Apology Legislation in several common law jurisdictions, leading to an examination of the socio-economic and legal benefits it is purported to confer. This Thesis will also consider legal and policy changes that could help to alleviate the burden on the judicial system while contributing to the creation of a safer and more sustainable health care system in Canada.MASThealth; justice3, 16
Barrero Jaramillo, Diana MichelleGaztambide-Fernández, Rubén A Gap-Talk: How the “Achievement Gap” Reproduces Settler Colonial Constructions of Race within the Ontario Public School System Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2018-06The purpose of this study is to explore how the discourse of “achievement gaps” operates within settler colonialism. This study approached critical policy analysis (CPA) through a settler colonial theoretical lens and Critical Race Theory. Together, these theoretical frameworks provide a more comprehensive understanding of the ways in which racism and settler colonialism operate within schools and education institutions. By using critical discourse analysis (CDA), I looked at documents from the Toronto District School Board (TDSB) addressing the achievement and opportunity gaps. This analysis shows how these documents construct the notion of achievement as racialized in a way that upholds white settler property rights. The discourse of achievement gaps functions as a settler technology to include/exclude individuals simultaneously into the settler sector of the population. These findings have significant implications for those in educational policy research and practice interested in examining and addressing issues of power and inequality.M.A.educat; equality; inequality; institution; rights4, 5, 16
Barter, Corina Hillary Wakefield, Sarah Slaughterhouse Rules: Declining Abattoirs and the Politics of Food Safety Regulation in Ontario Geography2014-11In Ontario, farmers wishing to sell their meat locally must have their livestock slaughtered at a provincially-inspected abattoir. While this type of infrastructure plays an essential role in local food supply chains, its significance is often overlooked. Large numbers of these slaughterhouses have been closing in recent years. This thesis investigates this trend by conducting a series of in-depth interviews with stakeholders in order to determine why abattoirs have been closing so rapidly. It reveals that a variety of factors contribute to abattoir decline, including provincial regulation designed to ensure food safety. The food safety rules, which are increasingly aligned with global standards, tend to present a significant financial burden for these businesses. This research concludes that efforts to address this decline could be more effective if the scope of risk analysis were broadened so as to incorporate other values, including those associated with localized food systems.M.A.infrastructure; food2, 9
Barth, Lauren Emily Sprules, William Gary Surface Winds Affect the Movement of Water Currents and Entrained Zooplankton in a Depth Specific Manner Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2014-06-24We deployed depth-specific drifters in the western and eastern parts of the South Arm basin of Lake Opeongo and collected zooplankton samples at west and east fixed stations and at additional up- and downwind locations at three depths of the epilimnion under a range of wind conditions. Water currents had highest association with the immediate wind direction and the direction they travelled was dependent on wind strength. Along the main west-east fetch large zooplankton resided high in the epilimnion and were transported eastwards by strong surface currents where they accumulated. Small zooplankton were more uniformly distributed with depth and their accumulation patterns and transport mechanisms are less clear. Along shorter fetches oriented off-angle with the main one accumulations of zooplankton occurred at all downwind locations under heavy winds although the patterns are more variable and complex. These downwind accumulations likely create high quality habitat for warm water fish.MASTwater; wind; fish6, 7, 14
Bartlett, Mackenzie ColeKrkosek, Martin Minihumps: Characterizing a Coastal British Columbia Kokanee Population Recently Derived due to Anthropogenic Environmental Change Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2017-11Sockeye Salmon have high levels of intraspecific diversity exhibiting multiple life histories and forms that allow it to make use of diverse and dynamic environments. Kokanee is the freshwater resident form of Sockeye Salmon. The Mini Hump Creek kokanee population, which inhabits a coastal lake in British Columbia, shares morphological features similar to the unique Black kokanee ecotype found in three populations from Japan and British Columbia. Unlike black kokanee, Mini Hump Creek kokanee spawn in shallow creeks. The evolution of the Mini Hump kokanee life history and morphological traits are potentially a response to environmental changes including water level changes and barriers to migration, which originated with logging and dam building in the 20th century. Genetic analysis using microsatellites confirms that the population clusters with other coastal kokanee in British Columbia, yet is genetically distinct from the coastal kokanee populations and is independent from other black kokanee populations.M.Sc.environment; water6, 13
Bartlett, Tiffany Anne Feuerverger, Grace Teaching Teachers to Teach Peace: A Reflective Pre-service Case Study Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2009-12-14T15:52:56ZThis thesis explores the relationships between pre-service teacher training, peace education, anti-racism education, gender equity education and conflict resolution. Specifically, this study investigates the mandatory School and Society course within the Initial Teacher Education Program at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, to explore peace education training within the pre-service teacher education program. The methodology employed involves the combination of a curriculum analysis and reflective case study; both are utilized to illustrate the author’s experiences as a pre-service student, and the training received during this program. The findings illustrate that components of a peace education curriculum are observable in the Initial Teacher Education program. There is however, no formal requirement for delivering peace education within the program. As a result, this thesis offers recommendations for the development of formal peace education training in OISE/UT’s pre-service program.MASTeducat; gender; 4, 5
Bartosik, Anna MariaGagnĂŠ, Antoinette International Students' Perceptions of Factors Affecting Academic Success in Post-Secondary Studies Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2017-11This multiple case study examines international students’ perceptions of factors affecting academic success in post-secondary institutions in southern Ontario. The study used snowball sampling and a semi-structured interview format. Various factors in the literature, which are used as a framework for this thesis, demonstrate an influence on international students’ academic preparedness and success. They include: proficiency tests, length of time in host country, prior learning experience, acculturation, tolerance of ambiguity, and motivation. Other factors influencing students’ academic success are EAP programs, faculty and students’ own perceptions of academic preparedness and needs, international student centres, communication with domestic students, and immigration plans. The study revealed that, in addition to the listed factors, participants also identified mental health and identity as influencing factors. The study addresses the gap in existing research by providing a college setting for international students from various nationalities, in a Canadian context, studying in a range of post-secondary programs.M.A.EDUCAT4
Basheir, Andre Walcott, Rinaldo Indo-Caribbean African-isms: Blackness in Guyana and South Africa Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2013-07-10In an attempt to close the gaps between diaspora and regional studies an Afro-Asian comparative perspective on African and Indian identity will be explored in the countries of Guyana and South Africa. The overlying aim of the ethnographic research will be to see whether blackness can be used as a unifier to those belonging to enslaved and indentured diasporas. Comparisons will be made between the two race models of the Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean worlds. A substantial portion will be set aside for a critique of the concept of Coolitude including commentary on V.S. Naipaul. Further, mixing, creolization, spirituality and the cultural politics of Black Consciousness, multiculturalism, and dreadlocks will be exemplified as AfroAsian encounters.MASTinstitution16
Bashir, Nadia Yasmine Lockwood, Penelope ||Chasteen, Alison L. "Green" Doesn't Always Make Good Impressions: Evaluations of Different Types of Environmentalists Psychology2012-12-03In the present research, I examined individuals' evaluative responses toward traditional representations of environmentalists (e.g., tree-huggers and radical activists) as well as less typical but more mainstream environmentalists. Undergraduate students read about one of three types of environmentalists (i.e., radical activist, tree-hugger, or mainstream environmentalist). Participants then rated the extent to which they liked the individual they read about. Results revealed that participants evaluated the tree-hugger and radical activist less favourably than a typical student. In contrast, participants responded as favourably toward the mainstream environmentalist as they did toward a typical student. These findings indicate that individuals have distinct impressions of different types of environmentalists: Whereas mainstream environmentalists may receive favourable evaluations from individuals, stereotypical environmentalists may elicit negative reactions and even alienate members of the public.MASTenvironment13
Bashiri, AmirNg, Dominic Cholesterol Plays a Crucial Role in High-fat-diet Induced ER stress and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Physiology2014-11By comparing C57 mice with two dyslipidemic models, LDL-receptor null (LDLR-/-) and LCAT/LDL-receptor null mice (LCAT-/-xLDLR-/-), our lab showed an observation of ER-membrane cholesterol being necessary to modulate ER-stress in a high-cholesterol-diet feeding paradigm. Here, we hypothesized that hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis plays an important role in mediating high-fat-diet-induced hepatic ER stress and NAFLD. In vivo, we fed C57, LDLR-/-, LCAT-/-xLDLR-/- mice a high-fat-diet for 16 weeks. Markers for hepatic ER-stress, cholesterol biosynthesis, ER-cholesterol, NAFLD and inflammasome were measured. High-fat-diet feeding induced ER-stress, NAFLD, cholesterol biosynthesis, NLRP3 activation and ER-membrane cholesterol accumulation in both C57 and LDLR-/- mice, while LCAT-/-xLDLR-/- mice were protected. In vitro, HepG2 cells were treated with palmitate overnight with/without zaragozic acid (ZA), to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. Treatment with palmitate induced ER-stress, cholesterol biosynthesis and NLRP3 activation, which were abrogated by ZA treatment. These findings implicate the role of cholesterol in nutritional excess-induced hepatic metabolic complications.M.Sc.nutrition2
Basic, Goran Jurisa Barfoot, Timothy D. Power-scavenging Tumbleweed Rover Aerospace Science and Engineering2010-12-14T21:15:17ZMost current space robotics vehicles use solar energy as their prime energy source. In spherical robotic vehicles the use of solar cells is very restricted.
Focusing on the particular problem, an improved method to generate electrical power will be developed; the innovation is the use of an internal pendulum-generator mechanism to generate electrical power while the ball is rolling. This concept will enable spherical robots on future long-duration planetary exploration missions.
Through a developed proof-of-concept prototype, inspired by the Russian thistle plant, or tumbleweed, this thesis will demonstrate power generation capabilities of such a mechanism. Furthermore, it will also present and validate a parametric analytical model that can be used in future developments as a design tool to quantify power and define design parameters. The same model was used to define the design parameters and power generation capabilities of such a system in Martian environment.
MASTenergy; solar; innovation;7, 9
Baskaran, SivaniWania, Frank Model-based Exploration of the Variability in Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) BAFs caused by Physiology and Trophic Relationships Chemistry2018-06Because eating fish is often a major vector of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), much effort is directed towards a quantitative understanding of fish bioaccumulation using mechanistic models. Many such models fail to consider how uptake and loss rate constants relate to fish physiology. Here, we calculate the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of hypothetical POPs, with octanol-water partition coefficients values ranging from 104.5 to 108.5, in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), with a food web bioaccumulation model that uses bioenergetics to ensure that physiological parameters applied to a species are internally consistent and energetically balanced. Fish in six Canadian lakes were modelled to understand what causes the BAFs of differently sized lake trout to vary between and within lakes. Lake trout activity, diet composition, prey contamination levels and the fraction of the total energy intake spent on growth were found to affect the bioaccumulation potential of; pollut; energy; water; food2, 14
Bastawrous, Marina Cameron, Jill When Daughters become Caregivers to a Parent who has Suffered a Stroke: A Qualitative Exploration of how the Parent-to-child Relationship is Associated with Caregiver Well Being Rehabilitation Science2011-12-01Rationale: Many community-dwelling stroke survivors receive care from their family, often daughters. However, we lack in-depth information on the caregiver/care-recipient relationship and its impact on adult daughter caregivers (ADCs).
Objective: To systematically review the caregiving literature and qualitatively explore the pre-and post-stroke parent-to-child relationship and its association with ADCs’ well being.
Method: A qualitative descriptive methodology used in-depth interviews of 23 ADCs. Analyses generated themes.
Findings: Four themes were revealed: 1) The pre-stroke ADC-to-parent relationship is associated with the decision to take on the caregiving role; 2) Changes in the parent-to-child relationship occur as a result of providing care; 3) Changes to an ADC’s relationships with others arises from providing care to a parent and 4) Changes to caregiver lifestyle, outlook and physical and emotional well being arise from caregiving.
Conclusion: There is a need for interventions that focus on role strains and issues related to relationship loss.
MASTwell being3
Bastidas, Ruth Daniela Mantilla Gérin-Lajoie, Diane A Critical Exploration of Parent Involvement in Latin American Parents in Toronto Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2011-08-11This study explores the conceptions and practices of parent involvement in education that exist among Latin American families with students in Toronto Schools. The individual and collective life histories of 3 immigrant families from Latin America were collected in order to understand how parents and students conceive of parents’ role the education of their children. The findings of this research demonstrate that families’ conceptions are much broader and expansive than what is currently defined as parent involvement within policy and practice in Ontario and are informed by their educational trajectory in their home country and throughout the migration process and their ideas on education. This research serves to shed light on the experiences of Latin American families in their interactions with educational institutions and gives voice to their experiences, ideas and aspirations in their new home.MASTeducat;4
Bastien, Véronique Trebilcock, Michael Developing Countries and Challenges of Climate Change-related PPMs within WTO Institutions Law2013-11-21I present the current state of the debate surrounding processes and production methods (PPMs) related to climate change in the context of developing countries and their relationship with the WTO institutions, both the dispute settlement bodies and the committees. The analysis first outlines a topography of PPMs and three interconnected features: their economic feature, their public policy objectives and their extraterritorial nature. It then examines the consistency of PPMs with the principle of national treatment under WTO law and assesses how the WTO institutions have dealt with the conflictual nexus of climate change and trade as reflected in PPMs. Using three contemporary case studies of climate change related PPMs, I illustrate the effectiveness, and lack thereof, of the WTO institutions on this matter. Lastly, I explore developing countries’ participation in the WTO institutions in regard to climate change PPMs.MASTinstitution; climate; production; trade8, 10, 13, 16
Batsos, Constantine Quiñonez, Carlos Dental Treatment Workload and Cost of Newly Enrolled Personnel in the Canadian Forces Dentistry2010-12-14T21:16:35ZAim: To describe and analyze the demographic profile and the dental treatment needs, workload and costs of the 2007 and 2008 CF recruit population (N=10,641). Method: Treatment procedures and costs were aggregated and calculated, beginning from the date of a member’s enrolment, over a period that ranged between 13 to 36 months. Associations between treatment services and the demographic variables were tested using one-way ANOVA and chi-square tests. Independent samples T-test was used to compare means. Linear regression models were used to determine the influence of demographic variables on treatment cost. Results: Treatment needs and costs varied with recruit age, gender, rank, first language (French/English), birthplace (Canada/Foreign), tobacco use, province and census tract. The cost of treatment for the entire population was $13.9M. Mean cost per recruit was $1224 over an average period of 26 months. Outsource costs ($2.9M) were driven by referrals for restorative, endodontic and oral surgery procedures.MASTgender5
Battram, Nicholas Simpson, Myrna J. Organic Matter Biomarker Fingerprinting of Glacial Deposits Chemistry2013-07-11The goal of this thesis was to test the applicability of biomarker analyses to better understand the glacial stratigraphic record of the Hudson Bay Lowlands and Oak Ridges Moraine. A biomarker analysis conducted on three geologic deposits from the Hudson Bay Lowlands showed that they can be differentiated based on organic matter (OM) inputs and stage of diagenesis, relating to paleoclimate and depositional environments. In the second study, a biomarker analysis was applied to samples from ten deposits in the Oak Ridges Moraine. These deposits were differentiated based on OM inputs relating to paleovegetation. Additionally, reincorporation and post-deposition alteration led to sample heterogeneity confirming the current understanding of glacial depositional processes and environments. This thesis shows that biomarker analyses can effectively differentiate and contextualize geologic deposits based on OM inputs and stage of diagenesis. This in turn will provide a more robust understanding of the stratigraphic record.MASTclimate; environment13
Bautista, Jennifer AnneNovak, Alison C The Effect of Walkway Incline Angle on Balance Control in Healthy Older Adults and Ankle Foot Orthosis Wearers with Lower Motor Neuron Pathologies Rehabilitation Science2019-11Navigating a slope carries additional demands compared to level ground, that may be amplified in older adults or individuals with mobility impairments. This study intends to understand the effect of walkway incline angle on balance control in healthy older adults and ankle foot orthosis (AFO) wearers. Twelve healthy older adults (>60 years of age) and four AFO wearers (>60 years of age) ascended and descended slopes ranging from 0° to 8°. AFO wearers completed the protocol with and without their AFOs. Older adults and AFO wearers had a minimum margin of stability that was larger during descent and less during ascent. AFO wearers walked more cautiously, with a wider stance and larger margin of stability in the anterior direction. The results may provide clinicians with information on how orthosis use affects dynamic balance during sloped gait and provides a basis for future work informing environmental design.M.Sc.innovation9
Baxter, Jo-Anna BernadetteZlotkin, Stanley||Roth, Daniel Preference and Acceptability of Alternative Delivery Vehicles for Prenatal Calcium Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Bangladesh Nutritional Sciences2013-11In populations with low dietary calcium intake, prenatal calcium supplementation is recommended by the WHO to decrease the risk of hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. This study evaluated preference and acceptability for four different calcium delivery vehicles (conventional tablets, chewable tablets, unflavoured powder, and flavoured powder) among pregnant women in urban Bangladesh. Participants (n=132) completed a 4-day run-in period in which each vehicle was sampled once, followed by a 21-day selection period during which participants were free to select a vehicle of their choice on each day. The probability that participants selected the conventional tablets was greatest (62%), followed by chewable tablets (19%), flavoured powder (12%), unflavoured powder (5%), and no delivery vehicle (2%). The present assessment of participants’ actual supplement use and expressed perceptions of acceptability suggested that a tablet formulation is likely to be the most appropriate calcium delivery vehicle for future use in field studies and scale-up planning.MASThealth; WOMEN3, 5
Baxter, Matthew Acosta, Edgar Surfactant and Adhesive Formulations from Alkaline Biomass Extracts Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2013-11-15This work studies the ability to produce effective surfactant and adhesive formulations using surface active biological material extracted from different biomass sources using alkaline extraction methods. Two urban waste biomass sources were used to produce surfactants, Return Activated Sludge (RAS), and solid Urban Refuse (UR). The third biomass source investigated was isolated mustard protein (MP). RAS and MP extracts were investigated for adhesive production.

The results indicate that extracts from the waste biomass sources, RAS and UR, can be combined with a commercial surfactant, sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), to produce surfactants with low interfacial tensions against various oils. These highly surface-active formulations were shown to be useful in the removal of bitumen from contaminated sand.

RAS and MP showed potential as protein-based wood adhesives. These sources were used in adhesive formulations to produce a strong bond strength under low-pressure, ambient pressing conditions.
MASTwaste; ; urban12, 13
Baykara, Yuce Dubber, Markus Aquitted with an Asterisk: Implementing the "New Double Jeopardy" Exception into Canadian Law Law2012-11-20Since the end of the 20th century the protection better known to all as double jeopardy has been under attack. With public pressure put on the United Kingdom government to address individuals who had been acquitted of violent crimes, the Labour government implemented a radical overhaul of common law criminal procedural protections. The reform created an exception to double jeopardy, allowing re-prosecution of acquitted individuals. Many of the commonwealth countries starting with Australia took the U.K. exceptions and adopted them into their own criminal justice systems. This paper is going to look at the exception created, and the factors that lead to the bypass of such a critical legal protection throughout the commonwealth nations. Then analyze the current state of double jeopardy in Canada to determine if such and exception is needed; or if any factors from the exception can be adapted to strengthen the Canadian criminal justice system.MASTlabour; justice8, 16
Beaulieu, Teresa Stewart, Suzanne Exploring Indigenous and Western therapeutic integration: Perspectives and experiences of Indigenous Elders Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-08-11The purpose of this study was to document the perspectives and experiences of five Indigenous Elders on the potential for Indigenous and Western healing paradigms and practices to be integrated in mental health service delivery for Indigenous peoples. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were held with each participant, and a narrative analysis was used to generate research themes and findings. Results indicated that all five Elders perceived a potential for Indigenous and Western approaches and practitioners to work collaboratively together in the future, and Elders reported varying levels of experience with integrated healthcare delivery. However, all five Elders identified numerous issues requiring attention and steps to be taken prior to integrated practice taking place. These included the need to reclaim Indigenous knowledge, an acceptance and respect for Indigenous knowledge and practices by the Western healthcare system, and the need for increased and formalized education related to Indigenous knowledge and healing approaches.MASTeducat; health3, 4
Beca, Jaclyn Hoch, Jeffrey ||Khan, Kamran Should Hepatitis B Screening Be Added to the United States Immigration Medical Exam? A Cost-utility Model Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2010-12-14T21:20:40ZHepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global leading cause of death as a result of its role in the development of cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In industrialized nations such as the United States, chronic hepatitis B infection represents a significant and disproportionate disease burden among the foreign-born population. A Markov cohort decision model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of HBV screening
among new immigrants for the purposes of early detection and treatment, as compared to usual care. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the screening strategy was $45,570 per quality adjusted
life year saved. Given the potential for health gains for the immigrant cohort as well as the economic attractiveness of the intervention, some consideration should be given to the addition of a universal HBV screening program to U.S. immigration policy.
MASThealth; industr3, 9
Bechard, Lauren ElizabethBlack, Sandra E Physical Activity Participation in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Rehabilitation Science2017-11This document explores how older adults with cognitive impairment and their caregivers experience and perceive physical activity (PA) and their health beliefs concerning PA. Ten care dyads, consisting of one community-dwelling adult aged 65 years or older diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or mild-to-moderate Alzheimerâ s Disease (AD) and one familial caregiver, were selected to participate in this qualitative study. Information on weekly PA levels, apathy, and apathy-associated distress were collected using questionnaires. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore the PA experiences, beliefs, and perceptions of dyad members. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts yielded four emergent themes: (1) PA as a meaningful activity, (2) Feeling is more important than thinking, (3) Participation is possible despite dementia, and (4) Caregivers as enablers. Findings from this thesis address a current gap in the literature concerning the value and use of PA for health promotion by older adults with cognitive impairment.M.Sc.health3
Beck, Kristen K. Finkelstein, Sarah A. A Holocene Paleolimnological Record from the Turkey Lakes Watershed Long-term Monitoring Site in Central Ontario, Canada Geography2013-07-11A Holocene lake sediment record spanning 7300 years from Wishart Lake, in the Turkey Lakes Watershed central Ontario, was produced to determine the main drivers of long-term change in the lake ecosystem. The mid-Holocene sediments are dominated by benthic diatoms, around 4000 yrs BP, diatoms in the genera Cyclotella and Tabellaria increase. Comparisons with nearby pollen records show that changes in local vegetation and diatom assemblages occurred synchronously, suggesting a response to nutrient changes caused by vegetation succession. The most recent sediments, dated using activity of 210Pb and the Ambrosia pollen rise, show increases in planktonic Cyclotella spp., particularly around the Ambrosia rise (1880 AD). Thus, the diatom changes in the recent sediments suggest a response to multiple stressors. However, due to some buffering capacity in watershed soil, recent acidification of the lake has not taken place despite nearby industrial air pollution, tracked since 1980 by an on-site monitoring program.MASTwater; industr; pollut6, 9, 12
Becker, Alexander Kronzucker, Herbert The Involvement of Aquaporins in Ammonia/Ammonium Transport across Root Cell Membranes of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2011-05-27T18:52:04ZUsing the short-lived radiotracer 13N, we examined the hypothesis that toxic, futile ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4+) fluxes at high external concentrations are mediated by ammonia-transporting aquaporins in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants. Effects of the aquaporin inhibitors zinc, copper, mercury, gold, silver, hydrogen peroxide, propionic acid, and nitrogen gas supported this hypothesis. Further tests with these inhibitors showed that changes in plant water potential and water content could be linked to NH3/NH4+ fluxes. An increase in external pH, causing an increase of NH3 in the nutrient solution, resulted in large increases of 13N influx, which can only be explained in energetic terms if the transported solute is neutrally charged. Taken together, the evidence here strongly supports the proposed hypothesis.MASTwater6
Becker, Sarah Dubber, Markus A Glimpse into the Future? The Current, Potential, and Appropriate Role of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) Evidence as a Predictor of Dangerousness in the American Criminal Sentencing Context Law2013-11-21Research suggests there are neurological predictors of violence, such as brain function abnormalities most frequently displayed by violent offenders who may suffer from a psychological phenomenon termed “psychopathy.” Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can detect signs of some of these brain abnormalities. Neurological markers of violence, evident in a convicted individual’s fMRI results, could speak to that offender’s tendency to act violently in the future. Can fMRI play a meaningful role in estimating recidivism rates and in sentencing? Even if fMRI evidence meets legal thresholds for use in sentencing, should it be employed in light of many concerns, such as reliability, as the implications of predicting an individual’s dangerousness based on fMRI evidence are substantial, especially in the context of defendant rights. Moreover, neurological indicators of violence may undermine a holistic approach to sentencing that considers the convicted individual’s particular story.MASTrights16
Begaliyev, Rinat Alarie, Benjamin Income Tax Treatment of Credit Swaps in Canada: Enhancing Tax Neutrality Law2009-12-16T18:24:13ZThis study examines the issue of tax neutrality of the income tax treatment of credit swaps in Canada in domestic context. It analyzes the applicable tax regime consisting of rules on tax characterization, timing and tax rates through the lenses of symmetry, consistency and certainty approaches. The study argues that the Canadian tax policy focuses on achieving symmetry in income tax treatment, rather than consistency. This is because introducing consistency would contradict the fundamental principles of the Canadian law. The study finds that the current tax regime is only partially neutral because symmetry has not been achieved in respect to credit swaps entered between non-financial organizations. To enhance symmetry, the study proposes to adopt a mandatory mark-to-market basis of taxation of credit swaps for the non-financial organizations. Further, to make income tax treatment more certain, the study proposes that the CRA should issue a non-binding guidance on credit swaps.MASTtaxation10
Behdinan, TinaVoineskos, Aristotle N Dissecting Shared and Unique Neural Circuitry Underlying Negative Symptoms, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Medical Science2015-11Schizophrenia is a devastating illness with significant disability and poor long-term clinical and functional outcome. Negative symptoms and social cognitive impairments are two key symptom domains that affect functional outcome in schizophrenia. This thesis explores the shared and unique neural circuitry related to negative symptoms, social cognition, and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In study one, the relationship between white matter fractional anisotropy, negative symptoms, and functional outcome in schizophrenia participants was investigated. Study two includes a broad sample of patient and healthy control populations, which is in line with the RDoC methodology. In this study, the relationship between white matter tracts implicated in functional outcome and social cognitive domains was investigated in a sample of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy control participants on a continuum of social cognitive performance. Taken together, these studies elucidate circuitry that may be impaired in schizophrenia, and may represent neurobiological correlates of negative symptoms, social cognition, and functional outcome.M.Sc.health3
Behrooz, ElaheChvartszaid, David||Azarpazhooh, Amir A Retrospective Analysis of Multiple Dental Implant Failures Dentistry2019-11Purpose: To identify and compare possible risk indicators associated with failure of multiple versus single dental implants
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients with more than one implant who had experienced biological failure of one or more implants at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto (January 1979 to June 2018). Data was used to identify possible factors associated with multiple dental implant failures and compare these factors between individuals with single and multiple implant failures. Associations between various factors and multiple implant failure were reported.
Results: Excluding history of implant failure, the following factors were found to be associated with MIF: machined surfaces, post-operative infections, presence of certain prostheses opposing the implant, periodontitis, alcohol consumption, history of chemotherapy, and use of antidepressants.
Conclusions: Provision of implant-based care for patients presenting with factors associated with multiple implant failure should be undertaken with caution.
Bell, Andrew James Stewart Blaney Thomson, Murray J. Design of a Catalytic Combustor for Pure Methanol and HTPEM Fuel Cell Anode Waste Gas Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2012-07-24Transportation sector CO2 emissions contribute to global warming. Methanol generated from clean energy sources has been proposed as a transportation fuel as an alternative to gasoline or diesel to
reduce emissions. Catalytic methanol-steam reformers can be combined with high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (HTPEM) fuel cell systems to create compact electrical power modules which run on liquid methanol. These modules combine the efficiency of a fuel cell system
with the convenience of using a traditional, liquid hydrocarbon fuel.
Catalytic methanol-steam reformers require a heat source as the methanol-steam reforming process is endothermic. The heat source for this system will initially be from the catalytic combustion of either pure methanol, during startup, or from HTPEM fuel cell anode waste gas during system
operation. Efficient use of catalyst requires effective premixing of the fuel and air. This study will investigate parameters affecting premixing and their effect on temperature distributions and emissions.
MASTenergy; waste; global warming7, 12, 13
Bellin, Ashley R.Gilbert, Richard E The Impact of Catalytically Inactive Sirt1 on Age-Associated Cardio-Renal Dysfunction Medical Science2017-11Aging is one key risk factor that leads to kidney and cardiovascular disease; however, little is known about the pathogenesis of these age-related disorders. One potential target is the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) enzyme, which has been shown to mediate health span extension. While Sirt1 activation may attenuate the aging process, we hypothesized that a reduction in Sirt1 activity will accelerate age-related cardio-renal disease. Wild type mice were compared with Sirt1Y/Y mice, known to have undetectable Sirt1 catalytic activity, at 4 weeks and 14 months of age. Compared to their wild type counterparts, Sirt1Y/Y mice had lower glomerular filtration rates, fewer glomeruli, and abnormal measures of cardiac contractility. Interestingly, diminished Sirt1 activity during development plays a role in glomerular endowment. These catalytically inactive Sirt1 mice also provide a model of cardiac aging. Therefore, strategies that increase Sirt1 activity may provide a new approach to treating cardio-renal disease.M.Sc.health3
Belore, Melanie Kidd, Bruce ||Donnelly, Peter "Young Women Growing Graciously": Considering Sport, Gender and Development in Diasporic Space Exercise Sciences2011-12-01This thesis aims to expand our understanding of the relationship between gender, sport and development. Specifically, it asks 1) how a sport, gender and development program is conceptualized and deployed by members of a young Somali-Canadian women’s group in Toronto, Canada and 2) if female participation in sport is thought to contribute to new gender norms, roles and relationships within such a diaspora community. Working within a postcolonial/transnational feminist framework, the thesis utilizes focus group interviews and engages with issues of power, representation and knowledge production. The findings shed light on the influences that have both informed and constrained this particular community initiative, as well as the possibilities and limitations of using sport to negotiate new gender norms, roles
and relationships within the Somali diaspora. In conclusion, several recommendations are made to researchers and practitioners invested in the burgeoning field of international sport for development.
MASTgender; women; 5
Beltempo, Christopher André Hansen, Jorn S. Cost Based Design Optimization of a Laminated Plate Aerospace Science and Engineering2009-02-24T15:07:22ZThe focus of this thesis is to introduce a proof-of-concept illustrating the integration of cost and performance as primary design drivers for structural design. Of particular interest to the
aerospace industry is laminated structural design, therefore an example problem of a laminated plate structure is selected. This
problem presents two primary challenges: linking cost in as general a way as possible to the design variables, and dealing with the many discrete design options available in a laminated plate. The first issue is examined by using a theoretical cost model for advanced composite fabrication and using a Direct Operating Cost model. The second issue is addressed using a gradient based optimization algorithm and a Discrete Material Optimization (DMO) method, which
is typically used in topology optimization of structures.
Bemby, SpandanLeon-Garcia, Alberto Orchestration over Heterogeneous Infrastructures Electrical and Computer Engineering2016-11The future cloud ecosystem will be very diverse. On account of differences in offerings,
prices, and locations, resource allocations may span multiple public cloud providers and
include private resource pools in the form of virtual customer premise edges. Additionally,future applications will require more powerful networking paradigms like software-defined networking (SDN), which provide a centralized and fine-grained view of the network. When considering private resource pools, we must extend the notion of SDN to other resource types and consider software-defined infrastructure (SDI)- a resource management approach that converges the management of heterogeneous resource types and provides a centralized view over all resources. This work proposes Vino, a system for managing resources in heterogeneous domains (public and private clouds) as well as orchestration over these heterogeneous infrastructures. Additionally, Vino enables SDI capabilities on arbitrary clouds by leveraging overlay networks. We design, prototype and evaluate the Vino system, capable of handling the aforementioned tasks.
Benedikt, DahliaSimon, Robert Shomeric Islands: Youth Forming Critical Pedagogies in the New Millennium Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2018-06This research engages Toronto youth in explorative discussions on the educational community framework of the Hashomer Hatzair socialist Jewish youth movement, as an approach to critical pedagogy conducted by and for young people. Employing a practitioner inquiry methodology, the study positions movement members as insiders and knowledgeable practitioners of their common context who engage with central questions related to education and social organization, including raising critically equipped leaders with a drive to incite change. Presented as a multilayered narrative that weaves together community dialogues, the study begins with an illustration of the movement’s modal features, and subsequently documents reflections among Hashomer Hatzair youth educators on their work to move beyond existing arrangements of educational practice in the modern neoliberal era. Findings reveal the significance of centring youth and others from the periphery as seasoned critical partners in fostering local change and resistance.M.A.educat4
Beniwal, DivyamAndrews, Robert C Ozone/Peroxide Advanced Oxidation in Combination with Biofiltration for Taste and Odour Control and Organics Removal Civil Engineering2017-06Ozone (O3) prior to biofiltration can be an effective treatment strategy to achieve multiple drinking water quality goals. These goals include primary disinfection, improved removal of biodegradable organic carbon (generated as a result of ozonation), and oxidation of geosmin and MIB. However, O3 efficiency is dependent on source water characteristics, which impacts performance. This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of advanced oxidation incorporating O3 and hydrogen peroxide/ozone (H2O2/O3) with biofiltration (containing biologically active carbon (BAC) and anthracite) for geosmin and MIB control and disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor reduction.
Application of 0.2 H2O2/O3 (mg/mg) prior to BAC resulted in optimal MIB and geosmin removal, especially in cold-water conditions (T = 10°C). In warmer temperatures (22°C), BAC alone was a suitable treatment technology for both geosmin and MIB. In terms of DBP precursor reduction, 0.1 H2O2/O3 (mg/mg) in combination with BAC was found to be the most effective treatment strategy with 37% THM and 10% HAA precursor reductions.
Bennett, SarahMcDougall, Douglas Benefits and Challenges of Teacher Professional Learning in a Mathematics Intervention Study in the Early Years (JK-Grade 2) Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-06Research shows spatial reasoning and an early start to mathematics are key predictors of later school success. This thesis explores educator learning in a professional learning intervention study, focusing on spatial reasoning tasks. A team of JK-Grade 2 teachers, early childhood educators and a math coach spent time implementing a series of playful, research-developed spatial reasoning tasks in mathematics. Educator learning throughout this process was considered, with particular focus on two cases: a kindergarten teacher and a math coach. Results indicate several benefits to educator learning, including learning by observing children, through implementation of research-developed tasks, about mathematics content, and through personal reflection. The co-creation of tasks was highlighted as extremely important for educator learning. It is important for educators to co-create tasks instead of simply implementing existing ones. This intervention study also highlighted some challenges of teacher professional learning, including time, administrator support, educator perceptions and implementation of tasks.M.A.educat4
Benoit, AnitaLoutfy, Mona Association between Stress and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence among Women Living with HIV in Toronto, Ontario: Assessment of Correlates, Mediation and Moderation Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2015-03This cross-sectional study sought to: "Determine the association between stress, depression and ART adherence among women living with and accessing care for HIV in Toronto, Ontario, between 2007 and 2012". Using OCS data, logistic regression models were used to identify covariates of (≥95%) adequate adherence and mediators and moderators in the association between stress and adherence. Among 307 women, 34.5% and 65.5% had poor and adequate adherence, respectively. Women with poor versus adequate adherence had more reports of hazardous alcohol use, stress events and depressive symptoms. No hazardous alcohol use (aOR=2.20, 95%CI:1.12-4.32) and fewer stress events (aOR=0.56, 95%CI:0.33-0.94) were associated with increased odds of adequate adherence. The association between environmental stress and adequate adherence was attenuated among women ≤35 years (aOR=0.73, 95%CI:0.56-0.94) versus ≥45 years (aOR=0.51, 95%CI:0.34-0.77). Interventions to improve adherence and ensure levels ≥95% must address stress and promote adaptive coping strategies to reduce or eliminate hazardous alcohol use.M.Sc.women5
Bensimon, KiraLanctôt, Krista The Inflammatory and Neuroanatomical Factors Involved in Post-stroke Depression Pharmacology2013-11-21This cross-sectional study examined neurobiologic correlates of depression in ischemic stroke patients. Depression severity was measured with a standardized scale (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D). Eighty-two patients (53.1% male, mean (± SD) age 71.9 ± 14.2 years, mean
(± SD) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score 4.6±4.7, mean (± SD) CES-D score 12.6 ± 10.8) were recruited. A linear regression controlling for age and stroke severity (NIHSS) determined that the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (β= -0.105, p=0.369) was not significantly associated with CES-D (primary hypothesis) (overall model R2=0.069, F3,73=1.805, p=0.154). Secondary analyses suggested one instance of cytokines favouring inflammatory states in mild depressive symptomatology; IFN-Ɣ/IL-10 (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.02-4.64, p=0.045). For the most part however, inclusion of cytokines and neuroimaging correlates such as atrophy, lesion location and white matter changes were non-significant. Longitudinal studies are necessary to identify the possible neurobiologic correlates of depressive symptoms post-stroke.
Bent, Margaret Bencze, Larry A Peaceful Partnership? A Qualitative Case Study of Three IB English A1 Teachers' Conceptions of Peace Education at an IB World School in Peru Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2009-12-14T15:54:22ZThe International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, renowned for its academic rigor, is also committed to forwarding the larger organization’s mission of creating “a better and more peaceful world” through education. This qualitative case study explores the conceptions of peace education held by three IB Diploma English A1 teachers, the factors that shaped those conceptions, and possible obstacles to teaching for peace in an international school. A framework of peace education as distilled from an extensive literature review and Johan Galtung’s definitions of peace provide the study’s theoretical foundation. Using observations, document analysis, and semi-structured interviews, this study examines teachers’ concepts of peace, pedagogical practices, and approaches to peace education within the context of an A1 classroom and an IB World School. The findings conclude that teachers’ conceptions of peace education are shaped by personal factors such as prior experiences and pedagogical content knowledge, and not by official IB documents.MASTeducat; peace4, 16
Bereza, Basil G. Einarson, Thomas Ray A Cost of Illness Study of Generalized Anxiety DisorderI in Canada Pharmaceutical Sciences2010-12-14T21:34:17ZBackground: Economic evaluations of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been limited to ≤18 months. A decision model was developed; quantifying the lifetime cost-of-illness (COI) of GAD.
Methods: An incidence-based Markov-model was developed using TreeAge® software, reflecting 9 health-states (HS): physician-assessed patients (3HS), maintenance therapies(4HS), discontinuation(1HS) and death(1HS). Onset probability (ages 18-80) determined model entry. Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) guidelines determined pharmaco-therapy, with revisions/validation by an expert panel. Response, remission based on pooled-analysis of CPA-cited evidence. Remaining clinical rates, absenteeism and hospitalization retrieved from literature. Direct (clinician, pharmacotherapy, hospitalization) and indirect costs (wage rate) retrieved from government publications. Results discounted at 5%.
Results: The mean COI was 2008 Canadian $31,213(SD=$9,100)/patient; 96% attributed to absenteeism. Mean age=31years, discontinued treatment=85% by 2nd year, treatment discontinuation duration, 14(SD=9) years.
CONCLUSION: GAD is a costly disease with a lifetime COI<$32k/patient; absenteeism exerts a significant impact. Limited prospective data contributes to uncertainty of estimate.
Berezuk, Courtney JaneZakzanis, Konstantine K On the Nature of Functional Reserve: Experience in Activities of Daily Living may be Associated with Sex Differences and Delayed Functional Impairment Psychological Clinical Science2017-11Given the limited research comparing men and women in terms of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), this research examined sex differences cross-sectionally and longitudinally with data from the Alzheimerâ s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Furthermore, the influence of IADL experience was included as a proxy measure of functional reserve. All participants had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline. Linear regression, mixed-effects modeling, and chi-square analyses were conducted. Female sex was associated with superior IADL functioning at baseline, although no sex difference was found in the rate of decline. However, once IADL experience was included in regression analysis, this baseline sex difference was no longer significant. Furthermore, IADL experience was associated with superior functioning at baseline and a slower decline longitudinally. Moreover, experience within specific IADLs was associated with independence in other, unrelated activities. This research supports the notion that performing IADLs may have a protective influence on functioning with neurodegeneration.M.A.women5
Berger, IvonaKirsh, Bonnie Exploring the Needs of Cancer Survivors When Returning to or Staying in the Workforce Rehabilitation Science2018-11Cancer survivors have strong personal desires to resume work to feel productive and meet financial needs. However, they may be faced with physical and psychological challenges. This research aims to: examine cancer survivors’ perspectives on supports needed when returning to work; investigate sex and gender differences when returning to work; and explore demographic and employment factors that may influence this process. An exploratory qualitative design was used. The study had two phases: focus groups and one-on-one semi-structured interviews. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The total sample includes 15 participants, 87% female and 13% male. Key themes include: changing perspectives on self and work; managing work and social systems; determining disclosure and accommodation; and the importance of supports for return to work and daily life. This study informs cancer rehabilitation research by developing an understanding of the supports needed to help cancer survivors return to work successfully.M.Sc.gender5
Berkel, Samuel van Pressnail, D Kim Residential Ventilation: A Review of Established Systems and a Laboratory Investigation of the Fine Wire Heat Recovery Ventilator Civil Engineering2014-11The fine wire HRV is a novel concept for decentralized residential ventilation heat recovery using thin copper wires to transfer sensible energy between supply and exhaust airstreams. The HRV can be incorporated into the building envelope, in effect creating a "breathing wall" ideally suited to demand controlled ventilation.Performance testing conducted in the laboratory indicates that fan electricity consumption was as low as 1.1 W per L/s, while sensible heat recovery efficiency was as high as 82%. Overall, the fine wire HRV is comparable to the top 5% of HRVs available in North America. When used in conjunction with demand controlled ventilation, the modeled ventilation heating load was reduced by 61% and the total heating load was reduced by 17%. Fan electricity consumption was also reduced by 61%, corresponding to a reduction in household electricity use of roughly 5%. Additional modeling and field installations are recommended.M.A.S.energy7
Bernknopf, BaileySimmons, Craig A Characterization of Sex Differences in Aortic Valve Disease in Mice Biomedical Engineering2019-11Aortic valve disease has recently been shown to have sex-specific pathobiology, where female valves experience more fibrosis and less calcification than male valves despite similar levels of stenosis. To investigate whether these differences were mirrored in a mouse model, six-week old male and female Ldlr-/-;ApoB100/100 mice were fed high fat diet to induce valve disease. After four or eight months on diet, blood lipid and sex hormone levels were measured, valve function was assessed by echocardiography, and valve leaflet tissues were analyzed (immuno)histochemically and by polarized light microscopy to assess valve morphology and content. Males on high fat diet for eight months had more valvular dysfunction than females on diet, however male and female valve leaflets did not differ in size, thickness, or collagen content. However, polarized microscopy indicated more collagen remodelling in the base of the male leaflets compared to females, which could affect healthy valve mechanics. This study provides the first characterization of sex differences in a mouse model and sex-specific structural differences that relate to level of valve dysfunction.M.A.S.health3
Berry, Debra Stiegelbauer, Suzanne How has Character Education been Implemented at the School Level at an Ontario Sample School Board? Theory and Policy Studies in Education2009-12-11T21:08:02ZThis paper explores character educations policy documents from two Ontario school boards as well as several published articles that report on results from research related to implementation of character education programs in Ontario and the United States. This paper examines the connection between school board documents of two school boards with the Ontario Ministry of Education character education initiative that was put in place during the 2008-09 school year. It also includes interviews with three principals at one school-board as to how they approached implementation of character education and its relationship to the goal of the school and provincial policy directives.MASTeducat4
Bertoia, Corinne ElizabethAndrews, Susan||Andrews, Robert Removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) Precursors During Drinking Water Treatment Civil Engineering2018-06Technologies that are effective for natural organic matter and contaminant removal (i.e., coagulation) have been largely unsuccessful for the removal of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and its precursors. A growing number of drinking water treatment plants that use chloramines for secondary disinfection have reported NDMA in finished water due to the reaction of chloramines with small nitrogen-containing molecules such as dimethylamine (DMA). This research examined the impact of pilot-scale biofilter operation on NDMA formation potential. The results of this study suggest that the use of biofiltration provides removal of NDMA precursors, regardless of filter operation. Ranitidine was also spiked at pilot scale to evaluate the ability of biofilters to remove a specific NDMA precursor and to confirm results using ambient influent waters. No significant difference (α = 0.05) was found in terms of NDMA FP removal due to filter operation strategy or empty bed contact time (EBCT).M.A.S.water6
Bessho, Yuko Coloma, Roland Sintos ||Kathy, Bickmore Japan's Colonized Other: A Case Study of the Media Representations on the Deportation of a Filipino Family Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2010-07-21T19:49:22ZThis research investigates Japanese society's gaze towards those former colonized subjects, who now reside in Japan as foreign residents. More specifically, it explores the representations, in two leading Japanese newspapers and a popular internet discussion board, of a Filipino family facing deportation in 2009. Using Foucault's archaeology of knowledge as the main analytical framework, it examines emergent and silenced discourses in each media. While the newspapers generally reported in favour of the family, they often unintentionally constructed the child as innocent, and the parents as illegal. The internet discussion board tended to depict the family as criminals. By silencing the colonial history between the Philippines and Japan, both media outlets have failed to address the continuing neo-colonial relationships between the two nations. In conclusion, the various implications of this research on the strategies advocating citizenship rights of irregular residents are examined, by applying anti-oppressive education frameworks to the research findings.MASTrights16
Bevilacqua, Victoria Adeli, Khosrow Pediatric Population Reference Value Distributions for Cancer Biomarkers: A CALIPER Study of Healthy Community Children Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology2014-11As part of CALIPER program, a national research initiative aimed at closing the gaps in pediatric reference intervals, I sought to develop a database of covariate-stratified reference intervals in children for 11 circulating tumor markers in accordance with CLSI C28-A3 guidelines. Healthy children from birth to 18 years were recruited to participate in CALIPER and serum samples from 400-700 subjects were analyzed on the Abbott Architect ci4100 TM. Significant fluctuations in biomarker concentrations by age and/or gender were observed in 10 of 11 biomarkers. Age partitioning was required for CA 15-3, CA 125, CA 19-9, CEA, SCC, ProGRP, Total Free PSA, HE4 and AFP, and gender partitioning was required for CA 125, CA 19-9, Total Free PSA. The establishment of these reference intervals will aid in harnessing the full potential of tumor markers in a pediatric population and in research aimed at determining the clinical value of these markers.M.Sc.health3
Beyene, Menilek SisayCadotte, Marc W Exploring the Urban Forest: Evidence of Tree Condition Change across Toronto’s Environmental Gradient Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2020-06Increasing urbanization creates environmental impacts on flora, fauna, and human populations. Urban trees provide mitigating services that may be maximized by understanding environmental stressors that impact tree health. I explored the relationship between tree condition and urban landcover as evidence of urban stressors. Tree morphology, canopy condition, and insect abundance were expected to vary across an urban land cover gradient, at different spatial scales, and between native/exotic species. These responses were explored in Tilia americana, Tilia cordata, Acer platanoides and Acer saccharnium in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Specific spatial scales and environmental variables better explained changes in tree response variables. My results suggest Tilia species were more tolerant of urban conditions. Differences between species were described by genera suggesting species trait similarity may determine environmental suitability. Maximizing service provision requires interspecific stress expression consideration. Further research will explore soil conditions, socio-economic factors, and environmental remote sensing in urban tree condition modelling.M.Sc.environment; urban11, 13
Bhandari, ApoorvaBlumberger, Daniel M Evaluating the Neurophysiological Effects of Late-life Depression using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Medical Science2016-11Background: Depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders in adults aged 60 and over. Young depressed adults demonstrate dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission and impaired neuroplasticity. However, an understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying late-life depression (LLD) is lacking.
Methods: This study aimed to evaluate transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) measures of cortical inhibition, excitation, and neuroplasticity in 67 LLD patients and 39 healthy non-psychiatric controls aged 60 and over.
Results: No differences were found for cortical inhibition or excitation between depressed patients and controls. LLD patients demonstrated impaired neuroplasticity induction compared to a baseline value of 1mV; however, when compared to controls depressed patients showed no significant plasticity deficits.
Conclusions: Our findings provide indirect support for the age-by-disease hypothesis for LLD, which posits that with age the brain advances into a physiological state that promotes susceptibility to LLD. Further research is required to understand the pathophysiology of LLD.
Bhaskaran, Ganesh Newman, Roger C. Prediciting the corrosion and stress corrosion performance of copper in anaerobic sulfide solution Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2010-12-14T21:45:07ZStress corrosion cracking (SCC) susceptibility of the phosphorus de-oxidized copper has been evaluated in synthetic seawater polluted by sulfides using slow strain rate test (SSRT). The effect of concentration of sulfide, temperature, and applied cathodic and anodic potentials on the final strain values and maximum stress were also studied. No cracks were found under the tested conditions. The final strain and maximum stress values decreased but not significantly, with increase in the temperature, applied anodic potential and sulfide concentration. The observed effect is due to the section reduction by uniform corrosion. Lateral cross section and microscopic examination of the fractured specimen ruled out the existence of the localized corrosion. Electrochemical measurements showed that the Cu2S film is not a protective film and also exhibits a mass transfer limitation to the inward diffusion of the sulfides. Based on these results the reasons for the absence of cracking are also discussed.MASTpollut15
Bhutani Vij, AsmitaMirchandani, Kiran Dispossession and Violence: A Textual Analysis of State Repression of Indigenous Women in Central India Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2019-11The thesis is an exploration of the relationship between institutional violence against women in Central India and the agenda of land dispossession. I focus on these connections within the state while paying attention to the social relations between the neoliberal- capitalist class to understand the political economy of the state that enacts the land acquisition and the subsequent land dispossession of its indigenous inhabitants. I further examine the gendered impact of this process and how the state apparatus reproduces the patriarchal structures to create a system of oppression of the indigenous women. I explain that a necessary strategy of such expansion of the state is violence against Adivasi women. The study is a textual analysis and adopts a Marxist feminist framework of analysis to study the complex relationship of state repression through sexual violence against women. I intend to inform activist agendas and academic scholarship on violence against women.M.A.women5
Bian, Huimin Zhu, Jianwen Placement By Marriage Electrical and Computer Engineering2008-07-30T19:11:14ZAs the field programmable gate array (FPGA) industry grows device
capacity with Moore's law and expands its market to high performance
computing, scalability of its key CAD algorithms emerges as a new
priority to deliver a user experience competitive to parallel
processors. Among the many walls to overcome, placement stands out due
to its critical impact on both frontend synthesis and backend routing.

To construct a scalable placement flow, we present three innovations
in detailed placement: a legalizer that works well under low
whitespace; a wirelength optimizer based on bipartite matching; and a
cache-aware annealer. When applied to the hundred-thousand cell IBM benchmark
suite, our detailed placer can achieve 27% better wirelength and
8X faster runtime against FastDP, the fastest academic
detailed placer reported, and our full placement flow can achieve 101X faster runtime, with 5% wirelength overhead, against VPR,
the de facto standard in FPGA placements.
Bian, QianMitchell, Jane||Grynpas, Marc Vitamin D Insufficiency in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Pharmacology2017-03Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked condition caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, resulting in muscle function loss. Children with DMD are at risk for compromised bone health due to loss of ambulation and corticosteroid treatment. A retrospective study was conducted to determine if vitamin D levels were reduced in this population. The serum 25-OHD and 25-OHD standardized per unit of vitamin D supplementation in DMD patients were both lower than another cohort of patients with disability (Ostegenesis Imperfecta), and a cohort treated with glucocorticoids (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus). Controlling for the season, the significant determinants of serum 25-OHD as well as serum 25-OHD per unit of supplementation were the childâ s underlying condition, disease duration, and weight Z-scores. Our study suggests that children with DMD have on average lower serum 25-OHD despite high levels of supplementation in comparison to a glucocorticoid treated population, and a population with disability.M.Sc.health3
Bianchi, CristinaVolpe, Richard A Preliminary Exploration of Students' Perceptions of Their Own Learning Applied Psychology and Human Development2018-06Students acquire knowledge in the classroom from a variety of sources, such as the teacher, learning activities and the academic environment. Yet, there is limited research on student perceptions of their own learning in the classroom. This study is a preliminary investigation of how students aged 8 to 12 think they learn best in the classroom. A sample of 229 students answered the question 'how do you learn best at school?' Out of the 229 responses, 210 responses were used. Thematic analysis was used to examine student answers. The results demonstrated that students were able to recognize different relationships within the classroom that help them learn best. Areas defined include classroom tools, classroom management, and student readiness. Findings support that students were aware of their classroom environment and how it can affect their learning, whether it be in a positive or negative manner.M.A.EDUCAT4
Bianchi, Lisa-MarieVolpe, Richard A Family's Perception of Childhood Cancer Survivorship: A Case Study in Resilience Applied Psychology and Human Development2016-06Research on families experiencing childhood cancer and life in remission has focused on negative outcomes and variables. Few studies have explored the process of family resilience through this type of adversity. The purpose of this qualitative case study is to describe the experiences of a family who has survived a paediatric cancer. The central question that informed the study is: What are the accounts of members of a family in dealing with childhood cancer and life in survivorship? One family was interviewed over several months and continued to assist in the data analysis and creation of the findings for this study. It was found that cancer subculture and online community support promoted resilience and adaptation for the family as they dealt with the demands and stress of childhood cancer and remission. Recommendations to the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation, healthcare professionals, and further research were discussed.M.A.health3
Biazar, Bahar Mojab, Shahrzad Learning and Activism: Iranian Women in Diaspora Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2009-12-14T17:01:09ZThis qualitative study looks at the learning that takes place during activism. Throughout this work, learning is conceptualized as the ongoing formation of critical consciousness rather than the acuqisition of skills for the purpose of securing menial employment. Furthermore, critical consciousness is seen to develop through the nonlinear
interplay of thoughts and actions. This investigation uses the life history
method to explore the learning of five Iranian women throughout decades of
struggle against repressive social structures. It focuses on questions of motivation
for activism, formation of critical consciousness, and activism in diaspora. At the
theoretical level, this study criticizes current learning theories while its
educational implications place critical consciousness as the goal of radical adult
education. On a practical level, this investigation records successful political
study groups and suggests such groups as models for sites of radical adult
MASTeducat; women4, 5
Biback, CandiceZack, Martin Empathy and the Subjective-behavioural Effects of D1 and D2 Receptor Blockade in Pathological Gamblers Pharmacology2015-11This study assessed the relationship between Empathy and reinforcing effects of gambling and a psychostimulant drug, in 30 otherwise healthy pathological gamblers (PGs). To explore the roles of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in these relationships, subjects received either: D2 antagonist, haloperidol (3-mg) or D1-D2 antagonist, fluphenazine (3-mg), in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced design. On separate sessions, subjects played a 15-minute slot machine game and received d-amphetamine (AMPH; 20-mg, oral). Under placebo, Empathy correlated positively with Desire to Gamble (DTG) at all time-points in both groups. Haloperidol negated, whereas fluphenazine enhanced, the correlation between Empathy and pleasurable effects of the slot machine. Haloperidol enhanced, whereas fluphenazine attenuated, the correlation between Empathy and DTG under AMPH. Results suggest post- synaptic D2 receptors may mediate Empathy-related differences in Liking of gambling; D1 receptors may mediate Empathy-related differences in Wanting to gamble under AMPH in PGs. Low statistical power and restricted generalizability were limitations.M.Sc.health3
Bickford, RobertRestoule, Jean-Paul In Relationship: Expressive Writing as a Decolonizing Adult Learning Praxis Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2015-06The central argument is that the traditional academic essay format, coerced into cognitivist conventions by the fear of appearing uncritical, preserves the hegemonic colonial mindset when it suppresses the clear, direct, and relatable voice of the student or scholar. Inspired by Dr. Marie Battiste's use of four directions in First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds (1995), the thesis is organized into 4 sections, East, South, West, North, representing research directions into the expressive potential of a decolonizing adult learning praxis and offering possible approaches to writing that can be allied with Indigenous scholars. I focus on praxis, the reflexive prompts of non-verbal image communication, historical origins of the cognitivist essay, and existing Indigenous viewpoints on the changing dimension of words used in academic contexts. Decolonized writing forms critical pathways by acknowledging the dialectics of colonialism and honouring the community surrounding the scholar that informs and buoys the research process.M.A.educat4
Biggar, Beverley Labrie, Normand French as a Second Language: A Publisher's Perspective Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2010-04-05T19:16:57ZThis study examines French-as-a-second-language (FSL) learning in Canada through the lens of an educational publisher. The fields of language and policy planning, second language learning, and educational publishing provide a focus for the study. The principal purpose of this thesis is to identify key stakeholders in second language learning and to analyze the impact of their actions on the development of FSL resources in Canada. Through qualitative field research with representatives from significant Canadian publishing companies, this analysis of relationships and roles will assist future Canadian second language stakeholders in better understanding the impact of their decisions on the field of publishing, on educational resources, and ultimately, on FSL students in classrooms across the country.MASTeducat4
Bilan, Yaroslav Panesar, Daman Effect of Relative Humidity and CO2 Concentration on the Properties of Carbonated Reactive MgO Cement Based Materials Civil Engineering2014-11Sustainability of modern concrete industry recently has become an important topic of scientific discussion, and consequently there is an effort to study the potential of the emerging new supplementary cementitious materials. This study has a purpose to investigate the effect of reactive magnesia (reactive MgO) as a replacement for general use (GU) Portland Cements and the effect of environmental factors (CO2 concentrations and relative humidity) on accelerated carbonation curing results. The findings of this study revealed that improvement of physical properties is related directly to the increase in CO2 concentrations and inversely to the increase in relative humidity and also depends much on %MgO in the mixture. The conclusions of this study helped to clarify the effect of variable environmental factors and the material replacement range on carbonation of reactive magnesia concrete materials, as well as providing an assessment of the optimal conditions for the effective usage of the material.M.A.S.industr9
Bilas, PatrickBuliung, Ronald Childhood Disability and School Travel Geography2019-06There has been little research on children living with disabilities that use school boards’
accessible bus services, and no attention has been paid to their differences in excess travel
compared to their non-disabled peers. This thesis explores the literature on childhood disability
and school travel in order to identify current knowledge gaps and provide potential future
research recommendations. In addition to, examining whether or not children with disabilities
experience greater excess travel than their non-disabled peers when using accessible school
buses and why? The results indicate that children with disabilities are experiencing significant
inequalities in their school trips due to the much higher amounts of wasteful travel they
encounter than non-disabled children. The findings also suggest there are numerous issues of
ableism and disablism within educational settings that may have substantial influence on
education access and school mobility for disabled children with potential long-term impacts.
Binder, JustinChristopoulos, Constantin Seismic Performance of New Hybrid Ductile-rocking Braced Frame System Civil Engineering2016-06A new hybrid ductile-rocking (HDR) seismic-resistant system is proposed which consists of a code-designed buckling-restrained braced frame (BRBF) that is free to rock on its foundation. The goal of this system is to reduce the disadvantages associated with BRBFs, such as excessive drift concentrations and residual deformations, while maintaining their reliable limit on forces and accelerations. A lockup device ensures the full code-compliant strength at a predetermined column uplift, and supplemental energy dissipation elements reduce the overall response.
Buildings of 2, 4, and 6-storeys in height were designed for Los Angeles, California, and studies were performed to investigate how the energy dissipation strength, lockup base rotation, and vertical mass modelling choices affected the system's performance and dynamic response. An example detail was developed that included a cast steel energy dissipating device. These studies showed that the HDR system achieved a significant reduction in brace damage over conventional BRBF structures.; buildings7, 9
Bing, Alex ChenyuSandwell, Ruth Pedagogical Progressivism and Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math Education: A Shared Historical Landscape, 1870-1970 Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2015-03This thesis is part of a larger project to sketch a history of how the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) subjects were structured in Ontario public schools. The thesis begins by studying the longstanding forces that have demarcated science from other subjects from the 1870s to the 1960s. It then examines the 1960s as a pivotal decade when the effects of school guidance counsellors, economic imperatives, and the preoccupation with human selection accentuated those longstanding divisive forces in public education. These developments culminated in an institutional entrenchment of disciplinary gulfs within the schooling system, opened the door to a constructed embodiment of subject-specific talents inside the child, and alienated math-related subjects from pedagogically progressive visions of education. The guidance movement and the reforms in mathematics during the 1960s were scrutinized in detail. The role of progressive education in its own marginalization from STEM subjects is also examined.M.A.educat4
Binkley, Clarissa Pressnail, Kim D. Energy Consumption Tends of Multi-unit Residential Buildings in the City of Toronto Civil Engineering2012-11-21The purpose of this research is to determine the average energy intensity of multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs) in Toronto, and evaluate whether certain building characteristics influence energy intensity. This information is particularly important in the Toronto market. Relative to the city’s population, Toronto has an unusually high proportion of MURBs with more than half of residential dwellings in apartment buildings. Additionally, Toronto MURBs are significant consumers of energy and produce an estimated 1.3M tonnes of CO2e each year. The ultimate goal is to assess the most efficient building retrofit measures.
Energy consumption data for Toronto MURBs were collected and weather normalized. Correlations between the energy data and the building characteristics were examined. Window characteristics and heating system type were found to have the most significant influence on energy intensity. Establishing energy consumption characteristics of MURBs is the first step towards improving the energy efficiency of Toronto’s MURBs stock.
MASTenergy; buildings7, 9
Binnington, Taylor Harvey, L. D. Danny Optimal Siting of Distributed Wind Farms in Ontario, Canada Geography2013-03-18Increasing wind penetration adds to the importance of enhancing the reliability of wind, to mitigate the magnitude and frequency of changes in electricity generation. This work addresses how improvements can be made to reliability through the geographic dispersal of wind farms in Ontario, Canada, using modeled North American Regional Reanalysis data. Optimal configurations of wind farm locations are determined according to two criteria. The first selects combinations of wind farms that follow temporal demand patterns, by maximizing the difference between the energy price and the cost of electricity. The second attempts to select combinations of wind farms that minimize the coefficient of variation in the aggregate output. It is found that there are no wind regimes in Ontario that match demand sufficiently for a viable development strategy, but that combinations of as few as three locations can reduce the coefficient of variation by over 30%, compared to a single region.MASTenergy; wind7
Biskey, LauraRhind, Shawn G||Locke, Marius Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Hemostasis and Fibrinolysis in Healthy Males: Relationship to Sympathetic Nervous System Activation Exercise Sciences2015-06The hemostatic response to stress is related to sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, affecting both coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways. This study measured hemostatic and SNS responses to acute high intensity interval training (HIIT), to assess if these systems are altered by repeated HIIT at 100% peak-power output. Sixteen healthy males performed HIIT once and eight performed HIIT six times over two weeks. Viscoelastic hemostatic assays, thromboelastography and rotational thromboelastometry, showed post-exercise hypercoagulability (PM.Sc.health3
Bissonnette, Laura Wilson, Kathi Access to Primary Health Care: Does Neighbourhood of Residence Matter? Geography2009-12-16T18:31:04ZAccess to primary health care is an important determinant of health. Within current research there has been limited examination of neighbourhood level variations in access to care, despite knowledge that local contexts shape health. The objective of this research is to examine neighbourhood-level access to primary health care in the city of Mississauga, Ontario. Street address locations of primary care physicians were obtained from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario (CPSO) website and analyzed using geographic information systems (GIS). A 'Three Step Floating Catchment Area' (3SFCA) method was derived and used to measure multiple dimensions of access for the population as a whole, for specific linguistic groups and for recent immigrants. This research identifies significant neighbourhood-level variations in access to care for each dimension of access and population subgroup studied. The research findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of neighbourhood-level variability in access to health care.MASThealth3
Black-Allen, Jesse Jang, Eunice Validity and Fairness in Accommodations, Special Provisions, and Participation Decisions on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2011-05-24T19:35:41ZPolicy guidelines of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO) state that accommodations and participation decisions on the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test (OSSLT) do not threaten validity. However, these issues are contentious in American large-scale testing. New approaches integrate test access, administration, accommodation and participation within a unified fairness and validity construct. The current study, based on demographic and outcome data for the entire population of OSSLT-eligible students from 2006 to 2009, demonstrates changing patterns in accommodations and participation decisions across schools and years. In particular, English language learners are found to be considerably underrepresented among students receiving special needs accommodations. This has implications for the valid interpretation and fair use of test scores. Recommendations are proposed for improving fairness, consistency, and validity in administering accommodations and participation.MASTeducat4
Blackwell-Hardie, Victoria Gillis, Joseph Roy A Qualitative Analysis of Factors Contributing to Increased HIV Incidence for Gay and Bisexual Men: Implications for Prevention Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2009-12-14T17:02:17ZHIV incidence continues to rise in the population of gay and bisexual men (Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, 2008), a high-risk group due to the complexity of promoting sexual behavior change on an enduring basis. In the present study, interview data from fifteen self-identified gay or bisexual men living in an urban Canadian city was analyzed in order to determine the most salient psychosocial factors in decision-making leading to safe sexual choices, and the psychological implications of these factors for the mental health and well-being of participants. Results suggest three core factors are most relevant to sexual decision-making for gay/bisexual men: self-efficacy, sexual communication and/or negotiation, and individual assessment of risk. A conceptual model of factors influencing sexual decision-making is presented. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for future HIV prevention interventions and the clinical practice of counselling psychology with gay and bisexual male clients.MASThealth3
Blain, Michael DavidFarnood, Ramin R Evaluation and Optimization of Cellulose and PVDF Membranes for Application in Membrane Bioreactors and Vacuum Membrane Distillation for Water and Wastewater Treatment Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2016-11As water sources around the world are depleted, there is an increasing need for advanced treatment systems that can produce high-quality effluent for discharge or reuse. In this thesis, cellulose membranes were used in a bench-scale membrane bioreactor with the intention of developing a membrane that is inexpensive and made from renewable resources. The cellulose membranes were able to remove suspended solids during multi-day filtrations, but suffered from severe fouling. The membranes developed in this study are unique, as they are manufactured using a papermaking process instead of conventional casting processes. Next, a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation system was tested using salt solutions, surface water, and MBR effluent as feed solutions. With all feed solutions, this system could produce a permeate with low conductivity and dissolved solids, and free of coliforms. Combining these two systems provides an option for water reuse which has not been previously studied.M.A.S.water; renewable6, 7
Blankstein, Udi Davis, Karen Structural MR Imaging of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Medical Science2009-12-16T18:32:51ZIrritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Cortical thinning of the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) and insula has been previously reported in IBS (Davis et al., 2008). The aim of the present study was to examine cortical and subcortical structural gray matter integrity in IBS with particular attention to individual disease symptoms and personality characteristics such as pain catastrophizing. Eleven IBS patients and 16 age-matched healthy subjects (female, right-handed) underwent structural MRI. Voxel Based Morphometry and Cortical Thickness Analysis revealed that the IBS group had increased gray matter density in the hypothalamus, cortical thinning in the aMCC, strong (r = -66; p=0.015), a negative correlation between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and pain catastrophizing and anterior insula thickness was positively correlated to pain duration (r = 0.77, p=0.003) when controlling for age. These abnormalities may contribute to chronic pain in IBS.MASThealth3
Bliumkin, LioraSimpson, André J The Development of In-situ NMR Photoreactors and Analysis of Photochemical Processes in the Environment Chemistry2016-03Photolysis is a major abiotic process in the environment. Current understanding of environmental photolytic processes is limited due to restricted information offered by conventional analytical techniques and lack of in-situ studies. In-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) photoreactors were developed to directly integrate light sources with NMR spectroscopy to probe into environmental photochemistry in a non-invasive manner. They were applied to a series of environmental systems including an atmospheric pollutant, crude oil extracts, groundwater (at natural abundance), and dissolve organic matter (DOM). Intermediates and degradation products were identified along with kinetic profiles of specific compounds in complex environmental mixtures. It was also shown to be a great non-invasive chromatographic tool to investigate the phototransformation of DOM. Also, two dimensional (2D) NMR experiments were used to characterize and quantify components in DOM. Overall, the work demonstrates that in-situ NMR spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in unraveling complex environmental photolytic processes.M.Sc.water; environment; pollu6, 13, 14
Blom, Kimberly Tobe, Sheldon ||Nolan, Robert Evaluating Psychosocial Variables and their Link to Hypertension Using Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction Medical Science2013-07-11Previous research has reported positive associations between anger, perceived stress and blood pressure. These associations have largely been based on cross-sectional data and a small number of longitudinal works. Using a prospective longitudinal cohort design, this study more directly tested the relationships between anger, perceived stress and blood pressure by using a psychological therapeutic intervention (mindfulness-based stress reduction) to manipulate anger and perceived stress. Anger and perceived stress were in turn evaluated for association with blood pressure. Despite improvements in psychosocial functioning and reductions in blood pressure, findings from this study failed to demonstrate an association between change in anger or perceived stress with change in daytime or 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. A model where these variables interact indirectly via stress coping mechanisms or health behaviours may be the linking mechanism in this study. Results from this thesis have contributed evidence to a divided field dominated by cross-sectional research.MASThealth3
Blumenthal, JennaChignell, Mark A Mobile Application for Dual-task Gait Assessment of Cognitive Status Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2017-06Disturbances in gait during dual-task walking is a promising and well-researched indicator that can be recognized in early stages of cognitive impairment. Changes in gait in the dual-task condition have been shown to be associated with increased incidence of dementia, as well as the risk of falling in older adults. As well, advances in consumer electronics have enabled the use of body-fixed sensor systems to quantify gait features, allowing for simple and objective gait measurement in clinical settings.
To date, there appears to be no tool that allows for the administration, evaluation and longitudinal study of dual-task gait. In this thesis, I combine recent efforts in both dual-task gait research and consumer wearable devices to develop a smartphone-based system for dual-task gait evaluation in the context of cognitive assessment. I also explore the barriers and facilitators that influence healthcare provider's perception of mobile and wearable technologies in their practice.
Blundell, Caitlin Hess, Paul M. ||Boyes, Don ||Wolff, Jane 'Artificial' Land and 'Natural' Disaster: Hazard and Vulnerability on Created Urban Land Geography2011-12-01During the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, waterfront cities expanded over wetlands and shallow water by building land on which to build the city. Today, this artificial land is threatened by a range of environmental hazards. This increases the risk of natural disaster for people occupying the area. A framework for risk analysis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to create maps based on the formula: ‘Risk = Hazard + Vulnerability’ is proposed. This methodology is demonstrated in four case study cities - Toronto’s Ashbridges Bay (Port Lands), Boston’s Back Bay, New Orleans’ Lakefront and Montreal’s Point St. Charles (Technoparc) – to show that census tracts that are both socially and environmentally vulnerable ought to take precedence in disaster prevention and relief efforts. Created land is inherently more hazardous than the adjacent natural land and requires planning focused on targeting and responding to the documented hazards.MASTwater; cities; environment6, 9, 13
Boban, Jaan Katz, Ariel International Commercial Arbitration and Technology Transfer Disputes Law2012-11-21The thesis explores the concept of International Arbitration, an alternative to litigation. It argues the benefits and the inherent limitations parties are likely to face while resorting to this instrument to resolve Transfer of Technology and Intellectual Property related disputes. The paper further explains how Arbitrability limitations can be taken care of in relation to transfer of technology disputes. Emphasis is placed on the institutional role of the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Arbitration and Mediation Center as an appropriate arbitration forum to deal with complex technological and Intellectual Property related disputes.MASTinstitution16
Bodagh, Reta RBeharry, Andrew Activatable Probes for Anti-Cancer Therapy Chemistry2019-11Light is an external control tool that is therapeutically useful. One application is the photocaging of cancer drugs whereby a light responsive group (photocage) renders the drug inactive initially and active upon light irradiation allowing for spatial and temporal control of the drugs release. This work highlights the utilization of photocages for the development of light-activatable inhibitors for O6-Methylguanine DNA Methyltransferase, an enzyme that confers cancer cells resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Another application of light is in photodynamic therapy whereby light is used to activate a drug, called a photosensitizer, allowing its reaction with local oxygen to produce toxic oxygen species. In particular, this work highlights the hypoxia-induced activation of a photosensitizer in cancer cells. This photosensitizer is activated by a Nitroreductase, an enzyme that is only functional under low oxygen conditions, thereby limiting its cytotoxic effects to hypoxic cells without inducing damage to surrounding healthy cells.M.Sc.health3
Bogutskiy, Gennadiy Audrey, Macklin Improving Extradition Procedure through Strengthening the Legal Status of an Individual and Transferring the Decision Making Right from the Executive to Judiciary Branch of Power Law2012-11-21A special role amongst various efforts to combat transnational criminal activity belongs to extradition, which has transformed into a form of international cooperation and became an indispensable tool for ensuring criminal responsibility in any part of the world. However, for a long period of time, an individual in the process of extradition has been treated as a passive object of intergovernmental relations which have a significant political component. In this thesis, the claim is that treatment of an individual as a rights bearer and an active subject of legal relationships among other parties of the process, combined with transfer of final decision-making right from the executive to judiciary branch of power, is capable to enable application of the Rule of law principles to particular extradition cases, limit broad discretion of decision makers and minimize political component of extradition.MASTrights16
Boisvert, Marie-Claude Brunnee, Jutta Establishment of High Seas Marine Protected Areas: Towards an Implementing Agreement? Law2009-12-16T20:17:03ZAlthough international law requires States to protect the marine environment and conserve marine living resources, human activities are still threatening marine species and its survival. In view of limited scientific knowledge of marine ecosystems, fragility of ecosystems and insufficient mechanisms of protection, marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction is at risk. Increasing attention has been given to the need to conserve this important and vulnerable biodiversity. The international community has begun to recognize the importance of marine protected areas (MPAs) as key tool to ensure sustainable use and preservation of biodiversity. However, the adequacy of the current legal framework related to the conservation of marine biodiversity through the establishing of high seas MPAs raises debates. Disagreements about the existence of inadequacies and need for an implementing agreement remain. My study seeks to determine whether the international legal framework is adequate for the establishment of MPAs or whether further measures are required.MASTenvironment; marine; biodiversity; rights13, 14, 15, 16
Bojin, Kate Miles, Angela "All Our Work is Political": Men's Experience in Pro-feminist Organizing Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-11-28This research project examines the personal and political experiences of five men engaged in pro-feminist organizing. Their experiences are explored in the context of the emergence of anti- feminist groups, and an increasingly volatile funding environment whereby women’s rights organizations are seeing their financial resources threatened. Using a critical and sociological approach to masculinities, significant challenges at the personal level for these pro-feminist men are examined and are shown to compound engagement with women feminists, and the potential of cross gender partnerships. A people-oriented qualitative approach is employed to capture men’s personal journeys and how they self- identify with the feminist movement. This research adds to the prevalent “Man Question”, contesting men’s engagement in the feminist movement. Ultimately, however, the thesis concludes that men’s engagement in the feminist movement needs to be clearly positioned as a political project with an explicit commitment to building alliances with women’s rights networks.MASTgender; rights5, 16
Bollegala, NatashaNguyen, Geoffrey C The Impact of Adult Heatlh Care Model (Academic versus Community) on Emergent Health Resource Utilization in Patients with Pediatric-onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2016-06Background: Patients diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) during childhood require transfer to an adult gastroenterologist. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of post-transfer health care setting (academic vs. community) on emergent health resource utilization. Methods: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using health care administrative data from Ontario, Canada. Patients with PO-IBD were identified and health resource utilization during a 2-year pre-transfer period, transfer of care period and 2-year post-transfer period was analyzed. Comparator groups included academic vs. community vs. loss-to-follow-up. The primary outcome comprised Emergency Department (ED) utilization. Secondary outcomes included hospitalizations, surgeries, ambulatory visits, endoscopic and radiological investigations. Results: There were no significant differences found in ED use, ambulatory care visits (aside from the lost to follow-up group), hospitalizations, endoscopic or radiological procedures. Conclusion: Post-transfer healthcare setting does not impact emergent health resource utilization in the post-transfer period..M.Sc.health3
Bolotta, AlannaPedretti, Erminia Exploring Art and Science Integration in an Afterschool Program Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2017-06Science, technology, engineering, arts and math (STEAM) education integrates science with art, presenting a unique and interesting opportunity to increase accessibility in science for learners. This case study examines an afterschool program grounded in art and science integration. Specifically, I studied the goals of the program, itâ s implementation and the student experience (thinking, feeling and doing) as they participated in the program. My findings suggest that these programs can be powerful methods to nurture scientific literacy, creativity and emotional development in learners. To do so, this program made connections between disciplines and beyond, integrated holistic teaching and learning practices, and continually adapted programming while also responding to challenges. The program is therefore specially suited to engage the heads, hands and hearts of learners, and can make an important contribution to their learning and development. To conclude, I provide some recommendations for STEAM implementation in both formal and informal learning settings.M.A.educat4
Bolton, Elizabeth Marie AshleyStagg Peterson, Shelley Exploring the Moral Space in Literacy Practices: A Fluid Model for the Actions of the Emotive Self in Adults' Responses to Fairy Tales Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-06Bettelheim (1975) famously claimed that fairy tales support emotional health in children. He used psychoanalysis in his research, but a poststructural view of emotional, cognitive action allows for a new consideration of the self, as fluid and socioculturally situated. I use Taylor's (1989) framework to examine the response of one adult reader to her favorite fairy tale. In noting the qualitative estimations associated with the participant's orientations of self, I demonstrate a method for understanding the moral self as a cognitive act of self-optimization, using conceptual metaphor as evidence for these orientations (Lakoff, 1993). This novel approach to understanding the effect of fairy tales on the psyche has implications for the use of fairy tales in emotionally sensitive and supportive curricula, as well as for the general use of literature as a means of understanding, supporting, and expressing the self.M.A.health3
Bolton, Melissa Schneider, Margaret Serial Monogamy and Relational Influences on Patterns of Condom Use for Young Adults in Dating Relationships Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2009-12-14T17:03:44ZWithin Canada, young adults have been identified as being at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI). One major contributing factor is inconsistent condom use, particularly within monogamous relationships (Civic, 2000; Critelli & Suire, 1998; Misovich, Fisher & Fisher, 1997; Winfield & Whaley, 2005). This research used qualitative methods to investigate the process by which young women rationalize inconsistent condom use and the relational influences that aid in this transition. A sample of fifteen women (between 18-24 years of age) were surveyed and interviewed. Using grounded theory analysis, the results indicated that the process of discontinuing condoms is multifaceted. Within relationships, unprotected sex comes to signify developmental milestones for the couple. It is associated with desirable relationship characteristics of commitment, trust, intimacy and fidelity. The results suggest that health promotion interventions should emphasize the high risk for STI posed by using condoms inconsistently within the monogamous relationships of young adults.MASThealth3
Bond, Alison MaryWalker, Scott E Risk Stratification for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Medical Patients: Can thromboprophylaxis be safely restricted to limit costs? Pharmaceutical Sciences2018-11The objectives of this study were to estimate and compare the economic and clinical outcomes of using risk assessment models (RAMs) to support decision-making on thromboprophylaxis compared to the current standard of practice (SOP) in hospitalized medical patients at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre (SHSC). The Padua Prediction Score (PPS) and the Improve Risk Score (IRS), were applied to 199 general internal medicine (GIM) patients during three samples of one-week GIM admissions at SHSC. The predicted rate of hospital associated venous thromboembolism (HA-VTE) and the quality of life in GIM patients at SHSC identified as low risk of HA-VTE, was not significantly different after one year with RAM-directed thromboprophylaxis compared to SOP-directed thromboprophylaxis. Additionally, the use of RAMs had a significant potential annual cost savings of more than $200,000. Prospective evaluation is required to establish the feasibility and usability of RAMs and the safety of reducing the rate of thromboprophylaxis.M.Sc.health3
Bonin, Grant Zee, Robert E. Power System Design, Analysis, and Power Electronics Implementation on Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB) Spacecraft Aerospace Science and Engineering2010-02-16T15:17:52ZThe development of a multi-mission small spacecraft power system is described. This system has been designed for the University of Toronto Space Flight Laboratory Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB), an approximately 20cm cubical spacecraft with no deployed solar arrays. The GNB is inherently power-generation limited, and consequently, all available power must be utilized with maximum efficiency. This efficiency is achieved using an unconventional parallel-regulated architecture with Peak Power Tracking (PPT) functionality, and is shown to be the PPT design of highest efficiency for spacecraft of this class. In support of this design, a novel spacecraft power simulation suite has been developed, enabling parametric satellite power analysis with high fidelity. Finally, a unique variation on peak power tracking---referred to as peak current tracking---is described. This method is shown to reduce battery depth-of-discharge by as much as 20% over baseline architectures, and furthermore exhibits beneficial emergent behaviour for battery charge management.MASTsolar7
Bonner, Colin Robert NelsonWies, Arthur E Estimating the Effect of Phenological Mismatch on the Success of Assisted Gene Flow Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2017-06Adaptation to changing environmental conditions and subsequent recovery in population growth through evolutionary rescue is critical for many declining species, but it relies on populations having sufficient genetic variation. Assisted gene flow provides a solution to low genetic variance by introducing gene flow between distinct populations, allowing evolutionary rescue to proceed. Assisted gene flow, however, requires that these populations can interbreed. Many populations are divergent in reproductive phenology, reducing hybridization rates. The potential for hybridization between plant populations can be estimated from flowering schedules, but for these estimates to be useful they must be proven accurate. In a pair of two-generation experiments, I compared prospective estimates of hybridization, derived from flowering schedules, to retrospective estimates, derived from an analysis of offspring, using flowering time as a genetic marker. In both cases, hybridization was asymmetric. The prospective and retrospective strongly agreed under controlled pollination conditions, but less so under natural pollination in the field.M.Sc.environment13
Bonokoski, Nicholas Sawchuk, Peter H. More Than A Curriculum: The Political Project of Radical Labour Education Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29This thesis analyzes the experiences of participants of the Canadian Labour Congress and Saskatchewan Federation of Labour radical labour youth activist training program “Solidarity Works.” The theoretical work of Antonio Gramsci and Paulo Freire is used to analyze why radical labour education is important. The theoretical work of Michel Foucault is used, in addition to the work of Gramsci and Freire, to examine the complications of radical labour education. The essential argument of this thesis is that radical labour education programs like Solidarity Works produce an activist subjectivity that ultimately comes into conflict with the institutionalized politics of the labour movement. Solidarity Works is a model radical labour education project, its challenges and successes warrant analysis so those lessons can be used for future radical labour education projects.MASTlabour8
Boock, Rebecca Cannon, Martin Constructing Whiteness: Regulating Aboriginal Identity Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2009-12-10T17:08:46ZCurricula in classrooms facilitate a national amnesia of colonialism that renders
inconceivable the possibility of Aboriginal heritage or mixed-blood presence in national
subjects. This thesis examines my own family history alongside the Indian Act and
discourses of multiculturalism. I provide a personal account for the ways in which
Aboriginal identities are regulated in Canada. I examine how glorified white settler
narratives - reproduced through both formal and informal schooling - work to displace
Aboriginal peoples as the original inhabitants of the land. I argue that this facilitates ongoing Canadian colonialism that continues to circumvent the possibility of particular mixed-blood Aboriginal identities within the confines of national belonging. Citizenship education in the Toronto District School Board is situated as a mechanism of formal schooling that continues to negate the ongoing colonization of Aboriginal people so that mixed-race Aboriginal students may continue to assume themselves as white subjects within the nation.
Booth, Ashley Sumner, Jennifer ||Koç, Mustafa How Good is the Good Food Market: An Exploration of Community Food Security Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-11-28Community food security (CFS) is a new, community-based, collaborative approach to achieving food security. CFS seeks to merge social justice and environmental sustainability goals in the pursuit of food-secure communities. The Good Food Market (GFM) is a new CFS initiative wherein a subsidized community food market operates in a food desert. Through a qualitative case study approach, I examine and evaluate the programmatic design of The Stop’s Good Food Market, and explore its contribution to community food security. The research is framed within a larger study of food security. Research findings are based on semi-structured and structured interviews with GFM coordinators and customers, as well as participant observation and literature reviews.MASTfood2
Borden, Kira A. Thomas, Sean C. ||Isaac, Marney E. Tree Roots in Agroforestry: Evaluating Biomass and Distribution with Ground Penetrating Radar Forestry2013-11-21The root systems of five tree species (Populus deltoides × nigra clone DN-177, Juglans nigra, Quercus rubra, Picea abies, and Thuja occidentalis) are described following non-intrusive imaging using ground penetrating radar (GPR). This research aimed to 1) assess the utility of GPR for in situ root studies and 2) employ GPR to estimate tree root biomass and distribution in an agroforestry system in southern Ontario, Canada. The mean coarse root biomass estimated from GPR analysis was 54.1 ± 8.7 kg tree-1 (± S.E.; n=12), within 1 % of the mean coarse root biomass measured from matched excavations. The vertical distribution of detected roots varied among species, with T. occidentalis and P. abies roots concentrated in the top 20 cm and J. nigra and Q. rubra roots distinctly deeper. I evaluate these root systems based on their C storage potential and complementary root stratification with adjacent crops.MASTforest15
Borrowman, Cuyler KennethAbbatt, Jonathan PD Formation and Behaviour of Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals from the Heterogeneous Reaction of Ozone with Combustion Particulate Matter Chemistry2016-06Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) are paramagnetic species stabilized by interaction with particulate matter (PM), which allows them to persist in the environment for days-weeks. Such species are important because when inhaled they can catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which cause oxidative stress and cell death. EPFRs are typically generated during combustion processes, but there is evidence in the literature that semiquinone EPFRs are formed when PM is aged in ambient air. It is known that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), a common combustion PM (CPM) constituent, react heterogeneously with ozone, and quinone species are major products. In this thesis, using a single experimental method, we find for the first time that the reaction of ozone with PAH and with CPM produce several species of EPFRs. Their formation and behaviour is dependent upon a number of environmental factors including humidity, light, other gas phase radicals, and organic coating materials.M.Sc.environment13
Bouchard, Dwight JordanAllen, D Grant||Tran, Honghi N Evaluating Wood Fines as a Physical Conditioner for Dewatering Biosludge Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2015-11Wood fines are sometimes used to improve biosludge dewatering and to supplement primary sludge, but how they improve biosludge dewaterability is not well understood. Wood fines (0-78% moisture content, dosages of 50-300%), and primary sludge fibres are added to biosludge, dewatered with a Crown Press, and evaluated with a mass balance. The wood fines used absorb on average 2.8ml of water per gram dry weight, which is more water than they help release. Thus, the increase in the dry solid content of the filter cake is primarily due the dry mass of the wood fines themselves, not an increase in water removal. Primary sludge fibres outperformed wood fines when evaluated on the Crown Press without a polymer, but the two conditioners performed similarly when a polymer was used. In a field study, wood fines are found to be an unsuitable physical conditioner when tested in a laboratory scale screw press.M.A.S.water6
Bouchard, Maryse Kohler, Jillian Clare ||Howard, Andrew Responding to the Global Injury Burden by Improving Access to Orthopaedic Medical Devices: A Qualitative Case Study of Orthopaedic Services in Uganda Pharmaceutical Sciences2011-12-05The global burden of injury is severely underappreciated and disproportionately affects low-income countries. With timely, appropriate orthopaedic treatment disability and mortality can be prevented, yet appropriate health resources are seldom available. Without orthopaedic medical devices (OMDs), quality of orthopaedic care suffers and the burden of preventable injury is exacerbated. A qualitative case study of 45 key informant interviews was conducted in Uganda to explore accessibility of OMDs, such as plaster, external fixators and implants. Data analysis elicited four major themes as barriers preventing access to OMDs in Uganda: 1) Poor leadership in government and corruption; 2) inadequate human resources; 3) inefficient and insufficient health care infrastructure; and 4) high costs of OMDs and poverty. Potential solutions for improving access to orthopaedic care were categorized as policies prioritizing orthopaedic services, training more orthopaedic specialists and creating incentives for them to work in underserviced areas, and innovative strategies funding for orthopaedic services.MASTpoverty; health1, 3
Bourne, Kirstin Conway, Tenley The Biogeography of Peel's Urban Forest: Patterns and Correlates of Species Diversity Geography2011-08-11The purpose of this research project is to identify the species-level diversity and distribution of trees within the urban setting of Peel Region (Ontario, Canada) and to determine how these characteristics change as a function of land use type. To address this, alpha diversity (species richness within a community), evenness, and beta diversity (species richness between communities) were calculated for eight distinct land use types within the study area. As well, the influence that a variety of socioeconomic and urban form variables have in determining urban forest composition was examined using regression techniques. Results indicate that significant relationships exist between land use type, species richness and overall tree abundance. Variables reflecting wealth and urban form are also shown to significantly influence tree abundance. The results of this study address issues pertaining to the adaptation, conservation, and management of the region’s urban tree species.MASTsocioeconomic; urban; conserv1, 11, 15
Bovbel, PavelNejat, Goldie A Person-search System for an Assistive Robot Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-06This thesis presents the design of an assistive robotic system, developed to aid a growing elderly population in maintaining quality of life and age in place independently. The robot is designed to operate in a home environment and aid a person with the performance of independent activities of daily living, primarily focusing on guided meal preparation. This work begins with the development of a novel person-search approach using a time-discretized Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Subsequently the prototyping and development of the robotic system is discussed, followed by a benchmarking of the person-search system and an information gathering experiment evaluating the robot's interactive capabilities. Experiments show that the HMM-based person-search system is effective at locating a target person considerably faster than an uninformed baseline approach.M.A.S.innovation9
Boyajian, Talar Murphy, Kellie Preeclampsia in HIV Positive Pregnant Women on Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy: A Matched Cohort Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2010-12-15T15:17:33ZBackground: Some studies have suggested that the risk of preeclampsia in HIV positive pregnant women has increased since the use of HAART became routine. There is also a concern that HIV positive women on HAART have a higher risk of adverse fetal outcomes compared to HIV negative women.

Methods: In this matched retrospective cohort study, the risk of preeclampsia and adverse fetal outcomes was examined in 91 HIV positive pregnant women receiving HAART and 273 HIV negative pregnant women. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounding factors.

Results: The risk of preeclampsia and preterm birth did not differ significantly between HIV positive and HIV negative women. HIV treated with HAART was an independent predictor for giving birth to a low birthweight baby.
Conclusions: HIV positive women on HAART do not have a higher risk of preeclampsia. They do however have a higher risk for lower birthweight infants.
Boyer, AntoinePasseport, Elodie Strontium fate in wetlands: Proposed solutions to strontium pollution Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2017-11Strontium 90 (90Sr) is an anthropogenic radionuclide detected in environments near nuclear accident and waste management sites. At the interface between groundwater and surface water, wetlands have the potential to buffer 90Sr pollution. This work investigated strontium interaction with five main wetland components and strontium speciation across the wetland water â sediment interface of two wetland sites, via both a laboratory and field studies. The strongest strontium adsorption onto organic substrates was found for wetland sediments and moss, where the proteins were found to cause stronger and less reversible adsorption. At the water â sediment interface, the pore water strontium concentration was related to reduced oxyhydroxides and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. The results of this research were applied to develop wetland management practices for Sr retention in engineered wetlands, and for the remediation of strontium-contaminated natural wetlands.M.A.S.water; waste; pollut6, 12, 14
Boyle, Bettina Helth Arnum Jackson, Nancy Online Tables & Tablecloths: Facilitating Space for Online Learning & Collaboration Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2009-12-14T17:04:38ZThis thesis describes the researcher’s journey as an online facilitator and reflective organization development (OD) practitioner as she explores how to nurture and cultivate space for learning and collaboration in an online community of practice. The research setting is a small group of mostly volunteers in a national health charity. The researcher adopts a reflective practitioner research approach engaging in a continuous process of story-telling throughout the thesis. She struggles with questions such as her own dynamic role as an outside facilitator, the role of technology, dilemmas of emergence versus design and discovery of purpose. Rather than arriving at a to-do-list for potential online facilitators, she discovers that hosting café style conversations, setting the online tables and enabling space for learning, collaboration and aliveness is more a matter of the facilitator’s capacity to listen, to be authentically present and to relinquish control.MASTEDUCAT4
Boyo, Toritseju Maria Wane, Njoki The African Brain Drain and the Social Impact of Skilled Migration Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2013-11The rapid rate at which educated Africans are migrating to the West has garnered much attention among scholars and has been termed ‘brain drain’. This thesis presents two arguments. First, understandings of brain drain from the African continent must be rooted in a historical context. The problems that the continent faces today have been shaped by key historical events including slavery and colonialism. Secondly, the impact of brain drain extends beyond the cost-benefit analysis related to remittances and loss of investments to the countries involved. Brain drain has significant social impacts on African immigrants in the diaspora. As such, it is important to highlight some of the triumphs and challenges that characterize the migrant experience.MASTpoverty1
Bragg, Bronwyn Eichler, Margrit Deconstructing 'Hegemonic Feminism': The Emergence of 'Second Wave' Feminism in Canada (1965-1975) Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-11-29Drawing on a collection of interviews with Canadian feminists, this thesis explores the emergence of a ‘second wave’ of feminist organizing in Canada from 1965 to 1975. Using insights from poststructural feminism and critical race theory, I deconstruct the notion of ‘hegemonic feminism’ and examine how certain women came to inhabit a position of hegemony during the movement’s early years. I focus on key events in feminist organizing during the 1960s-1970s: The Royal Commission on the Status of Women and the founding of the National Action Committee on the Status of Women. Drawing on oral history interviews and a close reading of the report on the RCSW, I suggest that more nuanced approaches are needed to move beyond the binary thinking that inflects accounts of Canadian feminist history. I conclude with a series of feminist narratives which aim to complicate linear histories and offer an alternative reading of this movement.MASTwomen5
Brahmbhatt, PriyaSanta Mina, Daniel Prehabilitation for Women Undergoing Breast Cancer Surgery: A Mixed Methods Study Exercise Sciences2020-06Research examining prehabilitation prior to cancer surgery has grown rapidly in recent years, but data in the breast cancer setting are scant. This study examined the feasibility of an exercise-centred prehabilitation intervention prior to breast cancer surgery using a mixed methods design. Participants (n=22) received an individualized exercise prescription including aerobic and upper quadrant-specific resistance and mobility training for the duration of their surgical waiting period. Primary outcomes included feasibility and acceptability. Exploratory outcomes included measures of physical and psychosocial wellbeing. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of participants (n=5) and health care providers (HCPs; n=2) provided further insights into acceptability. The study demonstrated feasibility based on pre-determined thresholds. Inductive thematic analysis demonstrated that prehabilitation was perceived as highly favourable by both participants and HCPs, including suggestions that it be offered to all surgical candidates. Randomized controlled trials to examine prehabilitation efficacy in people with breast cancer are warranted.M.Sc.health3
Brakeboer, BrentZee, Robert E Development of the Structural and Thermal Control Subsystems for an Earth Observation Microsatellite and its Payload Aerospace Science and Engineering2015-11Broad consensus has been reached in the scientific community that climate change is occurring and its cause is anthropogenic. Governments and other regulatory bodies are quickly implementing stricter and further reaching environmental regulations which require companies to regularly report emissions and penalize heavy polluters. To serve private and public end users in emissions monitoring GHGSat Inc. has contracted Space Flight Laboratory to develop Greenhouse Gas Satellite - Demonstration, or GHGSat-D, a remote sensing microsatellite with the mission objective of providing measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane at emission sources such as power plants and tailings ponds.
This thesis presents the author's contributions to the development of the satellite and payload structure as well as the thermal control subsystem from mission concept to system level testing. Each section begins with a discussion of the driving requirements followed by relevant background information. Analysis and design work is then presented followed by noteworthy results.
M.A.S.climate; governance13, 16
Branch, Haley AnneSage, Rowan F The Effect of High Temperature on the Reproductive Success of Trianthema portulacastrum Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2016-11Plant reproduction is highly sensitive to rising temperatures, which can lead to pollen abortion, and lower yield in many crop species. It remains uncertain whether wild plant species adapted to hot climates are able to reproduce at high temperature. I studied heat sterility thresholds in Trianthema portulacastrum, a weedy species found throughout the tropics and subtropics, often on barren soils where temperature exceeds 40°C. Plants were grown at seven day/night temperatures: 30/24°C, 33/24°C, 36/24°C, 40/24°C, 44/24°C, 24/40°C, and 40/40°C. Pollen viability significantly declined with increasing temperature, but this did not significantly affect percent pollen germination or seed set. In contrast, seed set was significantly reduced under high night temperature. The results show high night temperatures have a greater impact on reproduction than day temperature, indicating T. portulacastrum is using a night escape strategy to maintain reproductive success in its natural habitat.M.Sc. climate13
Braoudakis, GeorginaJackson, Donald Assessing Fish and Zooplankton Species Composition Patterns in Lentic Waterbodies Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2015-11For ecologists to better analyze and interpret relationships between species and their abiotic and biotic environments, it is useful to study biogeographical patterns of species composition. I examined lentic fish and zooplankton species occurrence patterns and the importance of several predictor variables in relation to these patterns. Fish communities in two Ontario regions exhibited significant nested species composition patterns. Lake size was a significant predictor. One measure of lake isolation explained some residual variation in both regions. Top predator presence was a significant predictor in one region. Through a meta-analysis, I found that crustacean zooplankton communities from across the Americas demonstrated significant negative species co-occurrence patterns. Presence-absence matrix fill and number of sites were the strongest predictors of the departure from random species co-occurrences. Comparisons of species composition patterns and drivers for different taxonomic groups could provide further insight into the level and types of non-random structure in freshwater ecosystems.M.Sc.water; fish14
Brar, PavneetDrake, Jennifer Investigation of the Sediment Retention Behaviour of a Catch Basin Insert Receiving Urban Stormwater Runoff Civil Engineering2016-11Ongoing urbanization has detrimental effects on receiving water bodies, making it imperative to apply decentralized stormwater management and in particular on-site controls. This study evaluates the efficiency of a catch basin insert, the CB ShieldTM, in improving sediment retention in conventional catch basins that are subjected to urban runoff typical of Southern Ontario cities. Year-long field trials in Toronto, Ontario, demonstrated that the retrofitted catch basin retained more sediment in its sump, which in turn, lead to greater retention of environmental pollutants. The concentrations observed for retrofitted and conventional catch basins sumps were significantly different for many water quality parameters, including nutrients, heavy metals, and total suspended solids. The CB ShieldTM is a positive retrofit option for conventional catch basins, and further research would be helpful in the evaluation of its operational requirements to ensure a seamless addition into existing infrastructure.M.A.S.pollut; urban; water6, 11, 14
Braszak, PatrickOlive, Andrea Social Movement Theory and Transboundary Conservation in Eastern North America: A Case Study of the Algonquin to Adirondacks Collaborative Geography2017-11Conservation is currently undergoing a paradigm shift. Traditional, centralized approaches are becoming increasingly questioned for their inability to address the broad spatial and temporal problems that are characteristic of new large-scale understandings of ecology. Transboundary conservation models have been steadily gaining traction around the world as the more suitable alternative given their wholesale rejection of artificial, anthropogenic boundaries in favour of scales determined entirely by ecological processes. A case study approach was used to examine a proposed transboundary corridor from Algonquin Provincial Park in Ontario, Canada to Adirondack Park in New York State, U.S.A. The central argument for this thesis, supported by insights from the projectâ s organizational trajectory and lackluster relationship with media outlets, is that conservation practitioners must foment social change themselves by aggressively pursuing dialogue with members of the public â rather than waiting for political opportunities to present themselves â if they are to gain support for transboundary conservation.M.A.conserv; ecology15
Braunstein, Catherine RoseSievenpiper, John L The Potential Catalytic Effects of Fructose and its Epimers on Postprandial Carbohydrate Metabolism in Subjects without Diabetes and a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis in all Subjects Nutritional Sciences2017-11The objective was to determine the ‘catalytic’ (doses <10g/meal) effects of fructose and
allulose (psicose) on postprandial carbohydrate metabolism in healthy participants (FACE Trial)
and to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis (SRMA) on the acute effects of fructose
and its epimers on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses. The FACE trial was
conducted in 25 healthy participants and did not find any significant effects of fructose or
allulose on any glycemic or insulinemic endpoints. The SRMA (n=233) found that allulose, but
not fructose or tagatose, significantly reduced glucose and insulin iAUC. Overall, results suggest
that allulose can serve as a low-calorie alternative to fructose in the diet and leads to modest
improvements in glucose and insulin responses in those with and without diabetes, however,
research is needed to elucidate the lack of findings in the FACE trial and the limits of our
Bray, Michael Johnathan CharlesGreen, Robin EA||Bayley, Mark Examining Causes and Consequences of Mental Health Disorders in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury Medical Science2018-11Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized by a host of persisting mental health (cognitive and psychiatric), motor and neurological sequelae, including progressive, degenerative change in the hippocampi. This thesis postulates that hippocampal volume loss may contribute to the increased risk of psychotic disorder that is observed in this population, through dysregulation of dopaminergic networks. The thesis also posits that TBI is implicated in the substantial mental health deficits observed in persons experiencing homelessness. This thesis specifically investigated (1) The relationship between increased psychotic symptom severity and hippocampal volume loss from 5 to 12 months post-injury and (2) The relationship between TBI and cognitive/psychiatric dysfunction among persons experiencing homelessness. A significant association between increasing hippocampal degeneration and increasing psychotic symptom severity was demonstrated. TBI was also demonstrated to bear strong associations with mental health dysfunction among homeless populations.M.Sc.health3
Brechbill, JessicaCannon, Martin J Unsettling White Settler Subjectivity in Social Justice Education: Towards a Pedagogy of Risk Social Justice Education2020-06This thesis explores the co-constitutive connections between colonial violence and white settler subjectivity in order to highlight the responsibilities that white settlers have in addressing the death, disappearance, and usurpation of Indigenous land and/or life. The three chapters are guided by the assertion that the “issue” at the heart of Indigenous-Settler relations in Canada is not simply settler ignorance or a lack of empathy but access to land and resources. Operating from this perspective, the thesis proposes that white settler subjects are not simply implicated in settler colonialism but also created by it. As such, the thesis rejects a rationalist approach to improving intersubjective relations through “knowing the other” and instead proposes a political and/or educational approach that invites learners to, in a sense, risk themselves and their power by unsettling their psycho-affective investment in the settler colonial project and white settler subjectivity itself.M.A.educat4
Bremner, Samantha McCartney, Colin ||Webster, Fiona A Qualitative Descriptive Study: Older Adults' Postoperative Pain Medication Usage After Total Knee Arthroplasty Medical Science2011-12-05Postoperative pain is a major concern to patients undergoing surgical procedures but little research has been conducted on pain management after hospital discharge for orthopaedic patients. Since pain medication is a key component of pain management, it is important to study medication usage from a patient’s perspective, for greater patient–health care provider concordance. A qualitative descriptive approach was taken to investigate the experience of 14 participants with managing pain at home immediately after total knee arthroplasty. Most participants limited their consumption and weaned themselves off prescription analgesics and used over-the-counter pain medications. The participants adapted their regimens in response to several factors and generally were content to self-manage their pain but required access to professional support. The study suggests that when developing postoperative pain management plans, health care providers may need to increase the time they spend addressing patients’ concerns and considering patients’ preferences.MASThealth3
Brennan-Donnan, Joan ElizabethO'Connor, Deborah Maternal and Infant Variables Associated with Critical Volumes of Breastmilk in Very Low Birth Weight Infants During the First Month of Postnatal Life Nutritional Sciences2015This study investigated the variables associated with the initiation, duration and exclusivity of breastmilk feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Maternal and infant correlates associated with the provision of a critical dose, ¡Ý50 ml/kg/d, of mother¡¯s own milk in the first 28 days of life was also determined. Data including socio-demographic and health characteristics were collected prospectively for 115 mothers and infants. Ninety-six percent of infants received some mother¡¯s milk during hospitalization. Sixty-eight percent of infants received some breastmilk at discharge and 48% fed exclusively mother¡¯s own milk. Maternal Asian background (p=0.005), birth weight ¡Ý1000 g (p=0.008), gestational age ¡Ý28 weeks at birth (p=0.01), and SNAP-II ScoreM.Sc.health3
Bridgeman, Sean Gary, Sprules Spatial Patterns of Zooplankton and Water Currents Near the Confluence of Two Major Fetches in Lake Opeongo,Ontario Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2010-07-21T19:50:54ZThis study combines Optical Plankton Counter data on zooplankton abundance and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler data on water currents to test hypotheses about spatial zooplankton distributions near a major point of land affecting local wind and water current patterns. Data were collected by repeatedly sampling a 2 km linear transect in the South Arm of Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada during July, 2008. Moving Split Window techniques were used to identify breakpoints in both zooplankton biomass concentration and a measure of water turbulence, and confirmed an effect of the topographic feature on local zooplankton distributions. Using additional data collected in 2001 and 2003, zooplankton abundance distributions were also tested under three wind speed ranges predicted from physical principles to correspond to varying stability of the water column. Significant differences were found in the variability and patch sizes of the distributions, indicating the importance of wind speeds on zooplankton patchiness.MAST ecology15
Bridgman, Alanna ChristinaGeorge, Tony P The Effects of Varenicline on Working Memory and Long-term Potentiation in Non-smokers with Schizophrenia Medical Science2015-11Background: Deficits in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) system are proposed to underlie vulnerability to nicotine dependence and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Varenicline is a smoking cessation medication that enhances cognition in schizophrenia while treating nicotine dependence, possibly through the modulation of neuroplasticity.
Methods: This study assessed the effects of varenicline (1 mg/day) versus placebo on neuroplasticity and working memory in 11 schizophrenia non-smokers and 11 non-smoker healthy subjects, to eliminate the confounding effects of tobacco smoking.
Results: Patients with schizophrenia performed worse on the 3-back task compared to healthy subjects. Varenicline enhanced working memory in low-performers only, regardless of diagnosis. Deficits in neuroplasticity were found in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects, which were enhanced with varenicline compared to placebo.
Conclusions: Varenicline may be a potential therapeutic option for the remediation of cognitive and neuroplasticity deficits in patients with schizophrenia regardless of smoking status.
Bridgman, Tess Mary Trebilcock, Michael The Efficacy of New Zealand Aid: An Analysis and Critique of New Zealand's Aid Programme Law2011-12-05New Zealand’s aid programme reflects many of the controversies surrounding foreign aid more generally. From issues relating to the influence of political considerations and the administration and evaluation of aid agencies, to the fragmentation of the global aid system and the volatility of aid, these issues compromise the efficacy of aid provided to developing countries. This paper analyses the evolution of New Zealand’s aid programme and critiques its current policy and administrative structure in the context of these current controversies, in order to highlight the ways in which New Zealand’s aid can be delivered more effectively. The paper concludes, among other things, that New Zealand’s change in focus to economic development, its close alignment of aid policy with foreign policy and the re-absorption of its semi-autonomous aid agency NZAID back into its Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade risks compromising the effectiveness of the aid that New Zealand provides.MASTtrade10
Brijmohan, AmandaChilds, Ruth A A Many-facet RASCH Measurement Analysis to Explore Rater Effects and Rater Training in Medical School Admissions Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2016-11For many undergraduate medical education (UME) programs, ratings of applicantsâ performance in interviews are integral to the decision making process. This study used many-facet Rasch measurement (MFRM) to explore the severity and consistency of 200 interviewersâ ratings of 599 applicants to a UME program. The raters varied widely in their severity and many of the raters had poor fit to the MFRM model. Although raters at four stations rated both station-specific and across-station competencies, the highest correlations were within station; the correlations across stations for the common competencies were low. No significant relationships were found between ratersâ training mode(s) (online and in-person) and rating behaviours. The findings from this work demonstrate the need to make explicit how differences in rater judgement affect fairness of applicant assessment to UME programs.M.A.educat4
Brinklow, Tessa Rosede Kerckhove, Dak T.||Chu, Cindy Temporal Patterns in Biomass Size Spectra in the Upper Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2018-06Aquatic ecosystems are sensitive to environmental changes on long-term and seasonal scales. Normalized biomass size spectra (NBSS) are often used to quantify changes in these communities. In this study, I used data on plankton and fishes from the Upper Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario spanning over forty years to construct NBSS. I hypothesized that NBSS heights (indicator of overall biomass) and slopes (indicator of trophic energy transfer) would vary in response to significant environmental change in the Bay (Pre-phosphorus control, Post-phosphorus control, and Post-Dreissenid mussel periods), and that they would also vary seasonally. Linear mixed effects models indicated that community heights and slopes changed across seasons, but only heights changed across periods. NBSS for phytoplankton, zooplankton, and fishes showed differing responses to seasonal and periodical changes. Overall, NBSS were able to detect community changes across seasons and periods, and I recommend the continued use of NBSS for aquatic ecosystem assessments.M.Sc.ecology15
Brissette, Christy Vuksan, Vladimir The Effect of Salvia hispanica L. Seeds on Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nutritional Sciences2013-11-21There is growing interest in the potential role of omega-3/fibre-rich seeds in attenuating obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Preliminary data suggests that consumption of white Salvia hispanica L. (Salba®) seeds prolongs satiety and may aid weight loss. This randomized, double-blind, parallel study assessed the efficacy and safety of Salvia hispanica in overweight/obese individuals with T2DM on weight, body composition, glycemic control and other CVD risk factors. Fifty-eight participants consumed a hypocaloric diet including Salvia hispanica or an energy-and-fibre-matched control over 24 weeks. Greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and inflammation occurred in the Salvia hispanica group versus control. There were no significant between-group differences in safety parameters, glycemic control or other CVD risk factors. Salvia hispanica seeds may support weight loss in overweight/obese individuals with T2DM. Further research is needed to determine whether these effects are maintained.MASTnutrition2
Broad, Amaalia Gariepy, Jean A Role for ETA(253-412) in Peptide-based Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules into Cells Pharmaceutical Sciences2010-02-15T20:14:55ZThe delivery of biomolecules by cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) is an innovative therapeutic strategy. However delivery efficiency is hindered by the entrapment of CPPs in vesicles, degradation, or recycling out of cells, which limits their delivery into the cell cytoplasm and nucleus. To overcome these barriers, we investigated a bacterial protein domain derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Exotoxin A (ETA, residues 253-412) that is able to exit vesicular compartments. A series of CPP-ETA(253-412) fusion proteins were constructed, expressed, and purified. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the internalization at 37oC of constructs containing CPPs (poly-arginine or TAT). In addition, constructs containing CPP-ETA(253-412)-eGFP were shown to relocate from endosomes to the cytosol. CPP-ETA(253-412) constructs were also able to act as carriers of DNA cargos facilitating their delivery to the cytosol. The ETA(253-412) translocation domain may prove useful for the intracellular delivery of drugs, protein therapeutics, siRNA delivery, and vaccine formulations.MASTinnovation9
Brokenshire, Catherine EmmaKepe, Thembela Feeling through Food: Examining Experience and Exclusion within Alternative Food Movements in Parkdale, Toronto Geography2020-06This thesis questions the role and relevance of alternative food movements by analyzing resident perspectives, emotions, everyday experiences and embodiment of food. Building on studies of exclusion and privilege in alternative food systems, the case study emphasizes emotions, resident perspectives and experiences to examine the success, or lack thereof, of alternatives in Parkdale, Toronto. The Political Ecology of the Body framework is used to analyze interconnections between structural forces, knowledge production, and relational ontology in alternative food systems, the neighbourhood food environment, and Parkdale. The thesis argues that exclusion is felt and embodied in alternative food spaces, decreasing the relevance to everyday food decisions. Furthermore, residents’ associations between place, gentrification and (alternative) food venues influence which spaces are felt to (not) serve community needs and threatens sense of place, reinforcing how exclusion is embodied and situated with the neighbourhood food system.M.A.food2
Bromberg, Simon EitanCafazzo, Joseph Consumer Wristband Activity Monitors as a Simple and Inexpensive Tool for Remote Heart Failure Monitoring Biomedical Engineering2015-11Daily physical activity is a strong indicator of heart failure (HF) severity that could help identify at-risk patients before acute decompensation and prevent late readmissions. However, remote-monitoring systems rarely incorporate any activity data. Consumer devices have made continuous activity tracking inexpensive and unobtrusive, but it is not clear whether such devices are suitable for monitoring patients. In this study 50 stable HF outpatients were given Fitbit Flex wristbands activity trackers to wear for two weeks to validate the use of these devices for remote monitoring. We developed metrics of peak activity based on minute-level step data that correlated with clinical cardiopulmonary exercise tests. These consumer devices were also found to be reliable with seamless data collection. Future studies examining the change of these activity metrics over longer periods time in relation to other indicators of HF will help establish the use of consumer devices as a viable remote monitoring tool.M.H.Sc.consum12
Bromfield, Mandisa Goldstein, Tara ||Flessa, Joseph Understanding Home-school Relationships within an Indigenous Community in an Urban Public School Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2011-11-29This study examines relationships between Indigenous parents and their children’s non-Indigenous teachers. As many Indigenous students are taught by mostly non-Indigenous teachers, this thesis aims to provide teachers with insights or strategies on how to work in a community that is perhaps unknown to them. There are three areas of focus within this thesis: critical issues within systems of education in Indigenous communities, critical issues that Indigenous parents face, and critical issues that schools with Indigenous students face.
This project has given both parents and teachers the chance to talk about the experiences of Indigenous children, the experiences of parents and teachers, and the relationships that form between the school, home, and the community. Also included are ideas that can be used by schools, school boards, and Indigenous communities to encourage strong relationships between homes of students and their schools.
Bronson, StefanieFrost, David First-year Kinesiology Students' Learning Experience in a Practice-based Course Exercise Sciences2016-11The purpose of this study was to investigate first-year kinesiology studentsâ learning experience in a practice-based course. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven first-student kinesiology students following their completion of a first year practice-based course. The six core tenets of experiential learning theory were used to structure the interview protocol and framed the initial steps in data analysis. The results show that the practice-based learning experience is different for all students. Despite such differences, four central themes emerged from the data: the importance of connection, consideration for the individuality of all learners, the influential role of the instructor, and the importance of the learning space. The significance of these findings is discussed and recommendations are provided for the enhancement of student learning in practice-based or experiential learning environments.M.Sc.inclusive3
Brousseau, Braiden Rose, Jonathan S. An Energy Efficient FPGA Hardware Architecture for the Acceleration of OpenCV Object Detection Electrical and Computer Engineering2012-11-21The use of Computer Vision in programmable mobile devices could lead to novel and creative applications. However, the computational demands of Computer Vision are ill-suited to low performance mobile processors. Also the evolving algorithms, due to active research in this fi eld, are ill-suited to dedicated digital circuits. This thesis proposes the inclusion of an FPGA co-processor in smartphones as a means of efficiently computing
tasks such as Computer Vision. An open source object detection algorithm is run on a mobile device and implemented on an FPGA to motivate this proposal. Our hardware implementation presents a novel memory architecture and a SIMD processing style that achieves both high performance and energy efficiency. The FPGA implementation outperforms a mobile device by 59 times while being 13.5 times more energy efficient.
MASTenergy; innovation7, 9
Brown, Eric ElvezioGraff-Guerrero, Ariel Alzheimer’s Disease Pathophysiology and Risk Factors with Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography, an Open Science Approach, and the Consideration of Environmental Exposures Medical Science2019-11Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia but is incompletely understood. The pathophysiology of AD involves amyloid-beta plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and cerebrovascular changes involving white matter. Risk factors including lead (Pb) exposure influence these processes. This thesis has four components related to improving the understanding of AD pathophysiology. First, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracer delivery was hypothesized to be associated with white matter integrity and was demonstrated to be correlated with established biomarkers in mild cognitive impairment. Second, an open source software package for PET analysis was created to improve transparency in AD research. Third, a systematic review of case-control studies of Pb measurement in AD is presented, which highlights the possible connection but identifies a need for studies that address early-life Pb exposure. And fourth, a hypothesis that environmental microdose lithium may mitigate Pb toxicity including cognitive impact is outlined with several literature reviews.M.Sc.health3
Brown, Meghan Post, Martin ||Subbarao, Padmaja Lung Clearance Index as a Marker of Ventilation Inhomogeneity in Early Childhood with Health and Disease Physiology2011-12-05Rationale: Ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) may be an early sign of obstructive airway disease. The lung clearance index (LCI) has been suggested as a sensitive marker of VI, although it has not been well characterized in young children in health and in those with CF and asthma.
Objective: To determine if LCI can detect VI in asymptomatic infants and preschool-age subjects with CF or wheeze/asthma compared to healthy controls.
Methods: Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) multiple breath washout (MBW) testing was completed in all subjects.
Results: LCI was found to be dependent on age in a large healthy cohort. Accounting for age, LCI was significantly elevated in disease groups compared to healthy controls in early childhood, illustrating early presence of VI in wheezy infants and the progression of disease in CF. Furthermore, the effects of breathing pattern and the variability of MBW parameters showed positive associations with age and VI.
Brown, VirginiaLiu, Fang An Intranasal Delivery Method for Novel Therapeutics to treat Major Depressive Disorder Physiology2013-11A problem in designing drugs that act upon the central nervous system is developing effective delivery methods. Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects 12% of men and 20% of women in the United States, and treatment options are often inadequate. In patients, the interaction between dopamine D1 and D2 receptors is correlated with major depressive disorder. A small peptide that disrupts this interaction can be delivered to brain areas using intranasal delivery. The D1-D2 interfering peptide has an antidepressant effect comparable to imipramine in the forced swimming test (FST), a test for antidepressant efficacy. At doses greater than 5.75 mg/kg, the D1-D2 interfering peptide has antidepressant action in the FST for 2 hours after intranasal administration. The D1-D2 interfering peptide disrupts the D1-D2 receptor interaction in the PFC after intranasal administration. This study provides preclinical support for intranasal administration of the D1-D2 interfering peptide as a new treatment option for MDD.MASThealth3
Browne, Dillon T. Jenkins, Jennifer M. Change in Child Health and Socioeconomic Status: Examining the Moderating Role of Differential Parenting Human Development and Applied Psychology2011-11-29Inequality within the family (i.e. differential parenting) is associated with a variety of measures of child adjustment. To date there is no research examining the effects of this phenomenon on children’s physical health, or on the fashion in which this phenomenon may combine and interact with socioeconomic markers. The present study assessed 375 mothers and their children over a period of 18 months. Differential maternal negativity between siblings predicted change in child health, controlling for child gender, age, maternal education, income/assets, and absolute level of negativity in the household. The association between maternal education and change in child health was strongest when children were also exposed to high differential negativity, suggesting that these predictors combined in a cumulative fashion. Findings indicate that multiple forms of social disadvantage (i.e. between families and between siblings) can operate independently or in combination with one another to predict change in child health.MASTsocioeconomic; health; gender; inequality5
Brubacher, Katherine Gérin-Lajoie, Diane Education and the Unschooled Student: Teachers’ Discourses on Teaching Elementary School English Literacy Development Students Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2011-11-29Based on empirical qualitative data collected by interviewing eight elementary school teachers from across four different school boards in Ontario and analyzing new Ontario Ministry of Education policy and guidelines for supporting and programming for English Literacy Development (ELD) students, this research seeks to better understand how teachers’ discourses influence their perception of ELD students’ experiences in elementary schools. In particular, I look at how they view their roles as teachers, the purpose of education and schooling, their personal views on diversity, and how they program literacy for ELD students. The participants’ discourses reveal that although they prioritize having positive relationships with their students, they often struggled to relate positively with their ELD students. Reassessing how the formal school is structured and providing directed professional development on teaching ELD students could work towards creating more positive learning experiences for ELD students in Ontario elementary schools.MASTeducat4
Brunsek, AshleyPerlman, Michal Early Education and Care Program Quality and Children's Well-being: a Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Applied Psychology and Human Development2015-11The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (-Revised) (ECERS/ECERS-R) is the most widely used assessment of global classroom quality in Early Childhood Education and Care programs. Despite prevalent use of the ECERS/ECERS-R in research and applied settings, its impact on child outcomes have not been systematically reviewed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the ECERS/ECERS-R and children’s well-being. Searches of Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, websites of large datasets and reference sections of all retrieved articles were conducted up to January 2013. Eligible studies provided a statistical link between the ECERS/ECERS-R and child outcomes. Sixty-three empirical studies met our inclusion criteria. All studies were included in the systematic review and 23 could be meta-analyzed. Associations between ECERS/ECERS-R total and factor scores and children’s cognitive, language, math, and social-emotional outcomes are evident but weak. Greater consistency in study methodology is critical in this area of research.M.A.educat4
Bryant, Katelyn Willows, Dale Reading Instruction on YouTube: Insights from Searches on Five Key Reading Topics Human Development and Applied Psychology2012-11-28The recognition that YouTube, a free-access video sharing website, is being widely used as a source of public information has lead medical researchers to conduct studies on health-related videos. However, it appears that educational researchers have not explored YouTube videos about reading instruction, given that no published studies could be located on this topic. The current study conducted controlled searches related to the “big five” areas of early elementary reading instruction as identified by the National Reading Panel (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text comprehension). Search results were recorded and the top 40 “most relevant” videos on each topic were analyzed to determine information about viewership, format, content, and creators of the videos. Results indicated that while YouTube videos addressing all five areas of reading instruction were prolific and highly viewed, users would need to be critical, informed, and tech-savvy in order to find relevant videos from credible sources.MASTeducat4
Bryson, Laura C.Abizaid, Christian Spatial Patterns of Natural Resource Depletion among Rain Forest Communities in the Peruvian Amazon: The Role of Protected Areas and Indigenous Territories in the Conservation of Key Species Geography2017-06Human-induced environmental change is not a new phenomenon in biologically rich areas of western Amazonia. Rain forest communities have long modified their environments, pursuing a diverse portfolio of economic activities for subsistence and income generation. Globally, protected areas (PAs) are the chief conservation strategy. While the effectiveness of different PA models continues to be debated, recent research acknowledges the significance of extractive PAs and indigenous territories to the conservation of biodiversity in human-modified landscapes. Using community census data collected from rain forest communities in the data poor region of the Peruvian Amazon (N=919), spatial clustering and regression analyses are applied to evaluate the effect of proximity to extractive PAs and indigenous territories on relative availability of key species. Controlling for important environmental, market, and community characteristics, our research indicates that extractive PAs and indigenous territories have helped to preserve the availability of key species by certain measures that we isolate in the work.M.Sc.environment; conserv; forest; biodiversity15
Bubis, Lev DavidKaranicolas, Paul J Investigating Associations Between Preoperative Patient-Reported Symptom Burden and Postoperative Outcomes Following Major Cancer Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-11Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are prognostic of long-term survival in cancer patients. However, their association with postoperative outcomes following major oncologic surgery is not well characterized. A retrospective population-based cohort study of rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant radiotherapy and proctectomy was conducted. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to select a scoring approach for the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System to define elevated preoperative symptom burden. Multivariable regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between preoperative symptom scores and postoperative outcomes. High preoperative symptom scores were not associated with postoperative major morbidity (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.84-1.97). However, high preoperative symptom scores were associated with prolonged postoperative length of stay (IRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32), 30-day hospital readmission (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.30-2.34), and 30-day post-discharge ED visits (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.71). PROs can contribute important information for identification of patients at risk for increased healthcare utilization in the postoperative period.M.Sc.health3
Buchan, Tayler AGoodman, Jack M Right Heart and Pulmonary Hemodynamic Response to Prolonged Exercise in Middle-Aged Endurance Athletes Exercise Sciences2017-11Chronic endurance exercise has shown to contribute to disproportionate right ventricular (RV) remodeling in athletes, and prolonged strenuous exercise has been associated with acute changes in RV function post-exercise, which are transient. RV function has been closely coupled to pulmonary arterial (PA) hemodynamics, and PA pressures appear to increase progressively with exercise intensity. There is however a paucity of directly-measured pulmonary hemodynamic data to support this observation. We characterized the PA hemodynamic and RV functional responses to acute, step-incremental (n=16) and sustained steady-state aerobic exercise (n=5) in healthy, middle-aged endurance athletes. All subjects underwent simultaneous right heart catheterization and echocardiography. PA pressures increased after initiation of exercise, then stabilized, without further change during acute and prolonged exercise. Accordingly, indices of RV function did not decline during prolonged exercise, altogether arguing against the notion that sustained elevations in pulmonary pressures may compromise RV systolic performance during prolonged aerobic exercise.M.Sc.health3
Buchanan, Sarah WillowIsaac, Marney||Martin, Adam Intraspecific Variation in Leaf and Root Traits across Nutrient and Light Gradients in Coffee Agroforestry Systems Geography2016-06Functional traits can evaluate crop responses to farm-level management practices, however there are considerable uncertainties as to the extent and drivers of trait variation. In a coffee agroforestry system I examined three shade and four nutrient treatments, in order to i) quantify intraspecific trait variation of coffee leaves and roots along soil fertility and light gradients, and ii) test if the functional biology of coffee, as described by its position along a known functional trait spectra, is best predicted by soil nutrients or light. Low light led to high intraspecific variation within plant photosynthetic rates while high light systems resulted in reduced intraspecific variation across all leaf traits. High fertilization produced lower amounts of intraspecific root variation. Finally, functional traits correlated along a resource gradient as expected. Agroforestry systems then have the potential to increase within species variation, which has important long-term consequences for the structure and function of agroecosystems.M.Sc.forest15
Bui, Randy Buliung, Ron Toward an Understanding of the Built Environment Influences on the Carpool Formation and Use Process: A Case Study of Employer-based Users within the Service Sector of Smart Commute’s Carpool Zone Geography2011-12-05The recent availability of geo-enabled web-based tools creates new possibilities for facilitating carpool formation. Carpool Zone is a web-based carpool formation service offered by Metrolinx, the transportation planning authority for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA), Canada. The carpooling literature has yet to uncover how different built environments may facilitate or act as barriers to carpool propensity. This research explores the relationship between the built environment and carpool formation.
With respect to the built environment, industrial and business parks (homogeneous land-use mix) are associated with high odds of forming carpools. The results suggest that employer transport policies are also among the more salient factors influencing carpool formation and use. Importantly, the findings indicate that firms interested in promoting carpooling will require contingencies to reduce the uncertainty of ride provision that may hamper long-term carpool adoption by employees.
Buick, Jason Eric Morrison, Laurie J Does Location Matter? How Neighbourhoods Influence Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Outcomes Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2013-11Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a life-threatening emergency. Research from other disciplines has suggested that location is a strong determinant of health outcomes. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to determine the role of neighborhoods in OHCA. We hypothesized that neighbourhood factors are associated with: survival to hospital discharge, a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) at emergency department (ED) arrival, and provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This thesis demonstrates that for the most part neighbourhood inequalities were not associated with outcomes. This thesis confirmed that, while the Utstein variables account for a large portion of patients who survive, they poorly account for patients who had a ROSC at ED arrival or received bystander CPR. Inclusion of neighbourhood factors to the Utstein variables significantly improved discrimination for survival and a ROSC at ED arrival, but not bystander CPR. Future research should determine what additional factors could predict outcomes.MASThealth3
Buitenhuis, Amy Johanna Siemiatycki, Matti ||Cowen, Deborah Public-private Partnerships and Prison Expansion in Ontario: Shifts in Governance 1995 to 2012 Geography2013-11-21This research explores the changing role of the private sector in provincial prison infrastructure expansion in Ontario. After contracting out the operations of a new prison and facing much resistance, the provincial government began delivering prisons by maintaining public operations but financing them privately through public-private partnerships. To understand the political and economic impacts of these changes, I analyzed relevant government documents and interviews I conducted with 15 key informants from government agencies, firms and other organizations involved in creating, implementing and resisting prison expansion policies between 1995 and today. I show how changes in infrastructure governance were shaped by contestation between the state, international financial investors, private firms in Canada, labour and others involved in prison systems. Through public-private partnerships, the role of government shifted towards that of market facilitator, and as infrastructure was placed on global debt markets, international financial capital played a new part in prison development.  MASTgovernance16
Burek, Brittany LaurenMartinussen, Rhonda Pilot Study Investigating the Impacts of Behavioural Inattention and Meta-Attention on Post-Secondary Students' Online Information Seeking for Academic Purposes Applied Psychology and Human Development2017-11Success at the graduate level of postsecondary education requires proficiency with academic online information seeking. Navigating the internet to find information is a complicated task that is vulnerable to lapses in attention. This study examined the relationships between graduate studentsâ self-reported behavioural inattention symptoms, meta-attention and online academic information seeking abilities. One-hundred and thirteen (99 female) graduate students (83 Masters-Level, 27 Doctoral Level) completed an online self-report questionnaire examining behavioural inattention symptoms, meta-attention, time-management and online information seeking ability. Results indicated that self-reported inattention, meta-attention, experience, and diagnostic status each significantly predicted unique variance in online information seeking ability. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.M.A.educat4
Burford, Natasha Dei, George ||Portelli, John Decolonizing Pedagogy: Critical Consciousness and its impact on schooling for Black students Humanities, Social Sciences and Social Justice Education2014-06-24In this thesis, I consider the ways in which classroom teachers develop critical consciousness and implement it within their pedagogy in the context of effectively teaching Black students to achieve academic success. The process of critical consciousness is complex and is mainly studied outside of teacher education. The findings of this thesis fall into three main themes: self-awareness; analysis of power; and inquiry of assumptions. The research also demonstrates that the spirituality of the teacher is an important contributing factor in one’s transformation. With this work, the hope is that teacher education programs dialogue about the importance of critical consciousness, and integrate it into the recipe that makes up “quality teaching” so that all students can have the opportunity to succeed in an equitable schooling environment.MASTequitable; educat4
Burgess, Allysa Jane Laura Zheng, Gang Topical Molecular Beacons for In Vivo Image-guided Resection of Oral Carcinoma Medical Biophysics2014-11Oral carcinoma has become a major health problem, with nearly 300,000 people diagnosed worldwide annually. The 5-year survival rate is as low as 30%, mainly attributed to poor delineation of lesions. Optical imaging approaches to identify oral carcinoma tissue during surgery are currently in trial. While decreased recurrence rates are shown, high rates of false positives occur. Expanding upon this, a molecular beacon strategy for oral carcinoma delineation was devised.The selected MMP molecular beacon consists of a fluorophore conjugated to a quencher via a disease-specific linker, activated by MMPs. The activated beacon becomes fluorescent, guiding resection. MMPs have been associated with oral tumors and several members as highly upregulated in oral carcinoma, making them an ideal target.I investigated, in vivo, the utility of this MMP-cleavable beacon in targeting oral carcinoma. Here I demonstrate its high tumor specificity and potential for integration into the clinic to improve patient outcome.M.Sc.health3
Burnett, Heather Ungar, Wendy Joan Parents' Preferences for Drug Treatments in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: A Discrete Choice Experiment Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2011-12-05BACKGROUND: Parents of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are often forced to make trade-offs between the effectiveness, convenience, safety, and cost of drug treatments for their child.
A discrete choice experiment was administered to parents of children with JIA to determine their preferences for drug treatments. Multinomial logit regression was used to estimate part-worth utilities and willingness-to-pay.
Participation in daily activities was the most important attribute, followed by child reported pain. Child age, gender, years with JIA, and household income had the greatest impact on preferences. Parents’ were willing to pay $2,080 to switch from a drug representing methotrexate to etanercept (95% CI $698, $4,065).
Parents of children with JIA have the highest maximum willingness-to-pay for drug treatments that improve daily functioning and reduce pain. Cost is a significant factor in the decisions that parents make surrounding the best treatment for a child.
Burrell, Michael Malcolm, Jay R. ||Drapeau, Pierre Multicohort Management and LiDAR: New Forest Management Tools for Northeastern Ontario Boreal Mixedwood Bird Communities Forestry2010-01-11T19:05:05ZWhile traditional management of the boreal forests results in even-aged forests with low landscape scale variability, recent work has suggested that much of the eastern boreal forest of North America is subject to long natural fire return-intervals. This has led to the development of new management strategies to maintain a mosaic of even and multi-aged stands. In this context I investigated the relationships between diameter-distributions, stand age, forest structure and bird communities. Results showed weak associations of the bird community with cohort classes, but that diameter-distributions can work to succinctly describe some of the variation in stand structure and bird communities. I also explored the utility of LiDAR to measure important structural features for bird communities. Results showed that LiDAR can outperform traditional measures of stand structure at explaining bird communities at differing scales.MASTforest15
Busic, Tatijana Chen, Charles Optimal Life-career Development of Immigrant Professionals Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-05-24T19:24:49ZLiterature addressing Canada’s immigrant professionals has primarily focused on the negative aspects of life-career transition. Research themes have centered on discouraging features of migration such as barriers, discrimination, underemployment and unemployment. Surprisingly few studies have explored how, in spite of personal and environmental barriers, some new Canadians have found they have flourished in their new country. The purpose of this study is to explore the lived experiences of a group of immigrant professionals who believe they have successfully transitioned in the life-career domains.
Using a grounded theory approach, 20 individuals were interviewed about their experiences. Analysis revealed that a combination of internal and external factors contributed or hindered their life-career trajectories. Meaning making, social support and behavioural coping emerged as primary coping strategies. Issues with language and accreditation emerged as significant barriers to life-career development. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
Butt, Debra Ann Glazier, Richard H. Antihypertensives and Hip Fracture Risk in Community-dwelling Elderly: A Self-controlled Case Series Analysis Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2011-12-05Antihypertensive drugs can cause hypotension in the elderly and such an effect may lead to fall injuries. This thesis examined the association between antihypertensive drugs and hip fracture risk among elderly patients during the initiation of monotherapy. This population-based self-controlled case series study used healthcare administrative databases to identify Ontario residents aged ≥ 66 years with a first prescription for a thiazide diuretic, angiotension II converting-enzyme inhibitor, angiotensin II receptor antagonist, calcium channel blocker or beta-adrenergic blocker. A cohort of newly treated hypertensive elderly was then linked to the occurrence of hip fractures from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2009. We found that hypertensive elderly initiated on an antihypertensive drug had a 43% increased risk of having a hip fracture during the first 45 days of treatment, IRR 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Initiating antihypertensive drugs in community-dwelling elderly should be approached with caution due to increased fracture risk.MASThealth3
Butt, Jamila AkhtarBascia, Nina Building Sustainable Leadership for Inclusive School Communities: A Case of Muslim Parents Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2015-06This study explores how Muslim parents in the Greater Toronto Area are engaged in their children's education and the challenges they face in trying to engage with the public school system. The public schools in Ontario are secular by law and free from any religious affiliation. They are however encouraged to find ways to accommodate the religious practices of students and parents of the Islamic faith and other faiths. Using a qualitative methodology, twelve Muslim parents selected from ethnically diverse backgrounds were interviewed. Data was collected and analyzed utilizing constant comparative method. Four major themes emerged from the data which focused on the centrality of religion in these parents' households. Implications point towards the need for a culturally responsive policy that integrate Muslim values, cultural and religious beliefs in schools, which will make Ontario a stronger province that encourages people of all cultures and diversities to succeed and thrive.M.A.educat4
Byma, A. Stuart Chow, Paul Virtualizing FPGAs for Cloud Computing Applications Electrical and Computer Engineering2014-11Cloud computing has become a multi-billion dollar industry, and represents a computing paradigm where all resources are virtualized, flexible and scalable. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have the potential to accelerate many cloud-based applications, but as of yet are not available as cloud resources because they are so different from the conventional microprocessors that virtual machines (VMs) are based on. This thesis presents a first attempt at virtualizing and integrating FPGAs into cloud computing systems, making them available as generic cloud resources to end users. A novel architecture enabling this integration is presented and explored, and several custom hardware applications are evaluated on a prototype system. These applications show that Virtualized FPGA Resources can significantly outperform VMs in certain classes of common cloud computing applications, showing the potential to increase user compute power while reducing datacenter power consumption and operating costs.M.A.S.industr9
Byrne, Ani M. Boon, Heather Natural Health Products (NHPs) and Canadian Pharmacy Students: Core Competencies Pharmaceutical Sciences2010-01-11T19:08:14ZObjective: To reach consensus on entry-to-practice natural health product (NHP)-related competency statements for Canadian pharmacy students.
Methods: Four rounds of a modified Delphi method were conducted. Participants; pharmacy educators,and representatives from Canadian pharmacy organizations (n=17), ranked their level of agreement using a 5-point Likert scale.
Results: Consensus occurred when all participants ranked a statement 4 or 5. Three core NHP-related competencies were identified: 1) the ability to incorporate NHP knowledge when providing pharmaceutical care; 2) the ability to access and critically appraise NHP-related information sources, and 3) the ability to provide appropriate education to patients and other health care providers on the effectiveness and potential adverse effects and drug interactions of NHPs. Two additional NHP-related competency statements emerged as important, but consensus was not achieved.
Conclusions: If the developed core NHP-related competency statements are widely implemented, Canadian pharmacists will be able to fulfill their NHP-related professional responsibilities upon entry-to-practice.
Caban, Liani Rogerson, Carol Regulation of Midwifery in Puerto Rico Law2013-11-21Scholars and midwives agree that women’s autonomy over decisions related to birth is not being respected in a country where there is mainly one birth setting and one type of provider, in particular, when this setting and provider are often link to the use of unnecessary and excessive medical interventions. This is the case of Puerto Rico. I argue that midwifery could be an answer to this problem. Midwifery in Puerto Rico is not yet regulated, but I claim that in order to promote Puerto Rican women’s autonomy, midwifery regulation has to be well thought. This thesis includes an analysis of a bill proposed in Puerto Rico that pretended to regulate midwifery. Submissions presented to the legislature are also analyzed and criticized in this thesis. Some recommendations are provided on how Puerto Rico can enact a sensible scheme of midwifery regulation that would enhance midwives autonomy and therefore women’s autonomy.MASTwomen; health3, 5
Cadger, Kirstie Isaac, Marney Development Interventions and Agricultural Adaptation in a Changing Environment: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Transfer in Ghana Geography2014-06Formal social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing-country agriculture with high exposure to development interventions. However, little is known about informal agrarian knowledge transfer in such an institutional agricultural information landscape and the consequences in terms of smallholder farm management in regions undergoing environmental change. Using a social network approach, I chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks in six communities which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development intervention in the Brong Ahafo and Ashanti regions of Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable, with development project affiliated and male farmers tending toward larger networks and engaging in more diverse agricultural production. Furthermore, agriculture-related knowledge sources were dependent on the type of crop species produced. As promotion of diverse agriculture systems continues as a response to environmental change, understanding such social and agroecological complexities will be important for effective agriculture interventions.M.A.agriculture; environment; production2, 12, 13
Caguiat, Johnathon Jia, Charles Q. Nanoporous Carbons: Porous Characterization and Electrical Performance in Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitors Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2013-11-21Nanoporous carbons have become a material of interest in many applications such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (supercapacitors). Supercapacitors are being studied for their potential in storing electrical energy storage from intermittent sources and in use as power sources that can be charged rapidly. However, a lack of understanding of the charge storage mechanism within a supercapacitor makes it difficult to optimize them. Two components of this challenge are the difficulties in experimentally characterizing the sub-nanoporous structure of carbon electrode materials and the electrical performance of the supercapacitors. This work provides a means to accurately characterize the porous structure of sub-nanoporus carbon materials and identifies the current limitations in characterizing the electrical performance of a supercapacitor cell. Future work may focus on the relationship between the sub-nano porous structure of the carbon electrode and the capacitance of supercapacitors, and on the elucidation of charge storage mechanisms.MASTenergy7
Cai, YuxuanMostaghimi, Javad||Coyle, Thomas W Superhydrophobic Ceramic Coatings by Solution Precursor Plasma Spray Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-11Superhydrophobic surfaces exhibit superior water repellent properties, and they have remarkable potential to improve current energy infrastructure. Substantial research has been performed on the production of superhydrophobic coatings. However, superhydrophobic coatings have not yet been adopted in many industries where potential applications exist due to the limited durability of the coating materials and the complex and costly fabrication processes. Here presented a novel coating technique to manufacture ceramic superhydrophobic coatings rapidly and economically. A rare earth oxide (REO) was selected as the coating material due to its hydrophobic nature and strong mechanical properties, and deposited on stainless steel substrates by solution precursor plasma spray (SPPS). The as-sprayed coating demonstrated a hierarchically structured coating topography, which closely resembles superhydrophobic surfaces in nature. Compared to smooth REO surfaces, the SPPS superhydrophobic coating improved the water contact angle by as much as 65° after vacuum treatment at 1 Pa for 48 hours.M.A.S.water; energy6, 7
Camp, Mark McKneally, Martin ||Alman, Benjamin Patient Views on Financial Relationships between Orthopaedic Surgeons and Orthopaedic Device Manufacturers Medical Science2011-12-05Revelations of kickbacks from surgical device manufacturers to surgeons raise the question whether surgeons can continue to collaborate with industry and maintain public trust. Using qualitative and quantitative methodology, this thesis explores surgical patients’ views on financial relationships between surgeons and manufacturers and patients’ recommendations for managing these conflicts of interest.
A majority of patients approve of surgeon’s relationships with manufacturers that can benefit patients but disapprove of those that primarily benefit the surgeon and the manufacturer. The majority of patients do not endorse disclosure as a sole method of managing these relationships. The majority of patients trust the surgical profession to self-regulate and favour professional oversight rather than by government to ensure financial relationships between surgeons and manufacturers are appropriate.
My data supports my argument that there should be professional oversight of financial relationships between surgeons and manufacturers, which may allow continued collaboration with manufacturers while maintaining public trust.
Campbell, Courtney Langille, Brian A. The Core Principles of Arbitral Expertise: A New Lens Through Which to View Weber v. Ontario Hydro Law2010-01-12T16:21:40ZThis thesis considers the substance of a labour arbitrator’s expertise. The author argues that the question is timely in that its answer provides a novel way to approach the position the Supreme Court of Canada has taken with respect to an arbitrator’s rightful jurisdiction, most notably in the over-decade old decision of Weber v. Ontario Hydro, a decision which continues to act as a thorn in arbitrators’ sides.MASTlabour8
Campbell, Leslie Isaac, Marney E. Biophysical Drivers of Tree Crop Performance in Shade Agroforestry Systems: The Case of Coffee in Costa Rica Geography2012-07-24Agroforestry production methods present one option for addressing growing concerns about the long term sustainability of intensive coffee production techniques. A study was designed to compare the effects of fertilization and shading from two leguminous species, Erythrina poeppigiana and Chloroleucon eurycyclum, on coffee grown at a Costa Rican research site. Coffee below biannually pruned, conventionally fertilized Erythrina exhibited the highest photosynthetic performance under both low and high light levels as well as greater biomass and higher N concentration. Soil P did not affect coffee performance, although shade trees on sites with higher soil P fixed more N compared to trees grown on low P sites, most of which were not found to be fixing. Results suggest shade mechanisms are the most important drivers of coffee adaptation in coffee agroforestry systems, though proper soil nutrient management and legume species pairing also appear to augment coffee response to microclimate conditions.MASTforest; production; agriculture2, 12, 15
Campbell, Ruth Fisman, David ||Hodges, Brian ||Robertson, Angela The Experiences of Immigrants Seeking Healthcare in Toronto Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2011-12-20Background: The provision of healthcare for immigrants is a global issue. Understanding the complexities of migrant’s experiences seeking healthcare is essential to improving their ability to access healthcare. This qualitative study reports on the experiences seeking healthcare for three groups of migrants.
Methods: Seventeen one-on-one interviews were conducted with Spanish-speaking women through an interpreter. Community-based participatory action research was the framework utilized for this study.
Results: An individual’s immigration status emerged as the single most important factor affecting both an individual’s ability to seek out healthcare and what their experiences are when trying to access healthcare.
Conclusion: This study brings to light two issues that are not discussed in great depth in the migrant health service literature. The immigration status of migrants is the largest factor affecting their ability to seek healthcare. Food security is a very stressful issue for many refugees and undocumented immigrants.
Campigotto, Rachelle Eichler, Margrit Farmers' Markets and their Practices Concerning Income, Privilege and Race: A Case Study of the Wychwood Artscape Barns in Toronto Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2010-07-22T15:28:10ZThe popularity of Farmers’ markets is on the rise; in Canada there are 425 farmers’
markets, with over 130 in Ontario alone (Feagan, Morris, & Krug, 2004). Farmers’ markets provide high quality, local produce and are often considered an environmentally sustainable food practice (Taxel, 2003; King 2008). United States studies have scrutinized farmers’ markets as exclusionary white spaces that are not equitably accessible, but similar Canadian studies are rare. A case study at the Wychwood Artscape Barns, located in an economically and culturally diverse neighbourhood, in Toronto Ontario has been conducted. Demographics surveys of patrons were compared with existing demographic data; interviews were conducted to discover who shops at
the market and for what reasons; results were analyzed using whiteness theory. Results were consistent with U.S. studies – Wychwood Farmers’ Market patrons were white, high income,individuals with university educations; these individuals shop at the market disproportionally to the demographic data.
Cankech, Onencan Apuke Wane, Njoki Examining the Wrongs Against the Present African Women: An Enquiry on Black Women’s Roles and Contributions from Antiquity - A Black African Male Scholarly Comparative Perspective Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2010-07-22T15:29:37ZThe thesis examined the roles and contributions of Black women during the African ancient civilization by analyzing the lives, roles and contributions of Queen Hatshepsut and Nefertiti as case studies and interrogates how Black women positioned themselves as political, military and spiritual leaders during the age of antiquity. The argument is that African women were more involved as leaders in the affairs of their communities as compared to the contemporary times. By using African centered paradigms, Afrocentricity and juxtaposing robust anti-colonial and Black feminist thoughts, the thesis investigates and recreates systematic narratives of the past roles of African women at the very height of African civilization, discussed the changes in sex-gender roles and explained why contemporary women continue to experience difficulties in assessing position of leadership and resources. The study reproduces measured facts to confront the blurred roles and contributions of African women and situates it at the centre of education.MASTgender; women5
Canniffe, Michael Morgan, Ed The Crown, Public Authorities and Class Action Lawsuits Law2011-12-05This work considers the interplay between the Crown, public authorities and the class action device. The class action is a relatively recent legal innovation that allows for the collective redress of similarly situated victims through a single strand of litigation. Class actions are most commonly associated with the pursuit and remediation of corporate wrongdoing, however the Canadian government has been pursued to a significant extent as class action law has rolled out across the country.

In stark contrast to commercial defendants, public authorities carry on their activities for the public good and on a not-for-profit basis. The best of intentions and a lack of profit do not imply that liability should be denied, rather that it should be managed as effectively as possible. This work examines and advocates for the careful use of various tools which limit the potential impact class action lawsuits pose to public service delivery.
Cao, Lijing Flood, Colleen M. The Prospect for Health Care Rights in China Law2012-12-04The 2009 reform of China’s health care system attempts to lower the burden of medical costs and provide universal access to health care. This thesis focuses on a particular access and equity gap within the health care system that faced by internal migrants, and explores the potential value of a legally enforceable and justiciable right to health care in the Chinese context to address such gaps. Despite recent advances in the health care reform, lack of a framework of health care rights could be a limiting factor to current health care initiatives which are falling short of their promises of universality in some way. In the long run, establishment of such framework could be a direction that deserves further research.MASThealth; rights3, 16
Cao, Xiaoshu Wania, Frank Advancing Bioaccumulation Modeling and Water Sampling of Ionogenic Organic Chemicals Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2014-06-24Although many commercial chemicals can dissociate, the study of the biological and environmental fate of ionogenic organic chemicals (IOCs) is still in its infancy. Uptake of the veterinary drug diclofenac in vultures and cattle was successfully simulated with a newly developed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for IOCs, lending credence to diclofenac’s proposed role in South Asian vulture population declines. Proteins and phospholipids rather than total lipids control the tissue distribution of diclofenac.
A method was developed to simultaneously extract neutral and acidic pesticides and benzotriazoles from water samples with recoveries ranging 70-100%. This method was applied to samples from a laboratory calibration experiment of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler. The sampler had higher uptake for neutral and acidic pesticides when filled with triphasic sorbent admixture and OASIS MAS sorbent, respectively. While either sorbent can also be applied for methylated benzotriazoles, neither is capable of quantitatively sampling all three compound groups.
MASTenvironment; water6, 13
Cardoso, ElaineAzarpazhooh, Amir Association between Caregiver’s and Child’s Oral Health Status and Oral Health Related Quality of Life Dentistry2015-11Objectives: To investigate associations between caregivers and children’s oral health, as well as the perceptions of the impact of oral diseases on oral health.
Methods: Cross-sectional study with 149 child-caregiver dyads from a convenience sample in Toronto. Objective and subjective data about oral health and quality of life were collected from both children and caregivers groups.
Results: Decay in permanent and primary teeth in children was moderately with missing teeth in caregivers, as well as with most of the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Mostly weak associations were observed between the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) scores and missing teeth in caregivers.
Conclusion: Significant associations emphasize the influence of caregivers on children’s oral health outcomes and raise awareness about dental care coverage to disadvantaged families. Despite the questionable findings with some subjective measures, policymakers may still consider the use of patient-centered information to analysing disease trends in the population.
Carey, Nathalie Gideon, Koren The Long-term Neurocognitive Development of Children Exposed to Above Manufacturer Recommended Doses of Diclectin In Utero Pharmacology2012-11-21Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 90% of pregnancies. Diclectin (doxylamine/pyridoxine) is the only anti-emetic approved in Canada for NVP, at a maximum dose of 4 tablets/day. However, some women receive higher doses, up to 12 tablets/day. In this study we compared the neurocognitive development of children from four mother-child groups: (1) NVP and >4 tablets Diclectin, (2) NVP and ≤ 4 tablets Diclectin, (3) NVP and no treatment and (4) no NVP. Children received a full age-appropriate psychological assessment. All groups scored in the normal range for IQ and cognition tests. The Diclectin-exposed groups scored significantly higher on a small number of subtests, but none of the differences could be considered clinically significant. No dose-dependent effects were observed. Above manufacturer recommended doses of Diclectin do not appear to harm neurodevelopment and should be considered safe for the treatment of NVP.MASThealth
Carlisle, Corine Elizabeth To, Teresa Continuity of Care, Emergency Department Visits and Readmission in Adolescents with Psychiatric Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study using Propensity Score Matching Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2010-12-15T16:22:23ZObjective: To determine whether continuity of care (COC) reduces emergency department (ED) visits and/or readmission in adolescents with psychiatric disorders. Methods: A retrospective cohort of adolescents discharged with psychiatric disorder between April 1, 2002 and March 1, 2004 was identified using hospital administrative databases. Good COC was defined as at least one aftercare contact in 30 days. Confounding by patient characteristics was adjusted for by propensity-score-matching of good and poor COC adolescents. Cox PH was used to analyze time to outcome. Results: 48.77% of adolescents had good COC. 38.39% of adolescents had ED visit or readmission in the year post-discharge. Good COC increased risk of readmission (HR = 1.38 (1.14 – 1.66)), but not of ED visits (HR = 1.14 (0.95 – 1.37)). Conclusions: COC increased risk of readmission by 38% but did not increase risk of ED visits. These findings are contextualized. Implications to adolescent mental health service delivery are discussed.MASThealth3
Carlos, Jessica KrystleWilson, Kathi Canada's (Live-in) Caregiver Program: Perceived Impacts on Health and Access to Health Care among Immigrant Filipina Live-in Caregivers in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada Geography2016-11This research examines the relationship between employment as a live-in caregiver under the (Live-in) Caregiver Program and health and access to health care services in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario. Semi-structured interviews are used to examine how perceptions of health and access to health care services are impacted by employment conditions among twenty-one current and former immigrant Filipina live-in caregivers. The findings demonstrate that employment as a live-in caregiver negatively impacts physical health due to a change in diet, increasingly sedentary lifestyle and exposure to a negative environment. Negative impacts on mental health was also reported due to family separation and work related stress. Further, being a live-in caregiver was seen to facilitate and create barriers accessing health services. Future research must examine more socially isolated caregivers as well as caregivers living-out(side) their place of employment to examine the impact other aspects of employment as a caregiver has on health.M.A.health3
Carlson, KaitlinPressnail, Kim Value Impacts of Energy Efficiency Retrofits on Commercial Office Buildings in Toronto, Canada Civil Engineering2015-03The intent of this thesis is to strengthen the business case for sustainable building in Canada by studying the relationship between building energy efficiency and value. This is accomplished through detailed examination of four Toronto commercial office building retrofit case studies with quantitative pre- and post-retrofit energy and financial data. The income capitalization approach to building appraisal is adopted as a model for linking sustainability to value through net operating income. The results suggest that retrofitting buildings can decrease operating costs, increase occupancy rates, and increase effective rent (rental revenue), thereby increasing net operating income. These benefits are not necessarily achieved in every retrofit; however where these benefits do occur, they have positive effects on value.M.A.S.infrastructure9
Carlyle, Jennilee Mochizuki, George Factors That Influence Force Steadiness in Individuals with Upper Limb Spasticity after Stroke Rehabilitation Science2014-11Individuals with post-stroke spasticity are disabled by paresis, soft-tissue shortening and muscle over-activity, which significantly affect functional motor output (FMO). Force steadiness (FS) describes the ability to maintain an isometric contraction, and is associated with functional task performance in healthy individuals. The coupling between FS and FMO suggests that FS may be a sensitive metric of FMO deficits that accompany spasticity that may not be captured using clinical scales. This thesis examined muscle weakness, muscle over-activity, and electromechanical coupling as potential factors influencing FS in upper limb spasticity. The affected limb was significantly less steady than the less-affected limb. Absolute force was negatively correlated with CV of force. However, co-activation indices were not different between limbs. Finally, flexor EMG was temporally correlated with force output. These measures may provide sensitive metrics of functional motor deficits that could be used as a tool to characterize effect of spasticity management interventions.M.Sc.health3
Carricato, Megan Wales, Paul W. Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Intestinal Failure on Home Parenteral Nutrition Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2011-01-06T15:00:27ZIntroduction: Medical advances have resulted in reduced mortality of pediatric patients with Intestinal Failure. Consequently, more patients go home on parenteral nutrition (PN) for extended durations. This time-consuming and complicated therapy necessitates persistent vigilance in monitoring and response to potential life-threatening side effects. These issues may impact quality of life (QOL) for patients, caregivers and families.
Methods: This observational, cross-sectional, mixed-methods analysis of multidimensional QOL used a quantitative battery assessment and a qualitative focus group. Questionnaire results were compared to published norms, published small bowel transplant (SBTx), and institutional SBTx patients.
Results: Home PN proxy assessments scored children lower than published norms but similar to SBTx. The child self-reports were similar to both normative and SBTx populations, except lower general and overall health. Generic questionnaires did not capture disease-specific issues.
Conclusion: QOL is compromised in children on home PN and caregivers compared to norms but is similar to SBTx.
Carscadden, KellyCadotte, Marc W||Gilbert, Benjamin Trait Choice and Dimensionality Alter Estimates of Phenotypic Dissimilarity in Community Ecology Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2011-11The ecological niche is a multi-dimensional concept including aspects of resource use, environmental tolerance, and interspecific interactions, and the degree to which niches overlap is central to many ecological questions. Plant phenotypic traits are increasingly used as surrogates of species niches, but we lack an understanding of how key sampling decisions affect our ability to capture phenotypic differences among species. Using vegetative and floral trait data of ecologically distinct monkeyflower (Mimulus) congeners, I employed linear discriminant analysis, which uses proportional assignment of individuals to species, as an estimate of how well the traits we measure can capture phenotypic differences among species. Trait combinations that maximize species discrimination were not predictable a-priori based on the number of trait groups or inclusion of ‘key’ functional traits. Instead, high trait dimensionality consistently increased my ability to detect phenotypic differences among species. Population choice was similarly important and should be considered in trait-based studies.M.Sc.environment13
Carsley, Stefanie Reaume, Denise Conceiving a Feminist Legal Approach to Frozen Embryos: Exploring the Limitations of Canadian Responses to Disposition Disputes and Donor Anonymity Law2013-11-21This thesis advances a feminist critique of Canadian legal responses to disputes over frozen in vitro embryos and embryo donor anonymity. It argues that current laws that provide spouses or partners with joint control over the use and disposition of embryos created from their genetic materials, that mandate the creation of agreements setting out these parties intentions in the event of a disagreement or divorce and that protect donor anonymity without providing mechanisms to allow donors, recipients and donor offspring to voluntarily exchange information do not adequately account for the lived experiences of women who undergo in vitro fertilization treatment or who serve as embryo donors. This thesis provides recommendations for how Canadian laws and policies might better support the express objectives and intentions of Canadian federal and provincial statutes to protect the rights, interests and health of women who seek to build their families through assisted reproductive technologies.MASThealth; WOMEN; rights3, 5, 16
Carter, Cherie Miller, John P. Holistic Education: Implementing and Maintaining a Holistic Teaching Practice Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2013-11-20Abstract
This study examines the holistic pedagogical practices of experienced teachers in alternative public schools.
This study reviews holistic educational philosophy and ancient Eastern spirituality as they contribute to transformative learning. Feminist theory provides a framework for developing a holistic view of learning that embodies our full human potential. This research will share methods and strategies used to support developing a true awareness. It will provide functional and compassionate ways to implement holistic pedagogy. I will emphasize that teaching with acceptance and reverence for our human capacities will embed these values in students’ learning.
The aim of this study is to contribute to contemporary visions of teaching by sharing experiences that are mindful of the mind-body connection. I wish to make the perceptions and approaches of teachers accessible and to inspire curiosity in others to extend their holistic beliefs into practice.
Carter, Karen Sawchuk, Peter H. Long-term Training in Learning and Work for Youth at Risk: Sustainability and Creativity in Policy and Execution of Youth at Risk Programs in Toronto Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-05-24T19:26:34ZThe City of Toronto experienced a particularly tremulous year in 2005. Dubbed the "year of the gun," the marked increase in violence among racialized youth lead to an increase in community cultural programming. These programs provide safe productive environments for youth to gather and develop self esteem and as well as important marketable life skills for the labour force. However there is currently a disconnect between these programs and the valuable training that they are imparting to youth. The traditional training and learning-to-work transitions have not enjoyed the success that was envisioned in the early stages of these initiatives. Through interviews and observation, the research documented in this thesis offers an opportunity for practitioners, policy makers and program funders to re-think the traditional approach as it relates to the arts and cultural programs for racialized at-risk youth in Canada's largest urban centre.MASTurban11
Carufel, Guy de Zee, Robert E. Assembly, Integration and Thermal Testing of the Generic Nanosatellite Bus Aerospace Science and Engineering2010-01-13T21:46:39ZThis thesis describes the assembly and integration procedures, methods and strategies used for the Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB) developed at the Space Flight Laboratory. The design of the interconnection medium routing will be presented and aspects of thermal testing such as thermal shock procedures and the satellite support structure design for the thermal vacuum testing. The compliance of the assembly, integration and testing requirements is demonstrated through validation and implementation. Step by step procedures are presented for GNB assembly, solar cell bonding and thermal tape application. The evolution of the integration design is described based on optimizing efforts and GNB design changes. Flexible circuits are presented as an alternative to the conventional harness for future missions. Finally, general assembly, integration and thermal testing recommendations are offered to add to the wealth of knowledge acquired by SFL in the proper design of nanosatellites.MASTsolar7
Cassiani, Celia-MarieLindsay, Sally A Peer E-Mentoring Employment Program for Youth With Physical Disabilities: What are the Social Supports That are Needed and Provided? Rehabilitation Science2017-11Background: The employment readiness of youth with physical disabilities may improve from social support offered through peer e-mentoring. Little is known regarding the nature of social support within a randomized control trial (RCT) of peer e-mentoring.
Objective: To explore the social support needs of youth with physical disabilities with regards to employment readiness and to explore the nature of social support in a peer e-mentoring intervention.
Methods: Through a focus group, youthsâ social support needs were analyzed. Through content analysis of discussion forums the nature of social support in the RCT was explored.
Results: Youth suggested they required informational support. In the intervention, the mentored group offered varied social support in comparison to the non-mentored group.
Conclusions: This research contributes to knowledge about informational support needs of youth with physical disabilities in the area of employment readiness; and presents the types of social support provided in a peer e-mentoring RCT.
Cassin, ColinKotanen, Peter M The Importance of Invasive Earthworms as Seed Predators of Common Forest Flora of Ontario Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2015-06Soil seed banks are vital to forest plant community regeneration, having long been viewed as a refuge for seeds vulnerable to granivory. Here evidence is provided suggesting many seeds entering the seed bank are subject to previously underestimated rates of granivory via the commonly found invasive earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris.
Results from an earthworm-addition microcosm experiment suggest nearly 70% of seeds are removed from the soil surface when exposed one earthworm. Results from a separate granivore-exclusion field experiment indicate granivory by rodents eclipses that of earthworms under more natural conditions. When analyzed individually it is clear that different granivores target certain species of seed over others. This suggests that although rodents are the main driver of seed predation, earthworms may have the potential to act as an ecological filter, potentially further influencing the species composition of future forest plant communities by selectively targeting certain seeds, or seed traits, over others.
Castelen, Milton Andy Cook, Rebecca J. Women's Reproductive Health Rights: The Rule of Law and Public Health Considerations in Repealing the Criminal Laws on Abortion in the Republic Suriname Law2010-01-12T20:27:21ZWithin the Surinamese jurisdiction the Constitution grants women the right to health and imposes a legal duty on the state to facilitate the realization of this right. Also treaty law, in particular, the ICESCR article 12 and the CEDAW article 12 grant women the right to the highest attainable standard of health and the right to non-discriminatory access to healthcare. But due to the criminal law applicable to abortion women lack non-discriminatory access to reproductive healthcare and therefore do not enjoy the highest attainable standard of pregnancy related health. Despite its decision not to enforce the abortion prohibiting criminal laws, Suriname remains in a state of failure to comply with its legal duties as imposed by the Constitution and treaty law. This, due to the state’s reluctance to repeal the criminal laws on abortion and its failure to enact effective health regulations to facilitate women in need of an abortion.MASThealth; women3, 5
Caux-Brisebois, Vincent Steinberg, Adam Thermo-acoustic Velocity Coupling in a Swirl-stabilized Gas Turbine Model Combustor Aerospace Science and Engineering2013-11-21The research presented herein describes the coupling of acoustic and heat release fluctuations in a perfectly-premixed swirl-stabilized combustor by analysis of simultaneous high-repetition-rate laser diagnostics data. Nine cases are studied, varying the thermal power and the equivalence ratio. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the velocity data shows that cases with higher amplitude thermoacoustic oscillations have flow fields containing helical vortex cores (HVC); these cases are further analysed to determine the driving mechanisms of the oscillations. Flow and flame statistics are compiled as a function of both the phase in the thermoacoustic cycle and a phase representing the azimuthal position of the HVC relative to the measurement plane. These data are used to spatially map the thermoacoustic energy transfer field, as described by the Rayleigh integral. It is found that periodic deformations of the HVC cause large-scale flame motions, resulting in regions of positive and negative energy transfer.MASTenergy7
Cavallo, Maria Jr. Cook, Rebecca J. Law as a Social Determinant of Unsafe Abortion in Argentina Law2010-01-12T20:32:25ZUsing Burris et al.’s model of law as a social determinant of health, this thesis postulates that the law and its application contribute to abortion-related morbidity and mortality among those women who qualify for a legal and safe abortion according to the justifications stipulated in the Criminal Code. This thesis proposes a circular model in order to show how the application of the law, through courts rulings, contributes to unsafe abortion. On the one hand, Argentine law acts as a pathway along which inequity in socioeconomic status exposes certain women to pathogenic practices, such as self-induced abortions. On the other hand, the law acts as a shaper of socioeconomic status as it perpetuates gender stereotypes, constructing a normative world where sex-role stereotypes are naturalized, and having an impact in women’s lack of access to legal and safe abortions.MASThealth; gender3, 5
Cebulski, AlexDesloges, Joseph R The Glaciolacustrine Sediment Record of Cariboo Lake, BC: Implications for Holocene Fluvial and Glacial Watershed Dynamics Geography2018-11Cariboo Lake is a glacier-fed lake located in the Cariboo Mountains of eastern-central British Columbia. Fine clastic sediments produced in the glaciated headwaters of the Cariboo Lake watershed provide the main source of sediment to the lake. Sediment delivery into Cariboo Lake is primarily governed by overflow currents of suspended clastic sediments from the main Cariboo River. Sediments deposited in deep basins over 30 m deep are characterized by couplets of coarse grained laminae, followed by fine grained sediments and are inferred to be annually laminated varves. Inflow of clastic sediments to Cariboo Lake has remained high enough to produce annual varves for the past two millennia. Down-core trends in varve thickness, grain size, and percent organics from Cariboo Lake sediment archives reveal changes that corresponded to climate fluctuations over the past two millennia.M.Sc.water; climate6, 13
Chacaby, Maya Restoule, Jean-Paul Kipimoojikewin: Articulating Anishinaabe Pedagogy Through Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe Language) Revitalization Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-11-29In Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe language), Kipimoojikewin refers to our inheritance, or the things we carry with us. While Anishinaabemowin, Anishinaabe (Ojibwe) pedagogy and research practices are all part of our inheritance, so too is a legacy of colonial violence and historic trauma. This paper details one journey towards the language; the struggle through a colonial terrain rife with institutional and cognitive barriers, the journey to return to Anishinaabe ways of knowing, to articulating Anishinaabe pedagogy in a contemporary urban context and the work done to fulfill the vision of the Elders. There are no “best practices” only stories that exemplify an Anishinaabe axiological framework so that the causes and effects can be better understood, taken up and improved upon. Aapajitoon kema wanitoon.MASTinstitution16
Chahal, Jaskarndip Davis, Aileen M. The Multi-Ligament Quality of Life Questionnaire (ML-QOL): Development and Preliminary Testing of Measurement Properties in Patients with Multi-Ligament Knee Injuries Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2013-11-21Despite the existence of numerous knee-joint specific patient-reported outcome measures, the content contained within such instruments does not completely capture the spectrum of injury and impairments experienced by multi-ligament knee injured patients. Based on this shortcoming, the overall objective of the current study was to develop, and to test the reliability and validity of a novel disease-specific quality of life instrument for patients with multi-ligament knee injuries. The World Health Organization’s International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health was used to guide content development. Using a mixed methods approach (surveys, patient focus groups, expert interviews), the final Multi-ligament Quality of Life (MLQOL) instrument was comprised of 52 items distributed over 4 domains. This instrument demonstrated excellent content validity, test-retest reliability, and construct validity. Future work will evaluate the responsiveness of the MLQOL and will implement its use in randomized trials.MASThealth3
Chakraborty, ArnabLiu, Jane The Influence of Forest Fires in Central Canada on Carbon Monoxide in Southern Ontario Geography2016-05Forest fires in 2010 summer over North Saskatchewan province had a continual influence on carbon monoxide (CO, a major pollutant) in Southern Ontario, as found using three methodologies that synthesized satellite fire and CO column data, surface CO concentration data, and meteorological data. Time series analysis suggests that CO in Southern Ontario responds to fires and CO in North Saskatchewan in 3-5 day lags. The source-receptor relationship is best reflected in CO column data (r=0.295, after a 3-day lag, |p|M.Sc.pollut; forest15
Chaktsiris, Mary Georgina Morgan, Cecilia The Varsity Man: Manhood, the University of Toronto and the Great War Theory and Policy Studies in Education2009-12-11T21:09:37ZThis research examines the relationship between masculinity and recruitment at the University of Toronto during the Great War. Through a gendered framework established by historians such as Judith Butler, masculinity is approached as a constructed process that encompasses a variety of complex relationships between the individual subject and social processes. The following questions are explored: What motivated the administration the University to instate policies that first encouraged, and then forced, male students to enter active service? How did dominant discourses of masculinity influence recruitment efforts and the subsequent movement towards mandatory military training? The research reveals that gendered understandings of war and recruitment on campus presented active service as the defining moment of manhood. Enlisting, then, was understood as more than a willingness to take up arms; it publicly signified that a man was committed to the defense of democracy and to securing the freedom of generations to come.MASTgender5
Chamberlain, Julie Hume Razack, Sherene Who is Wilhelmsburg? Race and Space in Internationale Bauaustellung Hamburg Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-11-28The Wilhelmsburg neighbourhood of Hamburg, Germany is characterized in local media as a problem neighbourhood. Many of its residents are racialized people struggling with low incomes, unemployment, and less formal education than average in the city as a whole, exemplifying what Razack (2002, p. 6) calls the “spatiality of the racial order in which we live.” Wilhelmsburg is also the focus of a massive urban planning and architectural project, the Internationale Bauaustellung (International Building Exhibition, or IBA) Hamburg 2007-2012, comprising 50 building projects that aim to transform the neighbourhood. In this thesis I use Foucauldian discourse analysis to explore IBA Hamburg’s public education materials, arguing that IBA Hamburg produces Wilhelmsburg and its residents as racialized, problematic, and in need of intervention to bring them into the future metropolis. Residents are targeted for integration through education, the effects of which are disciplinary and reproduce an unequal racial order of citizenship.MASTeducat; urban4, 11
Chami, JulieGaskell, Jane The Experiences of Female Teachers Returning to Work Following Maternity Leave: The Implications of Policy Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2016-06Recovering from birth and caring for a newborn requires time away from other commitments, including one's job. For full-time teachers, the amount of protected time and how much of this time is subsidized varies depending on country, state and school board. For many reasons, women in the labour force face discrimination. Female teachers returning to work upon the completion of a parental leave are also confronted with a variety of new challenges. This study analyzes journal entries and photographs submitted by female teachers transitioning back to work following parental leave. The intention of the inquiry is to give women a platform upon which to share their stories. The findings are used to evaluate current parental leave policies in Canada and the U.S. and to recommend policies that may help to support this shift.M.Ed.women; labour5, 8
Champagne, TrevorSeto, Emily Impact of an Intra-Institutional Teledermatology Service: A Mixed Methods Case Study Dalla Lana School of Public Health2019-11While teledermatology is proven to decrease access times to dermatologists, be clinically equivalent to in-person consults diagnostically, and have high satisfaction rates, less is known about its use in urban settings where geographical challenges to accessing dermatologists are not present. This mixed-methods evaluation of an urban, intra-institutional teledermatology initiative was guided by the Canada Health Infoway Benefits Evaluation Framework and involved a case series review of 76 teledermatology consultations, patient and provider surveys, and semi-structured interviews with health care providers. The study found that 84.2% of all consultations and 95% of inflammatory conditions (rashes) were manageable with teledermatology alone, with benefits to patients including savings in time, money, and preventing missed work. Providers were also highly satisfied with the reliability, timely responses, and quality of consults, but their administrative time increased. Further research on cost-effectiveness and the specific clinical use cases that could be optimized by institutional teledermatology is warranted.M.Sc.health3
Chan, Alvita Cafazzo, Joseph ||Islam, Mohammad Improving Patient Safety during Radiation Therapy through Human Factors Methods Biomedical Engineering2010-01-13T15:32:15ZThis study aimed to apply human factors methods to identify potentially unsafe aspects of a radiation therapy delivery system at Princess Margaret Hospital, and to provide recommendations accordingly. Analyses were conducted to examine the workflow, work environment and user interfaces involved in the treatment process. Based on findings from these analyses, components of the user interface were redesigned to address some of the issues found. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned interface through a usability test. Compared to the current interface, the error rates of two common errors were significantly lower, and the average task completion time was significantly shorter when the redesigned interface was used. Results from a post-test questionnaire also indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the redesigned interface. Therefore, human factors methods can be applied to evaluate and design radiation therapy systems for improved error rates, efficiency and user satisfaction.MASThealth3
Chan, Catherine Kah-YanAnderson, Gerald H. The Effects of Faba Bean-Containing Pasta on Glycaemia, Satiety and Metabolic Control in Healthy Young Adult Males Nutritional Sciences2018-11The hypothesis that addition of faba bean (FB) flours and fractions into pasta reduces postprandial glycaemia and increases satiety has been tested in young adult males. Experiment 1 investigated the effects in young adult males. They consumed a serving of pasta made from (1) durum wheat semolina or substituted with 25% of flour from faba bean (2) split flour, (3) high starch fraction, (4) protein concentrate, or (5) protein isolate. Measurements included postprandial blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1 and PYY, and appetite and second meal food intake. Experiments 2A and 2B measured second-meal effects after an ad libitum or fixed size meal (12 kcal/kg). Addition of high protein faba bean flours reduced postprandial glycaemia, and second meal appetite, and increased PYY and C-peptide but did not affect insulin or GLP-1. Consumption of pastas with added faba bean protein can have value-added nutritional benefits compared to conventional; nutrition; CONSUMPTION2, 12
Chan, Jeanie Nejat, Goldie A Learning-based Control Architecture for Socially Assistive Robots Providing Cognitive Interventions Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2011-12-05Due to the world’s rapidly growing elderly population, dementia is becoming increasingly prevalent. This poses considerable health, social, and economic concerns as it impacts individuals, families and healthcare systems. Current research has shown that cognitive interventions may slow the decline of or improve brain functioning in older adults. This research investigates the use of intelligent socially assistive robots to engage individuals in person-centered cognitively stimulating activities. Specifically, in this thesis, a novel learning-based control architecture is developed to enable socially assistive robots to act as social motivators during an activity. A hierarchical reinforcement learning approach is used in the architecture so that the robot can learn appropriate assistive behaviours based on activity structure and personalize an interaction based on the individual’s behaviour and user state. Experiments show that the control architecture is effective in determining the robot’s optimal assistive behaviours for a memory game interaction and a meal assistance scenario.MASTinnovation9
Chan, Jennifer FrancesAndersen, Judith P Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback as an Intervention Method for Reducing PTSD Symptoms in Police Officers Exposed to Trauma Psychology2018-11PTSD has been identified as a significant occupational hazard among first responders in Canada, associated with negative health and performance ramifications. Less is known about the accumulation of PTSD symptoms among police officers (i.e., partial PTSD [P-PTSD]) and its potential impact on performance, particularly in regards to use-of-force decisions. The current project examined levels of P-PTSD symptoms among Ontarian police officers, and its relationship with occupational performance and heart rate variability (HRV). Data was extracted from an on-going study utilizing an existing HRV biofeedback intervention to reduce lethal use-of-force decision errors. Officers’ self-reported P-PTSD symptoms did not significantly predict use-of-force decision making abilities, proxies of HRV, or significantly change from pre- to 18-months post-receiving HRV biofeedback training. While significant results were not found, this pilot study provides important insight in the potential for gathering P-PTSD symptoms from front-line police officers, as well as improving health and safety in this population.M.A.health3
Chan, Kristan Knop, Karen C. The Human Rights Act 1998: Failure in a Post 9/11 World Law2012-11-21In 1997 the Labour Party introduced the White Paper Rights Brought Home: The Human Rights Bill. Bringing rights home was considered necessary to significantly influence rights conception in the UK and internationally. Rights Brought Home argued that incorporation would allow human rights to become a more prominent feature of society. The Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA) was brought into force with optimism and expectations. However, the war of terror has significantly impacted the way in which rights have been understood and appreciated. National security issues have clashed with Convention rights. There is mounting concern that British judges must blindly follow the rulings established by the European Court of Human Rights. There have been problems of public disengagement and hostility. The HRA is characterized by a story of failure. Understanding the relationship between the war on terror and the HRA is central to human rights development.MASTrights16
Chan, Samantha Lee, Ian B. The Problem with the Human Rights Act 1998: Section 2(1) Law2012-11-21The Human Rights Act 1998 incorporated the European Convention on Human Rights. With incorporation, Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom believed that human rights would reflect British values, there would increase support for human rights and a human rights culture would develop. However, the goals of incorporation did not occur. One reason for the failure of the Human Rights Act 1998 is the UK courts interpretation of section 2(1). Courts in the United Kingdom have been unwilling to provide more extensive and less extensive protection of rights than Strasbourg. The effect of the court’s interpretation has been public, political and media backlash. Consequently, to resolve this problem, there must be a reinterpretation of section 2(1).MASTrights16
Chan, Su Jin Trebilcock, Michael Beyond Special and Differential Treatment: Regional Integration as a Means to Growth in East Asia Law2010-12-15T17:05:04ZSpecial and differential treatment (SDT) provisions in GATT were created to assist developing countries achieve economic progress while assimilating into the multilateral trading system. Despite these intentions, global trade imbalances still persist. Within this context, I focus on the region of East Asia which has experienced astounding growth in just several decades, propelling it far beyond other developing country regions. Although international trade continues to be the crucial factor driving growth in the region, reliance on SDT has in certain circumstances hindered development. As such, East Asia should seek alternatives to SDT. In that vein, I argue that sustainable growth and trade liberalization can be achieved by enhancing integration through a regional trade agreement. I further discuss various proposals for an East Asian trade agreement such as ASEAN+3, FTAAP, and EARTA. Finally, I highlight the importance of governance and identify several institutions essential for a successful regional arrangement.MASTtrade; governance10, 16
Chan, Winnie Wing Man Edwards, Elizabeth A. Characterization of Reductive Dehalogenases in a Chlorinated Ethene-degrading Bioaugmentation Culture Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2010-04-06T14:22:10ZPerchloroethene and trichloroethene are among the most persistent groundwater pollutants, and Dehalococcoides is the only known species that can degrade these compounds completely to non-toxic ethene. Characterization of the reductive dehalogenase (RDase) enzymes responsible for dechlorination is important to understanding this process. A series of dechlorination assays were performed with whole cell suspensions and cell-free extracts of three Dehalococcoides-containing mixed microbial consortia to compare dechlorination kinetics and to characterize co-contaminant inhibition. Michaelis-Menten kinetic parameters Vmax and Km, as well as non-competitive inhibition coefficients for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,1-dichloroethane inhibitors are reported. Secondly, blue native gel electrophoresis was developed as a method to isolate active protein complexes containing RDases. Thirdly, sources of variability in the isotopic fractionation of vinyl chloride to ethene reaction step were examined using cell-free extracts and whole-cell suspensions. Understanding the function and range of RDases are goals towards the successful application of Dehalococcoides-containing cultures to remediate contaminated sites.MASTwater; pollut14
Chan, Yee Kei KikiDiosady, Levente L||Cheng, Yu-Ling Micronutrients in Moringa oleifera and Their Potential in Food Fortification Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2018-11Moringa oleifera is frequently endorsed for its high micronutrient content relative to other vegetables, but reported data on Moringa’s nutritional value is inconsistent. A comparative analysis on the macronutrient and micronutrient content of Moringa leaves and pods was conducted. Moringa oleifera contains multiple nutrients but its iron content is similar to that in spinach and its vitamin A content is lower than carrots on a dry basis. Nevertheless, Moringa’s abundance in micronutrient deficient regions makes it applicable as a natural fortificant. Bouillon cubes were identified as a suitable food vehicle for the incorporation of Moringa. Bench-scale cold extrusion processing was conducted to explore the feasibility of creating Moringa-fortified bouillon cubes. Nutritional characterization confirmed that supplemental fortificants would be required to enhance the nutritional value and stability of Moringa-fortified bouillon cubes. Flavours of Moringa may either be enhanced or suppressed depending on the; nutrition2
Chan, Yi TaoWiner, Daniel A Investigating the Role of Insulin Receptor Signaling in B Lymphocyte Function Immunology2019-11B cells drive insulin dysregulation during obesity and type 2 diabetes, but little is known about how insulin affects B cell functions. Using a B cell-specific insulin receptor (InsR) knockout model, we show that InsR signaling promotes pro-inflammatory processes and proliferation in B cells. InsR deficiency also impairs B cell production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, InsR signaling contributes towards Th1-associated antibody class switching. In a model of severe influenza A (H1N1) viral infection, mice with B cell-specific InsR deletion show increased susceptibility and have compromised humoral responses. During high fat diet-induced obesity, mice lacking InsR on B cells are protected from insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and show reduced fat inflammation. Mechanistically, InsR signaling reinforces glucose uptake and glycolytic function to support B cell functions. Taken together, our work highlights the importance of InsR signaling in driving optimal B cell function in health and disease.M.Sc.health3
Chanchlani, RahulParekh, Rulan Long-Term Risk of New-onset Diabetes in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2016-11Background: Precise estimates of diabetes mellitus in transplanted children are not known. Objective: Determine the risk of diabetes in pediatric transplant recipients and compare the risk with non-transplanted children. Methods: Transplanted (n=1020) and non-transplanted children (7, 134,067) children were studied between 1991-2014 using provincial health administrative data to determine rates of diabetes. Results: Overall, the incidence rate ratio of diabetes was 7-times higher in the transplant (IRR 7.0, 95% CI:5.9, 8.3) than the non-transplant cohort. The transplant cohort had a 9-fold (HR 8.9, 95% CI:7.5, 10.5) higher hazard of diabetes than the non-transplant cohort. Risk was highest within the first year of transplant but remained elevated even after 5-10 years. Lung and multiple organ groups had a 5-fold (HR 5.4, 95% CI:3.0, 9.8) higher hazard compared to kidney transplant recipients.
Conclusions: Risk of diabetes is higher in transplanted children with lung and multiple organ transplant recipients at the highest risk.
Chang, Jessica Chalin Peterson, Shelley Stagg Reading between the "Frames": English Language Learners' and non-English Language Learners' Responses to Graphic Novels Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2011-11-29Literacy in the 21st century is constantly evolving. To teach literacy effectively, educators need to embrace and understand linguistic, cultural and textual practices that are relevant for students. Reading and responding to graphic novels in face-to-face and online settings are such 21st century literate practices.
This thesis focuses on how grade 6 students who are both English Language Learners and non-English Language Learners respond and connect to social justice issues in graphic novels through literature circles, online blogging and personal journals. Responses to social justice issues were fairly similar between English Language Learners and non-English Language Learners, especially based on a cultural experience standpoint. It is important for educators to encourage students to connect with prior experiences and knowledge with social justice issues and stereotypes that exist in their own world. This prepares students to become more socially conscious and critical thinkers about the world around them.
Chang, Li-Chi Kortschot, T Mark Improving the Mechanical Performance of Wood Fiber Reinforced Bio-based Polyurethane Foam Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2014-11Because of the environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption, soybean-based polyurethane (PU) foam has been developed as an alternative to be used as the core in structural insulated panels (SIPs). Wood fibers can be added to enhance the resistance of foam against bending and buckling in compression. The goal of this work is to study the effect of three modifications: fiber surface treatment, catalyst choice, and mixing method on the compression performance of wood fiber-reinforced PU foam. Foams were made with a free-rising process. The compression performance of the foams was measured and the foams were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray computed tomography (CT). The foam reinforced with alkali-treated fibers had improved compression performance. The foams made with various catalysts shared similar performance. The foam made using a mechanical stirrer contained well-dispersed fibers but the reinforcing capability of the fibers was reduced.M.A.S.environment13
Chaput, Nicolas Green, Andrew Environmental Clean-up in Bankruptcy and Insolvency: What Priority for the Environment? Law2012-11-21The lack of clarity of Canadian insolvency legislation with respect to the treatment of environmental claims has left Canadian courts wondering whether they should advance the public order policies embodied in the environmental legislation or promote creditors' interests and the private relief afforded by bankruptcy. This thesis examines the state of the law on the question and provides a critical assessment of the legislation and the relevant case law. The author points to the flaws of the legislation and its judicial interpretation, while uncovering the underlying reasons for the existence of such a confused body of jurisprudence. Building on these findings, the author proposes a reform of the insolvency legislation that would uphold the protection of the environment as a fundamental value in Canadian society.MASTenvironment13
Chastko, Karl FrankAdams, Matthew D Estimating Air Pollution with Regulatory Monitors and Supplementary Data from Low-cost Sensors and Remotely Sensed Imagery Geography2019-11This thesis has two main objectives: assessing the accuracy of long-term air pollution concentration estimates produced from portable monitoring campaigns, using temporal adjustments; and second, developing spatial models of air pollution concentrations with remotely sensed imagery and machine learning within a land use regression framework. Objective one was achieved by simulating mobile monitoring campaigns and estimating long-term concentrations with multiple temporal adjustments. The results indicated that sample size greatly influenced the accuracy of long-term estimates produced with temporal adjustments and that adjustments which accounted for the log-normal distribution of air pollution observations produced more accurate estimates. Objective two was achieved through the development of annual and seasonal models for NO2 and PM2.5 at three study sites. The results showed that deep learning models were the most accurate however these models could not capture spatial patterns of air pollution from the spectral signature of the land use surrounding monitors.M.Sc.pollut; land use15
Chau, Phat EdwardWodchis, Walter P Effect of Continuity of Care on the Risk of Developing Multimorbidity in Ontario, Canada between 2001 - 2015: A Retrospective Cohort Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-06Identifying modifiable, population-based factors for the prevention of multimorbidity is necessary to protect the health of patients and avoid unnecessary healthcare system costs. This study explored whether relationship continuity of care delays the onset of chronic conditions in patients from Ontario, Canada. Health administrative databases were used to assemble the cohort (N= 166,665) that was followed retrospectively between 2001 - 2015. A cause-specific hazards regression modelling approach was used to estimate the effect of continuity treated as a time-dependent exposure on the risk of developing multimorbidity and subsequent conditions adjusted for age, sex, place of residence, patient enrolment, income, and the number of physician visits. Estimates revealed that the risk of developing a second, third, and fourth condition was 8%, 10%, and 11% lower for patients with high versus low continuity, respectively. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce the burden of multimorbidity by focusing on continuity of care.M.Sc.health3
Chau, TimothyZingg, David W Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of a Box-wing Regional Aircraft Based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Equations Aerospace Science and Engineering2017-06The box wing is an unconventional aircraft configuration that has the potential to provide major savings in fuel consumption relative to the conventional cantilever wing. In order to further develop and evaluate this potential, high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization is applied to the aerodynamic design of a box wing and a cantilever wing, based on the Embraer E190 regional jet, with the latter serving as a performance baseline. The optimization framework consists of B-spline parameterization, free-form and axial deformation geometry control, an integrated mesh-movement scheme based on the theory of linear elasticity, a Newton-Krylov-Schur flow solver for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a gradient-based optimizer, and the discrete-adjoint method for gradient evaluation. Results indicate that a box-wing with a height-to-span ratio of 0.26 burns 7.61% less fuel at cruise than a conventional baseline of the same span and lift. Aerodynamic trends and trade-offs are investigated, and a weight sensitivity study is performed.M.A.S.sustainable design12
Chaudhary, Shweta Roach, Kent Extraordinary Military Powers and Right to Self Determination in Kashmir Law2013-11-21This thesis examines the implications of the operation of the Armed Forces (Jammu & Kashmir) Special Powers Act 1990 (“Act”) on Kashmir from human rights perspective. It draws a comparison between the Act and the existing penal legislations in India. It proposes that the Act should be repealed and actions of the armed forces should be governed by the already existing penal legislations. It suggests amendment of similar state and central legislations conferring immunity to the armed forces. The precondition of approval of the Central Government for instituting a legal proceeding should be removed. It proposes constitution of special grievance cells at district levels to adjudicate cases against the armed forces before being referred to the higher courts. The thesis urges the Indian Government to approach the issue of Kashmir following principles of Ahimsa (“non–violence”) and Satyagraha (“insistence on truth”) adopted by Mahatma Gandhi during the Indian independence struggle.MASTrights16
Chee, Stephen Damaren, Christopher John Vibration Suppression of Large Space Structures Using an Optimized Distribution of Control Moment Gyros Aerospace Science and Engineering2011-12-06Many space vehicles have been launched with large flexible components such as booms and solar panels. These large space structures (LSSs) have the potential to make attitude control unstable due to their lightly damped vibration. These vibrations can be controlled using a collection of control moment gyros (CMGs). CMGs consist of a spinning wheel in gimbals and produce a torque when the orientation of the wheel is changed. This study investigates the optimal distribution of these CMGs on LSSs for vibration suppression. The investigation considers a beam and a plate structure with evenly placed CMGs. The optimization allocates the amount of stored angular momentum possessed by these CMGs according to a cost function dependent on how quickly vibration motions are damped and how much control effort is exerted. The optimization results are presented and their effect on the motions of the beam and plate are investigated.MASTsolar7
Cheifetz, David Weinrib, Ernest The Resurfice Exception: Causation in Negligence Without Probability Law2012-11-21Resurfice Corp. v. Hanke, [2007] 1 S.C.R. 333, 2007 SCC 7, creates a new causation doctrine in Canadian negligence law that is available to plaintiffs only in exceptional cases. Under this doctrine, negligence and the possibility of specific factual causation may be sufficient to satisfy the causation requirements of a cause of action in negligence. Proof of specific factual causation on the balance of probability is not required. The justification for this doctrine is fairness and justice. The application of the doctrine does not produce a decision that the negligence did cause the injury. Where the requirements of the Resurfice doctrine are satisfied, the causation requirements of the cause of action are deemed to be satisfied despite the finding that factual causation was not established on the balance of probability. The authorities cited are current to June 21, 2012.MASTjustice16
Chen, Caiyan Wendy Donnelly, Peter More Work, Less Play: Power, Household Work and Leisure Expereinces of Chinese Immigrant Women in Canada Exercise Sciences2013-03-18This thesis focuses on Chinese immigrant women’s experiences of household work and leisure in Canada. Socialist feminist perspective is used for an analysis of in-depth conversations with ten Chinese immigrant women with children. Results show that Chinese immigrant women experienced a significant increase of household work and a dramatic decrease on leisure pursuits after immigration and/or the birth of their children, implying that gender inequalities are reproduced and reinforced. Chinese immigrant women encounter and negotiate forms of tension resulted from the striking difference of being in China and being in Canada, their change in social status and their changed gender status. This thesis may contribute background knowledge for the practitioners in recreational programs and social works specialized in immigrant settlement services. Future research could be the motives for immigration, the actual experiences of immigration; a comparative study between Chinese immigrant women and women of other ethnicities is also suggested.MASTgender5
Chen, DonghanGoh, M. Cynthia Morphological Studies of Organometal Halide Thin Films for Perovskite Solar Cells Materials Science and Engineering2014-11Thin film solar cells are important for making photovoltaic technologies affordable and easily fabricated. The main objective of research into thin film solar cells is to achieve high-energy convert efficiency with easy manufacturing methods and accessible elements. Thin film solar cells based on organometal halide perovskites have demonstrated outstanding efficiency among photovoltaics. The morphologies of solution-processed perovskite thin films, such as uniformity of thickness and surface coverage, have been shown to be important factors for device performance. Perovskite thin films were prepared with uniform thickness and full coverage by using vapour deposition methods. The morphology features and crystal quality of the perovskite thin films were examined to optimize the preparation conditions. Influence of the annealing temperatures was investigated to shed light on the stability of perovskite films in post-preparation treatment. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to capture high-resolution morphology changes during annealing treatment and film formation.M.A.S.energy7
Chen, GangChan, Arthur W.H. Method Development for Measuring Black Carbon (BC) Using a Smartphone Camera Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2018-11Black carbon (BC) is one of the major components of the atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which can cause adverse health impacts and contribute significantly to climate change. Poor understanding of BC sources and concentrations is the main obstacles to reduce BC emissions. Current commercial BC sensors remain too costly to deploy widely. A fast, cost-effective, and easily accessible deployment of smartphone camera was used to quantify colour information of PM collected on filters to estimate BC and elemental carbon (EC) loading. When applied to 1266 PM2.5 ambient samples collected from six sites across Ontario, Canada, the RGB-based BC model showed powerful predictability with R2=0.95 between predicted and measured BC concentrations from an aethalometer. The RGB-based EC model was trained using 478 personal PM2.5 samples collected from pre-diabetic subjects in Beijing with an R2=0.91 between predicted and measured EC concentrations from OC/EC analyzer.M.A.S.innovation9
Chen, Jenise BoeyThompson, Michael Towards Construction of a Biosensor for the Detection of Early-stage Ovarian Cancer: Evaluation of Novel DNA Aptamers for the Capture of Biomarker HSP10 Biomedical Engineering2016-11The current test for ovarian cancer is associated with many false positives and false negatives. With ovarian cancer being the deadliest gynaecological cancer, the diagnostic inadequacy of the current test creates an imperative need for a method that can detect for early-stage ovarian cancer. Fortunately, HSP10 has recently emerged as a potential biomarker for early-stage ovarian cancer. Four DNA aptamers were evaluated for their binding affinity towards HSP10 using two methods. The first method employed use of gel electrophoresis, a common method to study interactions, mainly bind-and-release, between biomolecules. The second employed novel surface chemistry with the EMPAS. With the combination of both methods, a candidate DNA aptamer was selected for surface chemistry immobilization, moving towards building a crude biosensor. This is the first steps towards creating a novel biosensor which can provide women with a screening test that has the ability to mitigate deaths associated with ovarian cancer.M.A.S.women5
Chen, LeiFarnood, Ramin Thermal Treatment of Pulb and Paper Mill Biosludge and Digestate to Enhance their Anaerobic Digestibility Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2015-11Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill biosludge has the potential to reduce sludge disposal costs and generate energy through biogas production. Thermal treatment can couple with anaerobic digestion to enhance the sludge digestibility. Conventionally, thermal pretreatment of biosludge is used by the industry. In this study, three possible thermal treatment-assisted anaerobic digestion configurations were compared:
1. Thermal pretreatment of biosludge;
2. Digestate thermal treatment;
3. Digestate thermal treatment and only recycling the hydrolysate.
The thermal pretreatment (1) of biosludge at the theoretical optimal conditions (170o C for 1 h) did not extend the ultimate biogas yield. The digestate thermal treatment (2) increased the rate and extent of the biogas production; a synergistic effect on biogas production was observed by co-digesting biosludge and treated digestate. Only recycling the hydrolysate (3) is recommended if the thermal treatment is conducted at high intensities such as the one at 210o C for 30 min.
Chen, Shaun Sheng Yuan Eichler, Margrit Segregation versus Self-determination: A Black and White Debate on Canada's First Africentric School Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-06-02T15:09:56ZThe racialized realities faced by Black students provide an impetus to examine the controversy over Canada's first Africentric Alternative School, approved on January 29, 2008 by the Toronto District School Board. Newspaper articles, editorials and letters to the editor, as well as speeches by delegations and trustees, provide a rich snapshot of the arguments put forth in the heated political debate. Through the lens of equity and critical race theory, the diverse and divergent stances taken by both proponents and opponents of the school are analysed and understood. A conceptual framework of hidden and public transcripts (Scott, 1990) is used to distinguish arguments that reflect on the lived experiences of Black students from those that reiterate the dominant discourses of liberal democratic societies. The findings emerge as three opposing sets of themes that reveal a transcript reflective of the ongoing salience of racism within ostensibly liberal claims to racial equality.MASTequality5
Chen, SiyuTaylor, Joshua Adam Simulation-based Validation of Harmonic-constrained Optimal Power Flow Electrical and Computer Engineering2019-11In modern grids, the increasing penetration of renewable sources requires the integration of power electronic converters. However, the nonlinear characteristics of those converters will introduce voltage and current harmonics, which decrease power quality, overload transformers, cause vibrations in generators and motors, and increase grid losses. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze power system models with harmonics. In this thesis, optimal power flow with constraints on total voltage harmonic distortion is simulated. OpenDSS is used to validate the solution of harmonic-constrained optimal power flow. Numerical tests on two IEEE feeder systems demonstrate the accuracy of the approach.M.A.S.renewable7
Chen, Yibin Veneris, Andreas Circuit Debugging with Error Trace Compaction and Maximum Satisfiability Electrical and Computer Engineering2010-01-13T15:46:22ZImproving the performance and functionality of contemporary debugging tools is essential to alleviate the debugging task. This dissertation aims at narrowing the gap between current capabilities of debugging tools and industry requirements by improving two important debugging techniques: error trace compaction and automated debugging. Error trace compaction leverages incremental SAT and heuristics to reduce the number of clock cycles required to observe a failure in an error trace.
The technique presented reduces the length of the error trace to a minimum while
improving performance by 8× compared to a previous technique. The second contribution uses maximum satisfiability to enhance the
functionality and performance of automated debuggers. The method proposed can identify where in the design the bug is located and when in the error trace the bug is excited.
Compared to a competitive SAT-based approach, our formulation produces problems that are 80% smaller and that can be solved 4.5x faster.
Chen, Ying Kooy, Mary Developing Book Clubs in High School English Classrooms Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2012-11-28The focus of this research is to examine the book club as a social context for literacy development. Students in book clubs perceive literature authentically in ways of reading, writing and talking through a variety of interactions. Meanwhile, teachers, by observing students’ learning in book clubs, reflect on their language teaching and lead to an innovation of literacy instruction in schools, which can bridge to a community instructional change for language teachers.
In this research, I observed, videotaped, audio-taped, and interviewed high school students and the teacher in an urban Canadian high school, who were involved in English classroom book clubs which replaced the traditional instructional mode of teaching literature, trying to figure out a structure for a classroom book club by comparing to an extracurricular book club and by analyzing the diverse reading experiences of students both in and outside of school.
Cheng, Isabella KSPolatajko, Helene J Emotions, Significance and Improvement Expectations: The Personal Matter of a Patient's Hospital Stay Rehabilitation Science2017-03Health systems aim to provide quality healthcare. Patients’ experiences can inform quality improvements. Background: Mailed standardized surveys are a way to engage patients about inpatient care experiences. While results from rating-scale questions are regularly reported, no study has analyzed patients’ written responses. Purpose: To learn about patients’ perspectives of hospital care, survey comments were examined. Method: Inductive content analysis of 1,638 written responses was conducted within a qualitative description study design. Findings: Patients’ comments suggest: Emotions pervade patients’ hospital stay experiences with feelings about perceptions of safety, personhood and preparation for returning to living life; moments in time personalize hospital experiences; and the survey is viewed as an implied contract, where patients provide feedback in exchange for hospital improvements. Implications: Findings affirm current understandings about inpatient experiences and extend them. Patients’ comments reveal new insights about the specifics of patient-centered care, patient experience and quality healthcare that merit further study.M.Sc.health3
Cheng, Jun Jackson, Donald Andrew ||Mandrak, Nicholas E. Spatial Criteria Used in IUCN Assessment Overestimate Area of Occupancy for Freshwater Taxa Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2013-11-21Area of Occupancy (AO) is a frequently used indicator to assess and inform designation of conservation status to wildlife species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The applicability of the current grid-based AO measurement on freshwater organisms has been questioned due to the restricted dimensionality of freshwater habitats. I investigated the extent to which AO influenced conservation status for freshwater taxa at a national level in Canada. I then used distribution data of 20 imperiled freshwater fish species of southwestern Ontario to (1) demonstrate biases produced by grid-based AO and (2) develop a biologically relevant AO index. My results showed grid-based AOs were sensitive to spatial scale, grid cell positioning, and number of records, and were subject to inconsistent decision making. Use of the biologically relevant AO changed conservation status for four freshwater fish species and may have important implications on the subsequent conservation practices.MASTwater; CONSERV; FISH14
Chénier, Lynn A. Simon, Roger I. ||Boler, Megan Food Democracy and The Construction of Risk in The Canadian and U.K. Media Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2009-12-11T15:55:55ZUsing a critical discourse analysis (CDA), this thesis examines how risks and food security, in relation to Genetically Modified (GM) foods, are constructed within the media context. The project analyzes
news articles that appeared in two Canadian newspapers, The Globe and Mail and The Toronto Star, and two British newspapers, The London Times and the Guardian, during three particular time periods between 1997 and 2005. I evaluate whether or not the selected articles contribute to the public’s
understanding of science, and how journalism constructs risk and uncertainty. I also evaluate the use of expert knowledge by journalists. Using the theory of Risk Society, as proposed by sociologist Ulrich Beck, the project explores the connections between political, social, and economic issues connected to globalization. This thesis concludes that journalism in both Canada and Britain does not appear to adequately inform their citizens on matters of food security and the risks of GMOs.
Cheskes, Lindsay Morrison, Laurie J Assessing Public Perceptions of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Bystander Willingness to Act in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Medical Science2014-03-17Low survival rates following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remain a serious health concern internationally. Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and rapid defibrillation can increase the chances of survival dramatically. However, the number of OHCA patients who receive these interventions remains low. This study sought to characterize Canadian public knowledge, attitudes and willingness to perform both traditional and chest-compression-only CPR using a two-phase, mixed methods approach. Twenty-one qualitative interviews were conducted, the results of which informed an online, scenario-based, Canada-wide survey. Significant knowledge gaps regarding recognition of cardiac arrest, the precise steps of CPR and perceived survival rate were identified and common to both phases. A larger proportion of survey respondents demonstrated a willingness to perform chest-compression-only CPR compared to traditional CPR in general, and specifically in situations involving strangers and unkempt individuals. Knowledge gaps and misconceptions seem to dominate the public perspective, leading to the recommendation for a tailored knowledge translation solution.MASThealth3
Cheung, Jeffrey J.H. Dubrowski, Adam Preparing for Simulation-based Education and Training Through Web-Based Learning: The Role of Observational Practice and Educational Networking Medical Science2014-03-18Simulation and Web-based Learning (WBL) are both educational approaches that are increasingly applied in medical education. However, little is known about how these two instructional approaches may be integrated to improve learning outcomes. A prospective three-arm experimental study of different WBL preparation materials was conducted. Thirty undergraduate medical students with no prior experience in central venous catheterization (CVC) were randomly assigned to one of three preparatory interventions: tradition reading materials (TM), observational practice (OP), or OP and educational networking (OPEN). Participants then completed a simulation-based training workshop in CVC and a delayed retention test. Performance was assessed by a task-specific checklist, global rating scale (GRS) and by measuring time to competency. Main findings reveal a significant linear trend across the TM, OP and OPEN groups in time to competency. This exploratory study demonstrates the potential utility of Web-based observational practice and collaborative learning for improving the efficiency of simulation-based training.MASTeducat4
Cheyne, Carol A.L.Bergquist, Bridget A Lead Isotopes as Particulate Contaminant Tracers and Chronostratigraphic Markers in Lake Sediments in Northeastern North America Earth Sciences2015-11The utility of lead isotopes as particulate contaminant tracers and chronostratigraphic markers was assessed in six lakes from the Great Lakes region. The geographic range of the 19th century Upper Mississippi Valley ore smelting marker was expanded into southern and central Ontario and its northwestern extent was reached within Lake Superior. This marker is useful for dating sediments deposited 100-200 years ago when other dating techniques are problematic. Leaded gasoline was dominant in one lake in the 20th century; its signal was absent elsewhere because the other lakes were affected by regional industrial output or were too remote to receive the leaded gasoline signal. Lead isotopes and trace metals identified a coal combustion marker in the 20th century in southern Ontario, where coal combustion was important enough to outweigh leaded gasoline input. This thesis demonstrates the usefulness of lead isotopes for identifying contamination sources where several pollution sources exist.M.A.S.pollut14
Chiavaroli, Laura Jenkins, David J. A. Oxidative Stress and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Associated with Low- and High-monounsaturated Fat Portfolio Diets Nutritional Sciences2010-07-22T17:37:18ZThe objective was to assess the effect of a high-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods on oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk. Twenty-four hyperlipidemic subjects followed a very low-saturated-fat therapeutic control diet for 4 weeks after which they were randomized to receive the dietary portfolio, consisting of soy protein (20g/1000kcal), viscous fibre (10.3g/1000kcal), plant sterols (2-3g) and almonds (21.5g/1000kcal), in combination with high- or low-MUFA (25.9% and 12.9% MUFA, respectively) for the next 4 weeks, where MUFA replaced 13.0% of dietary carbohydrate.
On high-MUFA, there were significantly greater increases in HDL-C and apoA1 and significantly greater reductions in total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (total:HDL-C) ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) compared to the low-MUFA dietary portfolio. In all diets there were significant increases in protein thiols and reductions in conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured in the LDL-fraction, however no difference between the high- and low-MUFA diets.
Chiu, Aubrey SerahFeldman, Brian Social Participation, Self-Perception, and Social Support in Boys Living with Hemophilia Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2015-03Social integration is a critical component of quality of life and understanding how persons with hemophilia interact socially with their peers may inform healthcare providers.A random sample of 50 boys with hemophilia from The Hospital of Sick Children completed measures of social participation, self-perception, and social support. Participants' parents completed a measure assessing the impact of chronic illness on the family.The majority of boys reported no significant participation restrictions. Social participation was strongly correlated with self-perception subscales Social Acceptance and Global Self-Worth. The Athletic Competence subscale was strongly correlated for adolescents only. There were strong correlations between social participation and social support from parents, teachers, and classmates and moderate correlations for support from close friends. There was minimal impact on the family and weak correlations between social participation and impact on the family.Boys with hemophilia have minimal social participation restrictions and are on par with their peers.M.Sc.health3
Chiu, Kwun Sau CharlesHan, Ju Hui Judy MOBILITY IN THE CITY: Dalian's Streetcar System from 1890s to 1940s Geography2017-11The electric streetcar is both a product of electric modernity and a form of social technology that
shapes the experience of modernity. Using the city of Dalian in northern China from 1890s to
1940s as the site of investigation, this study seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the
formation of modern urban landscapes in terms of the movement and division of people
engendered by the streetcar in general, and the system’s role in Japan’s colonial project in East
Asia in particular. I seek to provide a detailed analysis of the historical roots of the formation of
Dalian as a colonial city vis-à-vis its streetcar system to examine the structuring of urban space. I
also explore the streetcar both as an engineering and social technology to shed light on
theoretical issues such as the notion of mobility and rhythms of everyday life.
Cho, Harry Yeon Morgan, Ed Human Rights and the War Against International Terrorism: A War Without Rights? Law2010-01-12T20:50:28ZThe United States has justified targeted operations against suspected terrorists as a legitimate tool in the war against terrorism. In response to international criticism that a November 2002 targeted killing operation in Yemen violated human rights standards, the US asserted that the right to life was suspended during war. While this assertion is prima facie incorrect, many legal experts, scholars and authors agree in principle that a military response to international terrorism -- along with the concomitant dilution of the right to life -- is not only appropriate, but also complies with international law. However, the modern jus ad bellum limit the circumstances in which a state may lawfully resort to armed force. A fulsome understanding of international humanitarian law and the characteristics of groups such as Al Qaeda reveals that international law does not permit states to employ their military forces to responde to the international crime of international terrorism.MASTrights16
Choi, Amy Smith, Sandy Invasive Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) Populations in varying Vegetation Types on a Landscape- and Local-scale Forestry2012-11-21There have been no landscape-scale studies on earthworm populations in Canada comparing
vegetation types; previous studies on edge habitats have been conducted in agricultural systems.
I examined the spatial variations of earthworm populations by measuring abundance based on
regional municipality, vegetation type, and edge habitat. Earthworms were sampled throughout
the season across a gradient of vegetation types including meadow, forest edge, and interior at a
local-scale; and at the landscape level with vegetation types including meadow, deciduous
forest, pine plantation and mixed forest. Regional effects were more significant than vegetation
type likely due to a gradient of soil characteristics in southern Ontario; edges had intermediate
earthworm abundance and a higher proportion of epigeic species. My research provides insight
into the patterns of earthworm populations in southern Ontario and the possible effects of edge
creation through landscape fragmentation. Field sampling of earthworm parasitoid cluster-flies
(Calliphoridae: Pollenia) using synomones was also discussed.
Choleva, Lauryn Vuksan, Vladimir The Effect of Salvia hispanica L. (Salba) on Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Nutritional Sciences2011-12-06Canadian statistics indicate that the incidence of obesity is rising, and that the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within this group is significantly higher than those of a healthy weight. Preliminary evidence has shown that the oil-rich grain, Salvia hispanica L. (Salba), improves glycemic control, suppresses appetite, and affects additional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study followed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design in a sub-set population of twenty individuals who were overweight or obese and had T2DM. Participants received supplements of Salba, or an energy- and fibre-matched control, and followed a hypocaloric diet for 24 weeks. Findings of this study reveal that Salba does not significantly affect weight loss, glycemic control or other CVD risk factors. These findings are preliminary and highlight the complexities of weight loss research. Further investigation into the potential health benefits of Salba is currently being carried out.MASThealth3
Chong, Amy Lee Guttmann, Astrid Utilization of Prenatal Services by Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent/Young Adult Cancers Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2013-11-15Objectives: To describe utilization of specialised prenatal care by high-risk survivors and evaluate echocardiogram use in echocardiogram-need survivors, as per survivorship guideline recommendations.

Methods: Retrospective population-based matched survivor:control study utilizing Ontario health administrative data. Survivors were classified as high-risk/low-risk for obstetrical outcomes, and as echocardiogram-need (yes/no) for echocardiogram outcomes. Associations were tested using logistic regression.

Results: 11% (n=363) of 3,204 pregnant survivors were classified as high-risk. Over 90% received specialized prenatal care. Living in a rural area was associated with lower use. (AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.44-0.59). Since 2003, 32% (560/1,737) of survivors had an echocardiogram-need. Only 14% (77/560) had ≥1 echocardiogram, this was not associated with rurality nor neighbourhood income quintile.

Conclusions: Although the majority of high-risk survivors receive specialized prenatal care, geographic inequality in care persists. Despite survivorship guidelines, >85% of echocardiogram-need pregnant survivors do not have an echocardiogram performed; future work should address this gap in care.
MASThealth; inequality3, 10
Chou, Min AmandaShu, Lily H. Identifying Affordances from and Categorizing Consumer Product Reviews Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-06Studying affordances allows designers to better understand how their products can be used by consumers in both desired and undesired ways. Online product reviews are a free and accessible source of information on consumer product usage, which suggests unforeseen uses and misuses of products that may inspire the development or redesign of products. To simplify the process of identifying affordances in reviews, relevant cue phrases are highlighted. Then, linguistic features for clustering review sentences are examined to identify characteristics of informative reviews. Cue phrases classifying review content for purposes of product improvement are also highlighted and discussed. The usage of verbs in stating affordances, as well as topic modelling of reviews for identifying affordances are also examined.M.A.S.consum12
Chow, Cherrine Fadel, Mohammad Better the Devil We Know: How Sociology Informs the Debate Over Antidumping Laws Law2011-12-06Trade and other governmental policy decisions are frequently made based on neoclassical economic theory, which in turn is based on simplifying assumptions that result in unrealistic predictions. In this thesis, I argue that sociology is an important social science that can help to inform economic theory in policy-making. Understanding how social relations affect market actors and institutions is crucial, as markets are themselves composed of social relationships. I present an example using antidumping regulations. Economic scholars have argued that antidumping laws should be abolished based on pure economic theory. I argue that, from a sociological perspective, antidumping laws serve to provide a necessary stabilizer for markets, resulting in controlled competition and greater trade liberalization. Such laws should therefore be maintained.MASTtrade10
Chu, Jacquelene Acosta, Edgar Linker-based Lecithin Oral Drug Delivery Systems Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry2012-12-04In this study, pharmaceutical-grade and food-grade linker-based lecithin self-emulsifying delivery systems (SEDS) were developed with a combination of lipophilic and hydrophilic linkers. These additives at suggested concentrations are safe for pharmaceutical and food applications. The ratio of surfactant lecithin and linkers in these systems was optimized to develop surfactant in oil preconcentrates. The preconcentrates containing different surfactant concentrations and oil were diluted with fed state simulated intestinal fluid to produce pseudo-ternary phase diagrams and to identify the formulations that produced self-emulsifying or self-microemulsifying delivery systems. Optimal SEDS preconcentrates were evaluated using a dialyzer model to simulate intestinal uptake. An uptake of 39.6 mg/cm2 for the pharmaceutical-grade SEDS was obtained within 72 minutes, which promises substantial improvement in the bioavailability of hydrophobic actives. The optimal uptake of 12.2 mg/cm2 for food-grade SEDS suggests enhancement in the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids.MASTfood2
Chu, Pei LinSaville, Bradley A||MacLean, Heather L Environmental and Financial Performance: Aviation Biofuels Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2014-11The hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) pathway produces biojet fuel that has the potential for near-term commercialization. This thesis examines the environmental and financial aspects of HDO biojet production in Western Canada using camelina, carinata and used cooking oil (UCO) waste as feedstocks. Process modeling included a rigorous HDO yield analysis based on the molecular distribution of triglycerides, isomerization modeling, and chemical and energy use estimates. The environmental impacts were estimated using the ISO 14040 Life Cycle Assessment framework and modeled in SimaPro with a focus on Greenhouse Gas emissions. Financial modeling included CAPEX and OPEX estimation, carbon price analysis, discounted cash flow modeling, sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo simulation to test economic robustness using standard NPV and IRR indicators. The analysis found that biojet from all of the analyzed feedstocks effectively reduced emissions compared to conventional fuels, but camelina was economically viable today while carinata and UCO faced near-term economic; production; waste; environment13
Chubak, Lynda Evelyn Carol Kerekes, Julie "I feel like a bag lady": Personal Interstices, Self-Disclosures and Empathetic Affiliation during Workplace Meetings Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2012-11-28While an extensive body of research exploring professional discourse exists, research investigating off-task talk within workplaces has been relatively side-lined. To better understand the possible functions of personal interstices layered between institutional goal-oriented talk, this study examines instances of self-disclosure that emerged from 34 hours of authentic interactions recorded at three Canadian workplaces. Using conversation analysis, 87 self-reference, self-disclosure declaratives were identified. Of those, 21 occurred within reciprocal sequences between two participants. Similar to a second story telling found in ordinary conversation (Sacks, 1992a), the second speaker’s self-disclosure reflects the first speaker’s, both in content and form, and is often an upgraded version of the initial disclosure. This pattern and in-meeting placement suggest that these types of personal interstices may be a mechanism for displaying co-worker empathetic affiliation. Additionally, hierarchical role relations and institution goals may be temporarily suspended or back-grounded during these sequences.MASTworker8
Chun, Lauren Lye, Stephen J. Maternal Dietary Restriction and the Effects of Postweaning Nutrition on Fetal Development, Insulin Signalling, Glucose Metabolism and Body Composition In C57BL/6J Mice Physiology2012-07-25Mice (C57BL/6J: B6) exposed to maternal dietary restriction (DR) exhibited fetal growth- restriction and as adults develop symptoms of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to determine the impact of DR on fetal hepatic gluconeogenic pathway and insulin sensitivity in late gestation. Second, we aimed to determine whether a postweaning diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids would alter the development of glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and obesity in DR male offspring. The reduced rate of fetal glycogen synthesis by DR male offspring and altered hepatic gene expression of enzymes involved in insulin signalling and glucose metabolism suggest abnormal fetal development in response to DR that may contribute to the later development of the metabolic syndrome. The postweaning omega-3 diet improved obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in both DR and control males. These data suggest that nutrition in pregnancy and postnatal life play important roles in determining life-long metabolic health.MASTnutrition2
Chung, Chi-Jen John Zee, E Robert Mechanical Subsystem Development for the CanX-7 Nanosatellite, the NEMO-HD Microsatellite, and the XPOD Mass Dummy Aerospace Science and Engineering2014-11The proliferation of small satellites has ushered in new challenges in satellite mechanical development. The pursuit for accessibility and low cost has resulted in industry-wide implementation of standardized form factors. Yet, advances in payload technology continue to drive demands for new bus designs with significant growth potential. The Space Flight Laboratory is currently developing satellites across a wide spectrum of mission scopes. Amongst these are a challenging technology demonstration nanosatellite with a 3U CubeSat form factor, and an Earth observation microsatellite to fly with a next-generation large-scale platform. Presented herein are the advances made in mechanical engineering for these two satellites in particular, as well as other ground support equipment. Significant work is done towards the detailed design and analysis of the bus structures. As well, contributions are made in support of the assembly, integration, and testing activities on both the satellite and subsystem levels.M.A.S.industr9
Chung, StevenTrescases, Olivier Hybrid Lead-acid/Lithium-ion Energy Storage System with Power-mix Control for Light Electric Vehicles Electrical and Computer Engineering2016-11This work presents a hybrid energy storage system (HESS), using lithium-ion (LI) and lead-acid (PbA) batteries, for light electric vehicles (LEV) that is both cost and performance
competitive with single energy storage system (SESS) configurations. A modular HESS architecture with a dc-dc converter and controller is proposed. The power-mix algorithm that minimizes the Peukert effect, and increases the usable energy of the lead-acid battery is presented and verified experimentally. A novel DLL and PLL based off-time control scheme is demonstrated for inductor ripple current interleaving in the multi-phase dc-dc converter. The cost and performance of the HESS are assessed side-by-side with PbA and LI SESS configurations of comparable total energy. The experimental HESS has a total projected cost midway between the SESS PbA cost and the SESS Li cost, while providing 17% range and 23% efficiency increase over the SESS PbA vehicle.
Cinquemani, Fabio Giuseppe Sprules, W. Gary Spatially Heterogeneous Prey Patterns may be Necessary for Predator Survival: a Model and a Review of the Aquatic Literature Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2012-07-19The Allen Paradox is the observation that, in aquatic communities, there is insufficient prey production to support predator growth. An assessment of the literature reveals that this paradox remains apparent in one of every four studies. Here, a novel explanation for this paradox is proposed: predators that feed in a spatially-heterogeneous-prey environment (SHPE) may experience a greater net energy gain than in a corresponding uniform-prey environment (UPE), meaning that predators may require less food than has been traditionally perceived. A model was
developed to simulate a predator’s energy gain while feeding in a SHPE rather than a UPE. According to the simulation, a greater net energy gain in a SHPE than a UPE
is possible, but only under certain conditions. Since prey can be utilized more efficiently in a SHPE, a given amount of prey production can supply more predator growth, which can have positive implications in fish stocking.
Clackett, SydneyPorter, Trevor J Long-Term Changes in Global and Local Atmospheric Mercury as Recorded in White Spruce Tree-Rings in Central Yukon Territory Geography2017-11This thesis on Picea glauca trees in central Yukon Territory makes progress toward understanding the use of tree-rings as a natural archive for atmospheric mercury (Hg) over long time-scales, a perspective needed to better understand Hg cycling. Unlike other tree-ring properties, tree-ring Hg appears to be independent of age and incremental growth variations, thereby eliminating the need to correct tree-ring Hg for biological trends. This is the first study in northern Canada to develop a multi-century (1606-2014 CE) tree-ring Hg reconstruction, and corroborates observations from other Hg reconstructions in North America, such as low 17thCE Hg concentrations relative to the post-Industrial era and peak values in the 20th CE. Finally, analysis of a control site and an industrial site where Hg emissions were elevated for ~6 decades demonstrates that local Hg emissions are additive to regional atmospheric Hg concentrations, and retained in tree-ring records proximal to emission sources.M.Sc. industrial ecology12
Clark, Nicholas A. Martell, David Lee Modelling Forest Fire Initial Attack Airtanker Operations Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2012-11-21The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources uses airtankers for forest fire suppression that now have onboard GPS units that track their real-time location, velocity and altitude. However, the GPS data does not indicate which fire is being fought, the time each airtanker spends travelling to and from each fire or the time each airtanker spends flying between each fire and the lake from which it scoops water to drop on the fire.
A pattern recognition algorithm was developed and used to determine what was happening at each point along the airtanker’s track, including the time and location of every water pickup. This pre-processed data was used to develop detailed models of the airtanker service process. A discrete-event simulation model of the initial attack airtanker system was also developed and used to show how service process models can be incorporated in other models to help solve complex airtanker management decision-making problems.
MASTforest; natural resources12, 15
Clarke, Allyson Stermac, Lana Weighing the Evidence: The Influence of Stereotypical Attitudes and Survivor Body Weight on Public Perceptions of Sexual Assault Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2009-12-14T17:06:31ZThe present study explored the influence of survivor weight and participant gender, rape myth acceptance and anti-fat attitudes on perceptions of sexual assault. Using an online survey tool, participants (N = 413) read a vignette describing a hypothetical sexual assault scenario and completed several self-report questionnaires. Generalized linear model analyses revealed that participants were more likely to hold the survivor responsible, excuse the perpetrator’s actions, and respond more negatively toward the survivor and more positively toward the perpetrator when the survivor was depicted as thin versus overweight. Interactions were found between rape myth acceptance and survivor weight, gender and survivor weight, and gender and anti-fat attitudes, for certain dependent variables. In addition, men and those with higher levels of rape myth acceptance and anti-fat attitudes were found to make more negative evaluations of the survivor and more positive evaluations of the perpetrator. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed.MASTgender5
Clarke, Meghan Jutta, Brunnee Climate Change and Human Rights: A Case Study of the Canadian Inuit and Global Warming in the Canadian Arctic Law2010-12-17T16:22:23ZClimate change debates have typically centred around the environmental and economic effects of rising greenhouse gas emissions. The focus, however, has recently begun to shift towards acknowledging the human impacts of global climate change, especially in vulnerable regions and communities. This thesis considers whether human rights law can compensate for the inability of traditional, state-centred, environmental law and international law to address the human impacts of climate change. By using the situation of the Canadian Inuit as a case study, this thesis focuses on 'greening' existing human rights to address the environmental damage in the Canadian Arctic as a result of climate change. This study concludes that, although international human rights regimes provide potential forums for groups such as the Canadian Inuit, substantive environmental human rights are necessary in international law in order to best address the complex intersection of environmental degradation, such as climate change, and human rights.MASTclimate; rights; 13, 16
Clayton, LauraPortelli, John P Food Literacy Education: A Philosophical Perspective Social Justice Education2018-06In this thesis, I will argue through a critical democratic education lens for the inclusion of philosophical perspectives in a comprehensive food literacy education program in Ontario high schools. Food is a democratic issue of philosophical concern, requiring critical educational attention. I maintain that if we do not properly deal with food issues in schools we fail to fulfill the democratic social reconstruction aims of education.
Utilizing a critical democratic dialogue framework, I combine the work of Laura Pinto and Heesoon Bai, whose approaches to collective communication promote social justice and critical democratic education. To conclude, I offer two concrete pedagogical applications of this framework to high school classrooms.
This paper supports initiatives already underway to expand the teaching of food literacy in Ontario high schools, but is significant because of its focus on critical democratic education, and my strong insistence on the inclusion of philosophical perspectives and teachings.; justice2, 16
Cleghorn, Michelle Upshur, Ross Public Engagement through the Toronto Health Policy Citizens Council: What do Citizens Value in Health Care? Medical Science2011-12-06Health policy making is fraught with difficult decisions that result from conflicts between people’s values. Citizens are important stakeholders in this process, and it is through methods of public engagement that they can be involved in developing health policy. Deliberative forms, in particular, have the ability to improve decision quality and promote greater acceptance of decisions. This study used the Toronto Health Policy Citizens Council to examine citizens’ values on 7 specific health policy questions asked over a two-year period. A thematic analysis was performed on the transcript content derived from the audiotaped deliberations from Council meetings. Nineteen values were identified. The results suggest that it may be a combination of factors of the health policy topic discussed that shapes the values elicitation seen in this kind of public engagement. In conclusion, citizens councils appear effective at eliciting citizens’ values, and are a good way to actively educate participants about health care.MASThealth; justice3, 16
Clement, BronwynBunce, Susannah Geographies of Enforced Heteronormativity in Urban Public Parks: A Case Study of Project Marie Geography2018-03The policing of sex in public parks raises questions regarding how the access and use of public space is regulated and how normative framings of urban park space are reproduced and enforced. This thesis uses the recent police operation, Project Marie â in which dozens of individuals were ticketed for bylaw infractions and trespassing in Etobicokeâ s Marie Curtis Park â as a case study. Drawing from queer geography and urban political ecology, this thesis examines how heteronormativity is reproduced through and embedded in the planning, governance and regulation of urban park space. I situate this case study within discussions of the socio-political conditions and decisions that shape urban natures that construct and confine park spaces. The paper uses interviews and a critical discourse analysis of the media and grey literature surrounding Project Marie to demonstrate social regulation and enforcement of heteronormative ideas of public park space.M.A.queer; urban; governance5, 11, 16
Clouthier, Jessica TheresaDonaldson, James Ammonium’s Impact on Phase Changes in Urban Grime Chemistry2018-06Urban grime is a mixed organic-inorganic film that develops on impervious surfaces that allows partitioning of trace atmospheric species from the gas phase. Its chemical composition and physical properties vary, but nitrate and sulfate are always present. Our group recently reported rapid photochemistry of nitrate deposited on films, where the product formation rate depends upon ambient relative humidity. Nitrate’s physical state in grime may affect its photochemistry. Raman spectroscopy was used to differentiate between solid and solution-phase nitrate and sulfate while measuring various mixtures of NaNO3, (NH4)2SO4, Na2SO4, CaCl2, on vacuum grease under dried and humidified conditions, to explore phase changes in a grime-like environment. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 or CaCl2, nitrate displays a solution-like spectrum even in dried samples. Due to the importance of ammonium’s presence to the phase of nitrate, we performed experiments that monitor evolution of gas phase ammonia from illumination of ammonium-containing proxy grime samples.M.Sc.urban; environment11, 13
Cochrane, Keith Roorda, Matthew J. ||Shalaby, Amer Saïd Freight on Transit Delphi Study Civil Engineering2012-11-21The Freight on Transit Delphi Study was conducted to explore the concept of freight on transit – using public transit vehicles and infrastructure for transporting things other than people. Three rounds of web based surveys were conducted with a panel of 34 transportation experts to explore the main issues related to freight and transit integration and to build and evaluate potential freight on transit operations. Survey results were consistent with previous investigations and suggest that organizational disputes are a larger barrier to implementation than technical challenges. Traditional Delphi questions were used to determine the most important positive impacts, negative impacts, and challenges of moving freight on transit networks while survey responses combined with scenario building techniques were used to build and evaluate five potential freight on transit operating strategies using public transit networks in the GTHA.MASTinfrastructure9
Cohen, Brittany JillCooper, Karyn Mental Health Support for Newcomer Youth: Fostering Resilience and Compassion among Refugees and their Peers Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-06Refugee youth represent one of the fastest growing segments of the Canadian population. Upon resettlement, post-migration factors can have severe impacts on mental health and wellbeing. In Ontario, schools are relied upon to support integration and manage the reception of newcomers, yet children continue to face struggles that impede upon wellbeing. Social exclusion, discrimination, and a lack of social support are amongst these issues. A postmodern framework is employed to explore the social, historical, and political implications of the refugee experience within the Ontario public school context. A hermeneutic approach is used to interpret curriculum documents, policies, policy guidelines, and other texts that shape the Ontario elementary education system. Based on my research, I propose that a holistic, mindfulness based curriculum be integrated into Ontario education in order to enhance resilience among refugee youth while fostering compassion and support among their;3
Colasanto, MarlenaScott, Katreena Effect of Professional Training on Child Protection Workers' Conceptualization and Self-Efficacy in Domestic Violence Cases Applied Psychology and Human Development2018-11Child exposure to domestic violence (DV) is a recognized form of child maltreatment. In Ontario, more cases are referred to child protection as a result of concerns of DV than for any other form of maltreatment. Child protection workers often do not understand the dynamics of DV and are not well equipped with the tools or knowledge to refer families to appropriate interventions. We examined the efficacy of professional training to improve worker responses to mothers who have experienced DV and fathers who have perpetrated DV. Findings revealed marked differences in workers' capacity and self-efficacy for conceptualizing the risks and needs of mothers and fathers. Professional training resulted in improvements to worker's conceptualization of mothers' risk and needs as they intersected with DV, not fathers'. Results will help lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at improving workers' knowledge and response to families in circumstances of DV.M.A.worker8
Colelli, David RobertBoulos, Mark I||Black, Sandra E Enhancing Cognition by using Low-cost In-home Portable Sleep Equipment: A Feasibility Study Medical Science2019-11Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which causes pauses in breathing during sleep, increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment. In-laboratory polysomnography (iPSG) is the gold standard to diagnose OSA, but few patients are screened by iPSG due to refusal to spend a night in a sleep laboratory. Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) may be a more accessible alternative, as it is simple to use, conveniently administered in a patient’s own home, and validated against iPSG. This study investigated the feasibility and practicality of using HSAT in cognitively impaired clinic patients and assessed the prevalence and factors associated with OSA. HSAT was found to be feasible and practical to assess for OSA. OSA was also prevalent in this population. As OSA is a modifiable risk factor for patients with cognitive impairment, HSAT has the potential to lead to expedited treatment for OSA, which may potentially improve health-related outcomes such as cognition.M.Sc.health3
Coleman, BrentIsaac, Marney E Shade Tree Effects on Intraspecific Leaf Trait Plasticity and Decomposition in a Willow Agroforestry System Geography2016-11Agroforestry systems enhance nutrient cycling, in part, through modifications to leaf quality and quantity, and subsequently, decomposition rates. However, leaf traits are plastic and thus variable across both temporal and spatial scales in agroforestry systems. Using a temperate tree- based intercropping system with willow, this study examined effects of shade tree functional group (N2-fixer, Non N2-fixer, or monoculture) and distance from shade tree on i) willow leaf traits (leaf area, leaf weight, specific-leaf area (SLA), leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC), and subsequently ii) trait variability influence on decomposition rates in a lab incubation. Willow leaves within agroforestry treatments exhibited greater leaf area, SLA, and LNC than within the monoculture treatment. Willow leaf decomposition followed a two-pooled kinetic model with k1 values ranging from 0.20 to 0.29 d-1 and k2 values ranging from 0.0019 to 0.0023 d-1. Willow litter in agroforestry systems presumably provides soils with additional N, potentially reducing required fertilizer inputs.M.Sc.forest15
Colley, Michele E.Buliung, Ron Gender Differences in the Commute to School and Work through Time and Space in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Canada Geography2017-03Previous research on gender and mobility has pointed to differences between male and female travel patterns, but little attention has been paid in transportation planning practice to gender differences in travel demand. This thesis explores gender differences in the school and work commute through the life cycle and over time and space in effort to inform policies that begin to address the needs of a diverse population. The results suggest that school-aged males use active modes more than females, but females use active modes more than males during the years of labour force participation. Adult men continue to use the automobile to travel to work, while females make up a greater proportion of transit riders than males. Mode share differences increase with age, but have decreased since the 1980s. The relationship between male and female travel mode also differs depending on many factors including distance, time, and place.M.A.gender5
Collict, David ThomasGillis, Roy Minority Stress, Positive Sexual Minority Identity and Eudaimonic Well-being Experiences Among Sexual and Gender-diverse Communities Applied Psychology and Human Development2020-06Significant literature has documented the negative mental health experiences of LGBTQ2-identified people. More recently, research has begun to examine LGBTQ2 well-being and resiliency in the context of positive, eudaimonic well-being outcomes. Based in the minority stress model, the current study examines the relationship between minority stressors and eudaimonic well-being, and resiliency factors that may reduce the negative impact of such stressors on these eudaimonic outcomes. Such analyses were conducted through regression and mediation models. 300 participants who self-identified as LGBTQ2 were recruited through online spaces and responded to relevant questionnaires. Regression results indicated that higher scores on internalized homophobia and lower scores on outness were significantly predictive of eudaimonic well-being outcomes. Furthermore, both authenticity and community connectedness were shown to partially reduce the direct relationships between proximal minority stressors and eudaimonic well-being. Relevant implications for the minority stress model, and clinical and practical uses of findings are discussed as;3
Collymore, Tawnee Coloma, Roland Sintos Towards a Diasporic Epistemology: How Filipino Canadian Young Men Make Sense of Educational Success and Failure Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2012-11-28This thesis forwards the concept of “diasporic epistemology” in order to better understand how Filipino Canadian young males make sense of their educational success and failure. Diasporic epistemology means a dual frame of reference created by the intersection of both structural and cultural conditions specific to a particular diaspora. To investigate this concept, I examined the interview transcripts of six Filipino Canadian young men using the constructivist approach to grounded theory. My research reveals that school structure and Filipino consciousness play a significant role in educational success and failure. Situating my thesis within the academic fields of epistemology, intersectionality, and student achievement, I contend that understanding the diasporic epistemology of racialized minority and immigrant students challenges certain truism in educational research, such as current belief that family’s socio-economic status and parental education are predictors of students’ academic success. The implications for education are greater teacher-student-home relationships and alternative schooling methodsMASTeducat4
Colvin, Christopher Easty, Anthony ||Trbovich, Patricia An Exploratory Study of the Fundamental Characteristics Influencing the Analysis and Communication Activities of Health Care Incident Reporting Systems Biomedical Engineering2011-12-06Incident reporting systems offer rich opportunities for learning from errors in health care. However, little attention has been given to understanding how the implementation of reporting system characteristics impact analysis and communication activities. This research explored the characteristics of reporting systems that promote analysis and communication activities. Ten characteristics were identified through a comprehensive literature review. Two reporting systems were then compared to assess how differences in the implementation of the characteristics impact the contents of the database. The results demonstrated that differences in the characteristics’ implementation have an effect on the ability to extract information essential to analysis activities. Next, the reporting processes of the two systems were mapped onto a hierarchical framework to highlight how the characteristics influence the communication of incident information across the health care system. The presented work furthers the understanding of characteristics needed to design reporting systems more effective at promoting learning.MASThealth3
Conroy, SarahCowen, Deborah||McGregor, Deborah An NDN* in TRANS*ition: The Academic-ish Journal of a Trans/Non-Binary Non-Status Mixed-Nation Urban-Nish Geography2017-11An archive of my journey in coming to understand the metamorphosis of oral traditions and ceremonies in the urban context and its relation to my own mixed-nation, non-status, and non-binary identities. I tentatively apply the practical knowledge from my undergraduate degree in Aboriginal Studies (now known as Indigenous Studies), where the focus of my work was rooted in Anishinaabemowin (Ojibwe language), Aatisoohkaanan (Algonquin legends), Aatisoohkaanak (Algonquin legendary characters), as they applied to my personal experiences and journey as a mixed urban Indigenous gender-queerdo. Of particular interest are topics such as mixedness, kin/citizen/member/ship, gender, and where and how they intersect with land, the city, and urban Indigenous experiences. Through this I weave together a foundation for a discussion which centers a queer mixed urban Indigenous experience, a foundation of rich soil from which I intend to take root in and grow.M.A.gender; urban5, 11
Consiglio, GiuliaCadarette, Suzanne M Diffusion of Methodological Innovation in Pharmacoepidemiology: Self-controlled Study Designs Pharmaceutical Sciences2015-03Self-controlled designs are methodological innovations that complement traditional observational studies and are useful to control for time-invariant confounders. The use and diffusion of self-controlled case-control and cohort designs in pharmacoepidemiology was examined over time, and described using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and co-authorship network analysis (visualized in a supplementary graphics interchange format (GIF) image). Studies experienced a lag in diffusion, followed by a rapid uptake in use since 2000. Overall, the co-authorship network was comprised of 176 papers, 763 authors and 46 components; 31 components contained one paper (61% self-controlled case-control). The largest component of the network was interconnected and was comprised of 69% self-controlled cohort studies. Future work to develop and disseminate standardized language could target seminal authors and key opinion leaders identified in the network. Formal reporting guidelines are also encouraged, as the majority of applications did not follow recommendations on reporting, such as raw data display.M.Sc.innovation9
Contreras, FranciscoAmon, Cristina Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2015-06Use of diesel generators in remote communities is economically and environmentally unsustainable. Consequently, researchers have focussed on designing hybrid renewable energy systems (HRES) for distributed electricity generation in remote communities. However, the cost-effectiveness of interconnecting multiple remote communities (microgrids) has not been explored. The main objective of this thesis is to develop a methodology for optimal design of HRES and microgrids for remote communities. A set of case studies was developed to test this methodology and it was determined that a combination of stand-alone decentralized HRES and microgrids is the most cost-effectiveness power generation scheme when studying a group of remote; renewable; environment7, 13
Cooper, Amanda-Mae Portelli, John P. Student Leadership for Social Justice in Secondary Schools: A Canadian Perspective Theory and Policy Studies in Education2009-02-24T15:11:16ZThis qualitative study investigates how the views of student leaders (and some of their staff advisors) illuminate the discussion in the broader literature around issues of student leadership, conflict, diversity and social justice in secondary schools. Eighteen one-hour, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve student leaders and six teachers from six provinces across Canada. This study contributes to educational research by considering the ways student leaders (rather than adult administrators) can impact social justice. While students envision their leadership role in terms of social justice with the goals of inclusion and societal change in mind, the present schooling structure, established expectations and strategies chosen for initiatives often hinder the realization of such a role. Schools also seem to avoid local controversial issues by encouraging student leaders to focus on international concerns. This study explores opportunities for schools to address equity issues through reconceptualizing student leadership and its goals.MASTjustice; educat4, 16
Cooper, Danielle Hartel, Jenna Big Gay Library: An Ethnography of the Pride Library at the University of Western Ontario Information Studies2011-12-06Officially founded in 1997, the Pride Library is a pioneering Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Queer (LGBTQ) Canadian information-based organization. Although located within D.B. Weldon Library at the University of Western Ontario, the library maintains a primarily grassroots framework. The Pride Library case study reflects a tradition within LGBTQ communities towards preserving and disseminating information otherwise marginalized by larger society. Operating outside of conventional professional informed and institutionally-dominated models, LGBTQ communities create unique grassroots information organizational contexts. In order to develop a deeper understanding of LGBTQ information organizations, an ethnographic study of the Pride Library was developed. The thesis addresses the library’s use patterns, and approaches to space, materials and labour relations. Findings demonstrate that the Pride Library is not only valued for providing LGBTQ-specific information resources, but also for creating a symbolically significant, socially-oriented and community-based LGBTQ environment.MASTqueer5
Copeland, Kathleen Julia Guttman, S David Characterizing the Community Dynamics of the Leaf Microbiome Cell and Systems Biology2014-11The phyllosphere microbiome of seasonal plants is influenced by biological, environmental and ecological factors. To explore the influence of these factors simultaneously and to determine the forces that drive community composition, we sampled leaf communities from common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soybean (Glycine max) and Canola (Brassica napus), planted at three different locations at the Koffler Scientific Reserve, over the course of a growing season. Temporal changes had the most significant affect on the community, regardless of host species or location. Precipitation had the most dramatic effect on the Canola microbiome, while soybean and bean communities followed a more predictable pattern of development throughout the summer and were only minimally affected by rainfall. Leaf communities at the beginning of the season were strongly influenced by soil communities. As time passed, the leaf communities differentiated from the soil, becoming less diverse and containing a greater proportion of leaf-adapted and leaf-specific taxa.M.Sc.agriculture2
Cordero, RubenCurrie, Douglas C Community composition and Biogeography of northern Canadian Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2014-11Climate change has a disproportionately effect on northern ecosystems. To measure this impact we need to understand the structure of northern communities and the influence of current and historical climate events. Insect of the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPTs) are excellent subjects for study because they are widespread and good bioindicators. The objectives of this study are: (1) Determine patterns of distribution and community composition of northern EPTs. (2) Understand the role of historical events (i.e., Pleistocene glaciations). We found that northern EPT communities are influenced by temperature and precipitation. Also, community composition and population structure of EPT exhibit a similar geographical pattern, with differences on either side of Hudson Bay, suggesting the influence of glaciations in shaping communities of EPTs in northern Canada. The COI barcode approach provided a reliable means for identifying specimens to produce the first wide-scale study of community structure and biogeography of northern EPTs.M.Sc.climate13
Corkum, TrevorMirchandani, Kiran Where is Queer? Migration Experiences of Sexual Minority International Students in Toronto Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2015-11This qualitative study uses queer standpoint and queer oral history methods to examine the migration experiences of nine globally mobile LGBTQ international students currently studying or recently graduated from post-secondary institutions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and southern Ontario. I employ Lionel Cantú’s queer materialist paradigm to interrogate the ways in which queer international students are subject to and disciplined by dominant relations of ruling within specific educational and queer sites of citizenship. In particular, I attend to the ways in which intersections of race, gender, class, language, and other identity markers mediate experiences of home and belonging in both physical and virtual worlds within these citizenship spaces, and how these students engage in forms of “border-crossing” to consciously re-articulate or redeploy aspects of their identity in order to strategically negotiate particular regimes of power and privilege.M.A.educat; gender; queer4, 5
Cormier, Caroline Gilbert, Emily Narratives of Power and the Power of Narratives: Transformation along the U.S.-Mexico Border Geography2010-12-17T17:29:25ZUsing the Three Border Model developed by Mike Davis and Alessandra Moctezuma, this
thesis presents a number of case studies focused on the narratives of power and
transformation that continue to develop on the American side of the U.S.-Mexico border in the post-9/11 context. The first case study overviews the history of the U.S.-Mexico border in relation to the ongoing fortification of the physical boundary and its legal reification in
federal policy. The second case study examines the exclusionary policies enacted by the state of Arizona as well as the anti-immigration agenda instituted by the Minuteman Project. The third case study examines the ways in which urban communities in the borderlands contest the material manifestations of the border present in their everyday lives. By surveying case
studies at different sites and scales along the U.S.-Mexico boundary, this thesis challenges traditional conceptions of state power at the border.
MASTinclusive; urban11, 16
Costa Guimaraes Trindade, TatianaMacLean, Heather L.||Posen, Daniel Water Security and Access to Basic Services: Assessing Urban Vulnerabilities in the Global South Civil Engineering2020-03Spatial and social inequalities among residents represent major vulnerabilities to urban resilience. In this thesis, inequalities in access to basic infrastructure and distribution of urban resources are assessed in the Global South context. First, 122 studies on slum infrastructure are reviewed and the most frequently assessed quantitative indicators determined. Access to municipal services is among the most prevalent indicators. Then, the challenge of basic services provision in 2030 is scoped for six developing cities. Large investments or conservation efforts are expected to be required, especially for waste collection and water provision. Finally, a district-level urban water security framework is developed and applied to six case studies. The results show that water insecurity tends to increase from the city-centre to its periphery. Water insecurity also shows a strong negative correlation with income. The quantitative information and insights provided here can aid in planning of more equitable and resilient cities.M.A.S.equitable; water; infratstructure; urban; resilien; waste; conserv4, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14
Costa, Iara Regina Da Moodley, Roy Acculturation Strategies and its Effect on Depressive Symptoms in the Brazilian Immigrant Community in the Greater Toronto Area Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2008-07-30T19:26:00ZAmong several difficulties associated with immigration, acculturation process has been
recognized as one of the main stressors and one of the major risk factors associated in the
incidence of mental disorders. The strategies adopted by individuals to deal with the
acculturation process appear to be predictive of different mental health outcomes. This
exploratory study investigated the relationship between acculturation strategies and the
occurrence of symptoms of depression in the context of the Brazilian immigrant community
living in the Greater Toronto Area. The results demonstrated that Separation and Assimilation
were the predominant strategies for this sample and that acculturation strategies failed to serve as
significant predictors of depression scores. However, participants with Separation as their
predominant acculturation strategy exhibited higher depressive symptom endorsement. The
significance of these findings in the context of previous research as well as its implications for
future research and critical multicultural practice in mental health are discussed.
Costa, Stacy AlexandraScardamalia, Marlene Math Discourse in a Grade 2 Knowledge Building Classroom Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2017-06The goal of this study was to examine grade two Math Talk in geometry within a Knowledge Building community engaged in both face-to-face and computer-mediated discourse. Ontario Ministry of Education guidelines were used to identify grade two geometry concepts. Math vocabulary extracted from these guidelines was used, along with a content-based social network analysis tool, to explore the emergence of new domain-specific vocabulary in student discourse and to assess patterns of engagement surrounding use of those terms. A â Ways of Contributingâ analytic framework was used to assess the nature of both teacher and student contributions to face to face and online discourse. Findings suggest that students as early as grade 2 can engage productively in Knowledge Building Math Talk in both face-to-face and online contexts.M.A.educat4
Costaris, MattPeterson-Badali, Michele Subgroups of Youth within the Attitudes/Orientation Domain of the YLS/CMI: A Latent Class Approach Applied Psychology and Human Development2019-11Antisocial attitudes are a “Big Four” risk factor for recidivism. Within the Attitudes/Orientation domain of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), items appear to assess two different factors – antisocial attitudes and treatment readiness.  Research has demonstrated the importance of both in predicting offender outcomes and guiding treatment. To determine whether different classes of youth exist based on identified YLS/CMI Attitudes/Orientation domain items, a Latent Class Analysis was conducted using a sample of justice-involved youth referred to a mental health agency in Toronto, Canada (n=824) for forensic assessment. Four classes were identified: High Overall Attitude Needs (19%), Antisocial-Predominant (20%), Treatment-Resistant (9%), and Low Overall Attitude Needs (52%).  Significant class differences were found in terms of total risk, index offense, criminogenic needs identified for intervention, and recidivism. Results suggest that class information may assist in targeting interventions.M.A. justice16
Couture, BrianChristopoulos, Constantin Full-scale Monitoring of a Tall, Slender Building with Coupling Viscoelastic Dampers Civil Engineering2019-06Tall, slender buildings are sensitive to dynamic vibrations caused by wind, and the design of the building may be governed by occupant motion perception. A method to control dynamic vibrations is to increase the damping of the structure, which may be accomplished by the addition of a supplemental damping system. A novel system, the Viscoelastic Coupling Damper (VCD), was implemented for the first time in a tall, slender building which was under construction during the completion of this thesis. This building was the subject of a year-long plus monitoring program where output-only system identification algorithms were applied to track the development of the dynamic properties through the construction of the building. Additionally, several large amplitude wind events occurred during the program allowing for the tracking of amplitude-dependent phenomenon. The role of the VCD system was evaluated, and numerical finite-element models were constructed with reference to the experimental resultsM.A.S. buildings9
Crane, LauraGaskell, Jane How is International Experience Considered during Local Teacher Hiring? Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2015-11Many Canadian Ontario-educated teachers are gaining international experience—either prior to entering a faculty of education, during their degree programs, or upon graduation—before seeking teaching jobs “at home.” For this study, 131 administrators from Ontario public, Catholic and private/independent schools completed a quantitative, online anonymous survey, which sought to see if international experience is an advantage during the local hiring process. Participants were recruited through school boards, schools, e-newsletters and directly. Results were reviewed for a central tendency. Administrators generally indicated that they are aware of international opportunities available, and that they believe these experiences can develop teachers’ knowledge, skills and abilities; however, when hiring, international experience is not necessarily an advantage on its own, including for those who have completed international experiences themselves. Other legislative requirements and board policies may also play a role in determining the hiring decisions, particularly in publicly-funded schools and school boards.M.A.educat4
Cripps, JennaStermac, Lana Forms of Technology-facilitated Sexual Violence and University Women's Psychological Functioning Applied Psychology and Human Development2016-11Technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) is an emerging social and public health issue that can significantly impact those who experience it, yet our knowledge and understanding of this issue is limited. Despite the abundance of research addressing offline sexual violence, comparatively little attention has been paid to online sexual violence. With a growing emphasis on the use of technology on campuses and university women being both avid users of technology and overrepresented as victims of sexual violence (Stermac, Del Bove, Brazeau, Bainbridge, 2006), university women are at an increased risk of experiencing TFSV. Using an online self-guided study, this research investigated the forms and characteristics of TFSV being experienced by university women and their association with womenâ s wellbeing. Results indicate that technologies are being used to victimize women in a variety of ways and these experiences are associated with feelings of depression, anxiety, stress and symptoms of post-traumatic stress; women3, 5
Crompton, AmandaWakefield, Sarah Towards Inclusive Community Engagement: Engaging Marginalized Residents in the Urban Planning Process Geography2017-11The increasing diversity of Canadian communities presents a challenge to municipalities as planners are called upon to lead inclusive public engagement programs. This thesis identifies current engagement tools developed by Ontario municipalities to increase the diversity of citizen participation in urban planning processes, and evaluates how well they are implemented in practice. An online review of policies from twelve municipalities was conducted, followed by interviews with staff representing four municipalities. The research findings demonstrate that traditional engagement mechanisms, such as public meetings, are still commonly used by municipalities; however, planners are increasingly expanding their engagement toolbox in order to remove barriers to participation, and in turn reach an audience that more accurately reflects the population. The extent to which these modern engagement tools are resulting in processes and outcomes that are more inclusive and representative of the community is difficult to determine because most municipalities do not yet track participant demographics.M.A.inclusive; urban4, 11
Crookes, AdamDrake, Jennifer Performance of Hydromedia Pervious Concrete Pavement Subjected to Urban Traffic Loads in Ontario Civil Engineering2015-06Flooding and poor surface water quality are common in dense urban areas, and the challenge of managing stormwater requires a new approach. This study evaluates the hydrologic and water quality performance of a zero exfiltration Hydromedia Pervious Concrete parking lot in St. Catharines, Ontario. Hydromedia is a type of permeable pavement, and is considered to be part of a low impact development approach. Hydromedia showed a much improved hydrologic response compared to conventional asphalt, with both volume and peak discharge reductions, as well as lag times to peak for every event observed. Residual concentrations in Hydromedia effluent were below relevant guidelines for the majority of pollutants, however high early age pH, and elevated levels of aluminum, chromium, and mercury were detected in the effluent. The LSSC is an excellent site for further research, and long term monitoring would help to evaluate the effectiveness of zero exfiltration systems in Ontario.M.A.S.pollut; urban11, 14
Croydon-Sugarman, Melanie Judith FeliciaMalcolm, Jay R.||Moncalvo, Jean-Marc Effects of Forest Management and Experimental Dead Wood Removal on Macrofungal Communities in Boreal, Mixedwood Forests of Ontario Forestry2019-11Boreal macrofungi are an ecologically diverse group of organisms that are threatened by forest management, including harvest-associated reductions in coarse woody debris (CWD) supplies. In this thesis, I compared richness and composition of macrofungal communities in old-growth and post-logged mixedwood stands in boreal northeastern Ontario, including post-logged stands in which downed CWD availability had been experimentally manipulated. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed a strong distinction between macrofungal communities of unlogged and logged plots, correlated with harvest-related reductions in large-diameter CWD supplies. Rarefaction revealed that macrofungal richness, particularly of saprotrophs, was higher in unlogged compared to logged plots, especially those with experimentally-reduced CWD supplies. These results demonstrate the negative effects of post-harvest decreases in CWD on macrofungal richness and suggest that forest management in Canada may, over time, lead to the harvest-related biodiversity losses of boreal Europe. Management practices that better emulate habitat conditions in old-growth stands, including availability of large-diameter CWD, are discussed.M.Sc.forest; biodiversity15
Cruz, Francis Cedric Go-AlcantaraBilton, Amy Development and Modelling of an Aeration Control System for Precision Aquaculture Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2019-11Dissolved oxygen is an important parameter of water quality in aquaculture. Aeration has been known to improve oxygen levels and yields, but its use is uncommon in many developing world environments due to high costs. As a more effective implementation, this thesis presents the use of a feedback diffused aeration control system to maintain adequate oxygen levels and increase energy savings. To demonstrate the potential, a model was developed to describe the interaction between the aerator and the pond and to predict the oxygen profiles of the water. Time-series simulations were performed to estimate the potential savings for a pond in Bangladesh, with and without the use of a feedback system. Results showed that the use of a control system led to an average of 66.0% in energy savings. Field validation experiments indicated an average prediction error of 3.64% and 4.91% for the top and bottom layers of the pond.M.A.S.water6
Cui, SiliangLiu, Jane Temporal and Spatial Variations of PM2.5, surface O3, and Smog in Ontario, Canada Geography2017-11This study focuses on seasonal and interannual variations of PM2.5, surface O3, and smog from 2003 to 2015 in six Ontarian cities, including Sarnia, Hamilton, and Toronto in the south, and North Bay, Sudbury, and Sault Ste. Marie in the north. All cities had the highest PM2.5 and smog events in summer and the highest O3 in spring. PM2.5 and smog events were greater in the southern cities than in the northern ones; the pattern is the opposite for surface O3. For most cities, the annual PM2.5 decreased insignificantly while surface O3 increased significantly. The diurnal variation of surface O3 altered by rains in an Ontarian city, Mississauga, is also investigated for the warm seasons of 2014 and 2015. At daytimes, surface OÂŹÂŹ3 during rain decreased by 7 ppb, resulting from less photochemical production. At night, O3 during rain increased by 6 ppb, attributing to the chemical reduction of NO.M.Sc.pollut14
Cunningham, Jasmyn Emily AnneShapiro, Colin M Investigating Chronotherapeutic Interventions for the Treatment of Depression Medical Science2018-11Major depressive disorder is one of the most frequently diagnosed psychiatric disorders, and has widespread negative impacts on both the individual and on society. Current standard treatment options for depression have significant limitations, including side effects, contraindications, and barriers to accessing care. Chronotherapies, which make use of sleep and circadian rhythms, provide a promising alternative treatment route for depression. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), bright light therapy (BLT), and combined chronotherapies used to treat depression were systematically reviewed. Both CBT-I and BLT have evidence to support their efficacy in treating depression; combined therapy including sleep deprivation, BLT and/or sleep phase advance may also be effective. We propose a novel combined chronotherapeutic treatment, consisting of telehealth CBT-I and BLT, which we believe would be efficacious, accessible, and which would help to relieve the considerable burden of depression in Canada.M.Sc.health3
Curiale, Nathanael J.Zingg, David W Morphing Wings: A Study Using High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Aerospace Science and Engineering2017-11With the aviation industry under pressure to reduce fuel consumption, morphing wings have the capacity to improve aircraft performance, thereby making a significant contribution to reversing climate change. Through high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization, various forms of morphing wings are assessed for a hypothetical regional-class aircraft. The framework used solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations and utilizes a gradient-based optimization algorithm. Baseline geometries are developed through multipoint optimization, where the average drag coefficient is minimized over a range of flight conditions with additional dive constraints. Morphing optimizations are then performed, beginning with these baseline shapes. Five distinct types of morphing are investigated and compared. Overall, a theoretical fully adaptable wing produces roughly a 2% improvement in average performance, whereas trailing-edge morphing with a 27-point multipoint baseline results in just over a 1% improvement in average performance. Trailing-edge morphing proves to be more beneficial than leading-edge morphing, upper-surface morphing, and a conventional flap.M.A.S.industr; consum; climate 9, 12, 13
Cursino, AlexandreSumner, Jennifer Not all in one Rhythm: A Critical Analysis of the Media Discourse against the Indigenous Re-existence of the Maraká’nà Village in Kûánãpará Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2016-11Indigenous people created the re-existence known as Maraká’nà village, by re-occupying the sacred territory of a building in Kûánãpará (Rio de Janeiro) located next to the popular Maracanã stadium. The village became a meeting place for re-existences that encompass issues of Indigenous sovereignty, sacred land right, spirituality practices, decolonizing education, and the creation of the first Intercultural Indigenous University in Pindorama. It challenged the economic and social impacts of the neoliberal sports mega-events, which raised tensions during the organization of sports mega-events. These tensions were amplified through media discourse, by perpetuating violent treatment of Indigenous peoples, and naturalizing the dominant elite. Employing a transdisciplinary methodology that combines Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Political Economy, this study examines the media discourse that obstructs the Indigenous re-existence of Maraká’nà by favoring capitalist structures. Despite demonstrating unbalanced power relations, the findings show unbalanced power relations Maraká'nà and media discourses.M.A.institution16
Czurylowicz, Peter Chen, Jing Ming Leaf Area Index, Carbon Cycling Dynamics and Ecosystem Resilience in Mountain Pine Beetle Affected Areas of British Columbia from 1999 to 2008 Geography2011-11-30The affect on leaf area index (LAI) and net ecosystem production (NEP) of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia affecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests was examined from 1999 to 2008. The process-based carbon (C) cycle model – Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with remotely sensed LAI inputs was used to produce annual NEP maps, which were validated using field measurements. The annual NEP ranged from 2.43 to -8.03 MtC between 1999 and 2008, with sink to source conversion in 2000. The inter-annual variability for both LAI and NEP displayed initial decreases followed by a steadily increasing trend from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near C neutrality in 2008 (-1.84 MtC). The resistance of LAI and NEP to MPB attack was attributed to ecosystem resilience in the form of secondary overstory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.MASTresilien10
D’Souza, AndreaColantonio, Angela The Gendered Experiences of Men with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Qualitative Study Rehabilitation Science2019-11Research shows that gendered constructs influence traumatic brain injury (TBI) recovery and should be incorporated into clinical interventions. To inform the future development of such interventions, this study explored the experiences of men with TBI through a gendered lens. Specifically, it aimed to (1) analyze their gendered perceptions and behaviours in relation to TBI recovery, and (2) understand how they viewed gendered constructs within their lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with men of all TBI phases and severities. A qualitative thematic analysis approach was used to interpret interview data, guided by the concept of hegemonic masculinity. Three key themes were discerned from the interviews of 22 men: performativity of masculinity in treatment and recovery, masculinity in motivations for return to work and activities, and men’s explicit versus implicit understanding and discussion of gender. These findings can be translated into patient-driven therapy strategies and gender-specific materials for men with TBI.M.Sc.gender5
Da Silva, KeithQuiñonez, Carlos An Ontario Primary Health Care System to Support a Cavity-Free Future Dentistry2018-11Fluoride varnish (FV) is a proven intervention for preventing early childhood caries. Due to frequent contact with children, primary healthcare professionals may be ideally situated for FV application. Currently, public health units across Ontario are implementing FV in primary care. Yet challenges remain at the political, professional, and practice levels. This study aims to understand the perspectives of key stakeholders on making FV application routine primary care practice in Ontario. Our findings suggest that there is an opportunity for interdisciplinary care and motivation for this intervention. However, we found that concerns related to funding, oral health knowledge, and existing inter-professional relationships may impede implementation. With respect to introducing a dental intervention into medical practice, the many factors required to implement change may not be in alignment. However, representatives across all fields are motivated and have identified opportunities for change that may form the foundation for this program in the future.M.Sc.health3
Dahir, Mohamed MukhtarTrifonas, Peter URBAN EDUCATION AND EQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY: THE CASE FOR A CULTURALLY PRAGMATIC APPROACH TO EDUCATION IN URBAN SCHOOLS Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2018-06Black American students continue to lag behind White Americans in measures of academic achievement. In this thesis, I make the case that the achievement gap and lack of social mobility faced by African American students can be attributed to the fact that urban schools have not set the conditions for equality of opportunity. I argue that the crux of the problem is mainly cultural; specifically, that the home culture of students is not utilized in the classroom, nor is the dominant culture explicitly taught in order to impart priceless cultural capital. To get closer to achieving equality of opportunity, I am proposing an approach I call “culturally pragmatic education.” This approach brings the home culture of students into the classroom and also incorporates cultural capital into the curriculum; thereby allowing students to maintain cultural integrity, while at the same time acquiring the cultural tools needed for success in mainstream society.M.A.educat; equality4, 5
Dai, Zhen Tate, Joseph Euzebe (Zeb) Generic Wind Turbine Generator Model Comparison Based on Optimal Parameter Fitting Electrical and Computer Engineering2014-03-18Parameter tting will facilitate model validation of the generic dynamic model for type-3
WTGs. In this thesis, a test system including a single 1.5 MW DFIG has been built and
tested in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment for dynamic responses. The data generated
during these tests have been used as measurements for the parameter tting which is
carried out using the unscented Kalman lter. Two variations of the generic type-3
WTG model (the detailed model and the simpli ed model) have been compared and
used for parameter estimation. The detailed model is able to capture the dynamics
caused by the converter and thus has been used for parameter tting when inputs are
from a fault scenario. On the other hand, the simpli ed model works well for parameter
tting when a wind speed disturbance is of interest. Given measurements from PSCAD,
the estimated parameters using both models are indeed improvements compared to the
original belief of the parameters in terms of prediction error.
MASTwind; urban7, 11
Daigle, Abby AnnJackson, Donald||Shuter, Brian Hydroacoustic Assessment of Fish Community Size Spectra Refinement of Hydroacoustic Estimates of Size Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2017-11A fundamental purpose of ecology is to understand the underlying processes that give rise to community structure. For highly size structured systems, such as freshwater fish communities, a size-based approach can be more appropriate than a species-based approach. The size spectra framework is one such size-based approach. Size spectra represent abundance (or biomass) as a function of organism size. Log transformation of both axes often results in a characteristic negative linear relationship. This thesis explores the ability of size spectra to be used as a monitoring tool. Chapter One focuses on the ability of size spectra to detect change in fish community structure during a whole-lake manipulation. Chapter Two investigates how fish behaviour can impact the accuracy of hydroacoustic sampling methods. This thesis highlights the applicability of size-spectra monitoring for freshwater fish communities, as well as the importance of verifying the assumption of horizontal swimming through the acoustic beam.M.Sc.climate; fish13, 14
Dale, Bryan Prudham, W. Scott ||Kumar, Kundan "A Beautiful Picture of Chaos": La Vía Campesina and the Convergence of Food Sovereignty and Climate Justice Geography2013-11-22La Vía Campesina is an international network of peasant farmers that, since 1996, has promoted the concept of food sovereignty. More recently, this collection of over 160 groups worldwide has been connecting this concept with climate justice issues. Drawing on interviews conducted during the 2012 People’s Summit that took place in Rio de Janeiro, and an analysis of the network’s documents, I consider its work in relation to its member organizations and a broader movement tackling the systemic issues that are driving a range of social, economic and ecological crises. I contend that, while many of Vía Campesina’s proposals will require the establishment of intricate processes and systems depending on the geographic, political and cultural context in question, the network is demonstrating that its radical critiques, proposals and decision-making processes may help contribute to a larger counter-hegemonic narrative as a force to counteract global capitalism.MASTfood; climate; justice2, 13, 16
Damjanovic, Jelena Schugurensky, Daniel Citizenship Learning of Adult Immigrants in ESL Programs: It will help you pass the citizenship test, but it won't make you (m)any Canadian friends Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2010-07-22T19:58:18ZThis study explores which concept of citizenship is typically promoted in ESL programs available to adult immigrants in Canada: citizenship as status, citizenship as identity, citizenship as a set of civic virtues or citizenship as agency. Is there a difference between the stated purpose of ESL programs, the integration and active participation of immigrants in Canadian society through language development, and the actual citizenship learning that occurs in these programs? What influences this? The study traces the historical link between citizenship education and ESL in Canada, and draws on existing research to reveal how citizenship concepts are presented in ESL classrooms. These findings are then matched with data from my textbook analysis, classroom observations and student interviews obtained from two advanced ESL courses offered by COSTI, as an indication of the citizenship learning and the citizenship concepts most likely to be promoted in ESL programs for adult immigrants across Canada.MASTeducat4
Dandal, AlviGillis, J. Roy An Investigation of Anti-LGBT Hate Crime Victimization, Narrative Processing, and Mental Health Applied Psychology and Human Development2015-06Building on the large body of research that examines the prevalence and severity of anti-LGBT hate crimes, researchers have recently shifted their focus to the intervening cognitive-affective processes that may protect against or exacerbate negative mental health outcomes experienced by victims. The current study contributes to this burgeoning area of research by examining the relationship between narrative processing and mental health. Thirty LGBT participants provided narratives of their hate crime experience and completed measures of posttraumatic symptomology and depression. The narratives were coded for coherence, redemption, and meaning making. Quantitative analyses revealed an inverse correlation between narrative coherence and the severity of posttraumatic symptomology. Qualitative analyses exposed the diverse ways in which victims redeem and find meaning in hate crime events. The significance of these results is discussed within the context of psychotherapy with anti-LGBT hate crime victims.M.A.gender5
Danford, MadisonDonnelly, Peter Women Ice Hockey Officials and Gender Relations in Officiating Exercise Sciences2019-11This study explores the current experiences of women ice hockey officials in Canada. To guide my research, I applied a Critical Feminist Theory framework to data from document analyses, observations of hockey games and semi-structured interviews with women ice hockey officials from across Canada. The results show that women ice hockey officials face numerous challenges in obtaining higher certification levels and having opportunities to officiate higher level hockey games. The career paths and career contingencies for women ice hockey officials differ from their men colleagues due to the hegemonic structures that construct hockey as a masculine space, and as a result, these structures directly influenced the participating women’s ability to advance in officiating in Canada. The participants shared experiences of exclusion at sites of training and education, limitations to advancing, and disinvolvement such as quitting/dropping-out, and retirement. This study unpacks the complex tensions between the ‘love of the game’ and systemic hegemonic exclusion institutionally, and calls for policy and procedures to better support women ice hockey officials.M.Sc.women5
Daniel, Allison IBandsma, Robert H Evaluation and Design of Interventions to Improve Developmental and Nutritional Outcomes in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Nutritional Sciences2017-11The WHO guidelines recommend the provision of psychosocial stimulation for children hospitalized with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) based on expert advice. The first objective of this thesis was to synthesize evidence around this recommendation. Specifically, it was to answer the question, â In children with SAM, does psychosocial stimulation improve developmental, nutritional, or other outcomes?â A systematic review was completed by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO with terms related to SAM and psychosocial stimulation. Results showed that the evidence supporting the recommendation of psychosocial stimulation for children with SAM is sparse and different approaches to psychosocial stimulation interventions should be further explored. Therefore, the second objective of this thesis was to develop a four-day hospital-based intervention program combining psychosocial stimulation with nutrition and water, sanitation and hygiene for primary caregivers of children with SAM. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention program.M.Sc.sanitation; nutrition2, 6
Danson, Jonathan J. Watson, Jeanne The Effects of Self-presentation on an Expressive Writing Task for Trauma Survivors Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2010-07-22T19:59:32ZExpressive Writing (EW) involves writing in an emotionally expressive manner about an experienced event, and has been shown to be related to increases in psychological and physical well-being. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous work by examining how self-presentation affects psychological and physical gains following the EW task. Forty one participants who have experienced a traumatic event were recruited from the community and given either an EW or control activity. Measures assessing self-presentation and various indices of health were administered at baseline and again at one month follow-up to determine changes in symptomatology. Results indicated that higher levels of perfectionistic self-presentation were significantly associated with less improvement in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Further, a nonsignificant moderation trend emerged whereby higher levels of perfectionistic self-presentation were associated with more improvement in symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress in the EW group but not control group.MASThealth3
Darko, Isaac N Wane, Njoki Ghanaian Indigenous Health Practises: The Use of Herbs Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2012-03Herbal medicines remain integral part of indigenous health care system in Ghana. Most conventional health medicines are directly or indirectly derived from plants or herbs. Despite its significant role in modern medicine indigenous herbal practices has been on the low light for some time due to perceived antagonistic relationship that exists between practitioners of herbal medicine and their counterpart in the conventional system. Using an indigenous knowledge discursive framework, the thesis examined the relevance of herbal medicine to the contemporary Ghanaian society. The thesis also examined the tension between the indigenous herbal practitioners and their orthodox counterparts. The thesis noted that for health care system in Ghana to be effective, there is a need for collaborate relations between these two practitioners. Also, it was noted that for health care system to be effective in Ghana, spirituality has to be central in the works of the herbal practitioners.MASThealth3
Darko, Isaac N. Wane, Njoki Ghanaian Indigenous Health Practices: The Use of Herbs Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2009-12-11T16:27:37ZHerbal medicines remain integral part of indigenous health care system in Ghana. Most conventional health medicines are directly or indirectly derived from plants or herbs. Despite its significant role in modern medicine indigenous herbal practices has been on the low light for some time due to perceived antagonistic relationship that exists between practitioners of herbal medicine and their counterpart in the conventional system.
Using an indigenous knowledge discursive framework, the thesis examined the relevance of herbal medicine to the contemporary Ghanaian society. The thesis also examined the tension between the indigenous herbal practitioners and their orthodox counterparts. The thesis noted that for health care system in Ghana to be effective, there is a need for collaborate relations between these two practitioners. Also, it was noted that for health care system to be effective in Ghana, spirituality has to be central in the works of the herbal practitioners.
Das Gupta, ShuvomoyPavel, Lacra Optimization Models for Energy-efficient Railway Timetables Electrical and Computer Engineering2016-11This thesis presents two novel optimization models to calculate energy-efficient railway timetables in a railway network. The first optimization model is a mixed integer programming one, which saves energy by maximizing the total overlapping time between the braking and accelerating phases of suitable train pairs. However, it suffers from some limitations associated with NP-hard computational complexity and modeling of energy saving strategy. To overcome the limitations of the first model, we propose a second optimization model consisting of two stages. The first stage of this model minimizes the total energy consumed by all trains and the second stage maximizes the transfer of regenerative braking energy between suitable train pairs. Both of these stages are solvable in polynomial time, compared to other existing models, which are NP-hard. The two-stage model has proven to be very effective in practice and has been incorporated into an industrial railway timetable; industr; consum7, 9, 12
Das, Smriti Bill, Gough The Impacts of Green Spaces on Temperature Variability Geography2011-12-07Parks located in urban areas are known to mitigate the Urban Heat Island. Their cooling effects are well established in the literature as studies have been performed in urbanized areas around the world. This particular study was aimed at assessing the nature of suburban parklands in the City of Toronto vs. urban (downtown) and rural (outside the Greater Toronto Area) settings. To do this, five study sites were chosen; three parks of varying sizes (large, medium and small) and two backyards. The main research objective was to quantify the cooling effects; among the sizes, within the surrounding neighbourhood and through the day. The metrics used in this study included Day to Day Temperature Variability, Diurnal Temperature Range, and Temperature Variation through Time. The results showed the importance of trees in providing shade and the lake breeze from Lake Ontario. A clear suburban signal from the metrics was found.MASTrural; urban11
David, Ayesha JosephineBarati, Mansoor Value Recovery from Metallurgical Slags Through Air Atomization Materials Science and Engineering2018-11Value recovery from waste products in metal processing operations is a growing field in metallurgy. A computer model was developed to assess the feasibility of simultaneous granulation and heat recovery from molten slag, and an experimental study was carried out to analyse the properties of solidified slag samples. The model facilitates isolation of selected variables to determine their effect on atomization. Model results determined that smaller granules and lower air:slag ratios increase the process heat recovery efficiency, while the initial air temperature was shown to have a minimal effect on atomization. Empirical analysis of sintering temperature identified maximum post-atomization temperatures for granules. Upon comparison with model results, it is concluded that simultaneous granulation and heat recovery is possible as the outer shell is sufficiently cooled, and the core cooling rate exceeds the expected critical cooling rate. Hardness and abrasion resistance were studied to determine optimal cooling conditions for property maximization.M.A.S.waste12
Davies, Cara Elizabeth Jr. Reaume, Denise Bill C-510 and the Dilemma of Difference: Assessing the Role of Anti-violence Legislation in the Woman-protective Anti-abortion Movement Law2011-11-30Recently, some in the anti-abortion movement have begun to assert that abortion harms
women and access to abortion should be restricted or prohibited to protect women’s
rights. This paper suggests that woman-protective anti-abortion (“WPA”) arguments
could become more recognizable in Canada if other kinds of woman-protective
legislation are adopted. In particular, this paper focuses on private member’s Bill C-510,
an Act to Prevent Coercion of Pregnant Women to Abort (Roxanne’s Law). This paper
suggests that Bill C-510 is problematic because its differential treatment of women
reinforces historical stereotypes of motherhood and female vulnerability, the same
stereotypes upon which the WPA relies. By reinforcing these same stereotypes, Bill C-
510 creates a climate in which WPA restrictions on access to abortion appear more reasonable. The paper concludes by suggesting that the existing aggravated
circumstances sentencing sections in the Criminal Code already provide judges with
discretionary powers to deal with offences like coerced abortion.
MASTwomen; rights5, 16
Daya, DevinaChen, Charles P Coping Strategies and Skills Through Adjustment and Transition: A Study of New and Professional Immigrants in Canada Applied Psychology and Human Development2016-11The present study explored the lived experience of new and professional immigrants in Canada, and the coping skills and strategies they employed through life-career adjustment and transition. A qualitative methodology examined in-depth transcripts that were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to data analysis. The findings reflected the use of engagement coping, which included primary control coping (i.e. social support and action-taking â networking, retraining/re-education, seeking out resources), secondary control coping (i.e. adaptability and positivity), as well as proactive coping, religious coping and an external form of coping (i.e. luck). The implications of these findings extend to the field of coping psychology, immigrant adjustment and vocational psychology. Moreover, this research applies to those in helping professions (i.e. counsellors) who can better facilitate the population of new and professional immigrants with an increased understanding of the challenges they face and the coping strategies that facilitate their transitional process.M.A.inclusive;4
De Prophetis, Eric StephenRosella, Laura The Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Hospitalizations for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions: A Population Cohort Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2019-11Life satisfaction (LS) has been shown to be inversely related to negative health outcomes such as morbidity and mortality. Ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSC) are conditions for which timely and effective outpatient care can prevent acute episodes. This study is a prospective population-based cohort study of adults from Ontario that tests the hypothesis that poor life satisfaction is associated with an increased risk of avoidable hospitalizations. Weighted distributions of demographic, socioeconomic, health status and behaviour characteristics according to ACSCs and life satisfaction were calculated. Proportional hazards models associated with baseline life satisfaction were used to calculate the risk of preventable hospitalizations. Joint effects models were used to see if socioeconomic status (SES) modified this relationship. Men, the elderly and those with lower household income were more likely to be hospitalized with an ACSC. After controlling for age, sex, SES, and lifestyle factors, poor LS had a strong relationship with hospitalizations for ACSCs (HR = 2.42, pM.Sc.socioeconomic; health1, 3
Decker, BlairLian, Keryn Proton Conducting Ionic Liquid-polymer Electrolytes for Solid Electrochemical Capacitors Materials Science and Engineering2016-11Electrochemical capacitors (ECs) are energy storage devices with high power density and high efficiency, but their liquid electrolytes can contain environmentally unfriendly compounds and are vulnerable to leakage. Ionic liquids (ILs) provide non-volatile ionic conductivity in flexible polymer electrolytes, which can alleviate these issues. The ILs 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (EMIHSO4) and 1-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate (MIHSO4) were combined into a binary mixture with a deeply depressed melting point, and a phase diagram was constructed after thermal analysis. On ruthenium dioxide electrodes, 70-30 wt% EMI-MIHSO4 showed an increase in capacitance of about 75% over that of neat EMIHSO4, demonstrating its proton activity. The binary IL mixture was incorporated into a polyvinyl pyrrolidone polymer matrix to form polymer electrolytes that showed good electrochemical performance and rate capability under electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. On ruthenium dioxide electrodes, the PVP-EMI-MIHSO4 electrolyte showed a 30% improvement in capacitance over PVP-EMIHSO4.M.A.S.energy7
Dedesko, Sandra JoanneSiegel, Jeffrey A Indoor Environmental Measurements in the Hospital Microbiome Project: Estimation of Human Occupancy and Occupant Activity Civil Engineering2015-06Human occupants have a profound influence on indoor environments, although there is limited information on means to cost-effectively assess occupant metrics in all types of buildings. Multiple methods to estimate occupancy and occupant activity (i.e., doorway movements) were investigated in ten single-patient rooms in a new hospital in Chicago, Illinois, as part of the Hospital Microbiome Project. The overarching goal was to determine occupant characteristics to inform an investigation of interactions between humans, microbial communities, and environmental parameters. A method that utilized data from non-directional doorway beam-break and CO2 concentration sensors produced the most accurate estimates of both occupant parameters. Estimates revealed that daily occupant activity varied less than occupancy, but also reached high levels in certain instances. The dual-sensor methodology investigated in this thesis provides a relatively inexpensive, non-invasive, accurate approach to estimate occupancy and occupant activity in an environment with rigorous privacy and security limitations.M.A.S.environment; buildings9, 13
Deisinger, RoslynStyres, Sandra||Miles, Angela Connection Building, Narrative Sharing, and Diverse Knowledge: Survivor Healing Desires Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2019-11Canadian Women’s Foundation (2016) asserts women are ten times as likely to experience sexual assault compared to men, gender based violence the only crime not declining (p. 1). Statistics Canada’s (1993) most detailed data found nearly 40 percent of Canadian women will be sexually assaulted after 16 years old, estimating only 10% report (p. 24) and only accounting for one variation of sexual violence; the number of women who experience this larger concept of victimization is likely higher. Mental health adversities can develop post-trauma; working past these experiences is of the utmost importance. Reflecting on available literature, my experiences, and qualitative interviews with six survivors in northern Ontario, it was found survivors value: 1) building connections, 2) narrative sharing, and 3) diverse knowledge. Literature on feminist principles, personal experiences of healing through a feminist awareness, and the three findings in this study suggest feminist principles may assist survivors in; gender; women3, 5
DeJohn, Amber DawnWidener, Michael J Transit Access to Subsidized Food Stores in the American Midwest Geography2019-11In the United States, low-income and racial minority populations have higher rates of diet-related disease, food insecurity, and transit use. SNAP, which provides low-income households with money for groceries at authorized retailers, creates an altered food procurement environment. How transit networks affect access to SNAP retailers is assessed by calculating transit travel times to all transitable SNAP stores of neighborhoods in 33 MPOs in the American Midwest. Low-income, Black, Hispanic, and public assistance populations, which are disproportionately affected by food insecurity, living in neighborhoods with low transit access scores are then identified. These neighborhoods are compared to USDA low-income, low-access neighborhoods. Results indicate low transit access is experienced in fringe-urban, majority white, car-dependent neighborhoods. However, 117,460 Black people, 121,589 Hispanic people, and 89,185 low-income people live within these neighborhoods. Future research and policy should target suburban and exurban regions to accommodate a non-negligible portion of potentially food insecure populations.M.A.environment; urban; food; poverty1, 2, 9, 13
Demi, Suleyman Mohammed Dei, J. S. George African Indigneous Food Crops: Their Roles in Combating Chronic Diseases in Ghana Social Justice Education2014-11AbstractAfrican Indigenous Food Crops (AIFCs) face eminent extinction due to negative perceptions about them (Voster et al., 2007a). The decline in consumption of AIFCs has been implicated in the emergence and spread of chronic diseases in Africa (Rasche et al., 2007). In view of this, the objectives of this thesis are to establish the links among food, culture and politics, to determine the consequences of changing food habits in indigenous communities in Ghana, and also to examine the potential of AIFCs to address chronic diseases in Ghana. Using the theoretical prism of Indigenous knowledge, this thesis employs the methodology of document analysis. The findings of this thesis include the presence of numerous AIFCs and food habits that could be harnessed to address chronic diseases in Ghana. The study recommends education and promotion of AIFCs in Ghana, and further studies to investigate toxic metabolites that may be hidden in uncommon AIFCs to ensure safe; consum2, 12
Deng, Paul TiangeAdams, Barry J||Guo, Yiping Probabilistic Urban Stormwater Quantity Modeling Civil Engineering2015-11Analytical probabilistic models (APMs) for urban drainage systems analysis have been progressively developed by numerous researchers spanning the globe over the last four decades. The first task of this thesis is the synthesis of models for quantity analysis among these developments. Quantity models characterize the frequency of occurrence of stormwater impacts of varying magnitudes, such as peak flood flow rate or reservoir spill volume, as opposed to water quality impacts such as pollutant concentration. The second thesis task is to bridge the existing spectrum of models in a manner ensuring their seamless presentation. To this end, new models are derived to complete missing links. The third task is the improvement of a runoff volume model and a storage-treatment model. For the storage-treatment model, this constitutes an entirely reworked derivation due to prior conceptual errors. The final task is the integration of innovative approaches from related disciplines into the APM framework.M.A.S.urban11
Denichaud, DanielleHeller, Monica In Support of Pedagogical Salutogenesis: Exploring Holistic, Traditional and Indigenous Health Methodologies Toward an Ethic of (Self/School) Care Social Justice Education2020-0621st Century health literacy and health promotion in Ontario public schools reflect international shifts towards considerations of mental health, student wellbeing, whole-child education and comprehensive school health practices. This thesis situates these contemporary trends in the history of pedagogical salutogenesis in Ontario, drawing attention to the emerging integration of holistic, traditional and Indigenous health methodologies in elementary health education curricula. Drawing upon critical ontology, health identity and salutogenic theory, themes of holism, embodiment and environmental interdependence are explored through an empirical qualitative literature review, comparing the lenses of Ontario elementary curricula with select holistic, traditional and Indigenous health methodologies. Adapting Foucault’s (1997c) care of the self for the context of health construction, an Ethic of (Self/School) Care is proposed as both a foundational component of individual health literacy and promising avenue for collective organizational school culture, arguing for authentically holistic, culturally safe and ethical spaces to facilitate salutogenic school; educat; 3, 4
Dennis, ElisabethDei, George JS Deconstructing Whiteness: An Analysis of Dominant Perceptions of Chinese University Students Social Justice Education2018-11Through analysis of results from four in-depth interviews and two online forums, this thesis examines the current views White Canadian university students hold about Chinese students at the University of British Columbia. Drawing on critical Whiteness studies and Foucauldian critical discourse analysis, this study aims to examine the complex ways White hegemony is perpetuated on university campuses. The results reveal that historical constructions of Chinese Canadians as foreign and threatening were perpetuated at the university. Additionally, the results show that although the interviewed students recognized the existence of racism on campus, they minimized its effects and denied the level of privilege they held. The thesis concludes by exploring the larger policy and educational implications of these views, as well as the possible consequences for Chinese students.M.A.educat4
Dennis, Robert William James Malcolm, Jay R. ||Smith, Sandy Saproxylic Insect Communities in Boreal Mixedwoods of Northeastern Ontario as a Function of Variation in Woody Debris Quality and Quantity and Sampling Methods Forestry2010-01-13T21:53:05ZSaproxylic insects rely on dead or dying wood at some point in their development and appear to be sensitive to forest management. In 2005 and 2006, I sampled saproxylic insects in mixedwood boreal forests in northeastern Ontario to assess effects of: 1) different logging practices, 2) variations in woody debris (WD) qualities, and 3) different sampling methods. I also compared insect communities between heavily decayed WD and soil. Although I collected data on all arthropod orders, I focused on the families of the Diptera and parasitic Hymenoptera and the morphospecies of the Scelionidae and Diapriidae. These insects showed clear responses to the WD quality treatments, but not to the different logging treatments. A few families were affected by ex situ sampling. I also found that the faunas of soil and WD are rather distinct from each other. This study shows that WD is a source of forest biodiversity. Consequently, sustainable forest management will rely on studies like this to conserve and maintain the biodiversity of Canada's largest group of eco-zones.MASTconserv; forest; biodiversity15
Deshpande, AlokTaylor, Joshua A Optimal Energy Management and Storage Sizing for Electric Vehicles Electrical and Computer Engineering2019-11Battery degradation reduces the performance and lifetime of electric vehicles (EVs). Us-
ing energy storage devices with dierent characteristics alongside the battery can mini-
mize degradation while ensuring that the storage system is always able to satisfy driving
demands. However, this introduces the additional complexity of designing the devices
and controlling them in real-time. In this thesis, we rst provide a computationally
tractable method to optimally manage power sharing between dual energy storages using
approximate linear programming (ALP). We furthermore propose a problem to deter-
mine the optimal sizes of the two storages that allows a trade-o between vehicle range
and other costs associated with increased storage size. We validate our approaches on a
real EV design. Numerical results show that our energy management controller allows
for optimal power-sharing with tunable approximation in the number of basis vectors of
the ALP, and that our sizing procedure provides a design with locally minimal cost.
Deutsch, Rachel Chambon, Adrienne S. Rebelling against Discourses of Denial and Destruction: Mainstream Representations of Aboriginal Women and Violence; Resistance through the Art of Rebecca Belmore and Shelley Niro Social Work2008-07-30T19:37:20ZViolence against Native women in Canada is widespread and has deeply systemic and colonial roots. This paper will attempt to show the role that dominant representations of culture, race, and gender have in allowing this violence to continue by eclipsing many different narratives and ways of expressing cultural and individual identities. Violence in the mainstream media will be explored and analyzed drawing on concepts from critical theories, Aboriginal epistemological frameworks, and anti-racist, disability, and Afro-centric feminisms to build a framework on which to analyze the meanings of the representations. After exploring violent and colonial discourse, the discussion will turn to art. Self and cultural representation and expression by Native women can act as important forms of resistance to the tools of colonial oppression. The artwork of Rebecca Belmore and Shelley Niro are powerful examples of addressing and exploring issues of identity, culture, resistance, and survival for Aboriginal women.MASTwomen; gender5
Devitt, Graham AndrewShalaby, Amer Data-driven Investigation of Factors Affecting Surface Transit Speed and Reliability in Toronto Civil Engineering2019-11Cities are increasingly interested in implementing low-cost, small-scale spot treatments to improve transit performance. This research uses a data-driven approach to understand where and why poor transit performance occurs, which is necessary when selecting locations to treat and their appropriate treatments. Automatic vehicle location, general transit feed specification, and ride check data are used to generate a descriptive analysis measuring performance of eight high-frequency bus routes in Toronto at the route, segment, stop, and intersection levels. Clustering and regression models of transit performance at intersections along these routes are developed to determine which features most affect bus speeds and delays. These analyses show that locations with greater traffic cycle split have significantly higher speeds and lower delays, and thus signal timing adjustments are suggested as an effective transit-priority spot treatment. The analyses also suggest queue jump lanes and turning restrictions to be effective when signal timing cannot be adjusted.M.A.S.cities11
Devitt, Mark Boler, Megan ||Norris, Trevor The Myth of Olympic Unity: The Dilemma of Diversity, Olympic Oppression, and the Politics of Difference Theory and Policy Studies in Education2011-01-01T16:06:16ZThe dilemma of diversity is the tension that exists when prescriptive claims are required across reasonable pluralism. Scholar and philosopher Dwight Boyd believes that the dilemma of diversity must be addressed for the continued health of multicultural societies, and suggests that the solution can be found through democratic reciprocity. Though the International Olympic Committee (IOC) markets unity and peace through its Olympic Games, does the Olympics relieve the dilemma of diversity? By critically examining the IOC’s historic and recent treatment of Aboriginals, its encouragement of divisive nationalism, and its educational programs, it is clear that the IOC does not embrace reasonable pluralism. The IOC’s public pedagogy is one that conceals its dominance through diversity. In exposing this dominance, I will argue that the IOC must embrace democratic reciprocity that allows for conversation across difference. Adopting an authentic acceptance of difference will alleviate the IOC’s propagation of Western ideology through neo-imperialism.MAST peace16
Devlin, Jane Erica Sarah, Finkelstein Applications of Paleolimnology in Ecosystem Monitoring for Sirmilik National Park: Developing Indicators of Ecological Integrity Geography2010-07-22T20:21:58ZWater chemistry and bioindicators (diatoms and invertebrates) were examined for freshwater lakes, ponds and streams in two regions within Sirmilik National Park, northern Baffin Island, Nunavut. Significant differences were recorded between the water chemistry and diatom and invertebrate assemblages of the two regions. Modern diatom assemblages were explained mainly by specific conductivity, ORP, pH, temperature, elevation and distance from the coast. Paleolimnological techniques were applied to a sediment core from Lake BY14 on Bylot Island. Fossil diatom assemblages indicate increases in nutrients and temperature since 1935 AD. The diatom biostratigraphy does not show as large an increase in diversity and production since the middle 20th century as has been noted elsewhere, and this may be a reflection of the more nutrient-rich status of the lake relative to other Arctic lakes.MASTwater6
Dhand, Ruby Flood, Colleen M. Challenging Exclusion: A Critique of the Legal Barriers Faced By Ethno-Racial Psychiatric Consumer/Survivors in Ontario Law2010-01-14T20:20:17ZThis thesis identifies and analyzes the legal barriers faced by ethno-racial psychiatric consumer/survivors in Ontario, through an analysis of the Consent and Capacity Board (CCB). I employ interdisciplinary research to test the hypothesis that factors such as race, ethnicity, culture, poverty and social exclusion are not fully addressed by the CCB. To critique the CCB, I developed a theoretical framework using the grounded theory approach, in combination with tenets of disability theory, critical race theory and intersectionality. I used the theoretical framework to analyze qualitative research involving twenty interviews of stakeholders including lawyers, psychiatrists, CCB adjudicators, mental health service providers and ethno-racial psychiatric consumer/survivors. The analysis revealed the procedural, systemic/structural and discretionary barriers within the CCB’s pre-hearing, hearing and post-hearing process. Barriers were the result of cultural misunderstandings, misdiagnosis, complex familial relationships, culturally inappropriate care, institutional racism, poverty, discrimination and the CCB’s “color blind approach.” I conclude with prioritized recommendations.MAST poverty1
Dhanhani, Ali Al Fortin, Paul The Workplace Challenges of Lupus Patients Medical Science2010-12-14T16:38:16ZObjective: To examine the workplace challenges of lupus patients.
Methods: A cross sectional study surveyed lupus patients seen at the Toronto Lupus Clinic in the last 2 years. We included questions on health, work context and psychosocial perceptions. Descriptive statistics described the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the sample; multivariable analysis examined factors associated with workplace activity limitations, job strain, and job accommodations.
Results: 362 respondents completed the questionnaire (60% response). 49.7% were currently employed. Participants who recently left work had higher disease activity and workplace activity limitations. Employed participants had low to moderate job strain. Seventy percent of employed participants used job accommodations. Health, work context, and psychological factors were significantly associated with workplace activity limitations, job strain and job accommodations.
Conclusion: Persons living with lupus are faced by different challenges at the workplace. Workplace difficulties and needs of individuals with lupus should be assessed by health professionals.
Dhoot, AdityaAmon, Cristina H Wind Farm Layout Optimization Using Approximate Inference in Graphical Models Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2016-06Wind farm layout optimization (WFLO) determines the optimal location of wind turbines within a fixed geographical area to maximize the total power capacity of the wind farm, under stochastic wind conditions and non-linear aerodynamic interferences between turbines. This thesis develops optimization approaches to fast approximate (sub-optimal) turbine layouts to aide engineers make design decisions. Building on previous work in discrete quadratic WFLO models, we recast the program as a probabilistic graphical model incorporating spatial dependencies (i.e., aerodynamic interferences, proximity constraints, and maximum number of turbines) between the variables. Turbine layouts are estimated using message passing inference (BP, TRW-S), which exploit the problem's graph-theoretic structure using decomposition and factorization. We perform an exhaustive computational study comparing TRW-S with branch-and-cut algorithms under varying wind-regime complexity and problem resolutions. We demonstrate the broad applicability of techniques we develop by solving a suite of benchmark quadratic knapsack problems, a general class of problems that arise in many settings.M.A.S.wind7
Di Monte, LaurenRatto, Matt The Blinking Eye: Biometrics and the Technologization of Privacy Information Studies2015-06This project traces the technological and institutional development of the biometrics industry within the United States. In particular, this study explores how biometric tools migrated from local policing and administrative contexts to become centralized tools of state power. Using document analysis, critical making and historical methods, this study takes up biometric systems as sociotechnical systems, and examines connections between biometric technologies and social sorting. Although industry rhetoric describes biometric measurement as a process involving the capture and disclosure of individual identities, this study demonstrates that, in practice, private industry and the state mobilize biometric tools in order to construct group-level differences and manage categories of people. Beginning with biometry's origins in nineteenth century racial science, and moving through to the post-9/11 security state, this project investigates the social, political and technological conditions that contributed towards large shifts in the scope and scale of American biometrics.M.I.S.institution16
Diab-Marzouk, AhmadTrescases, Olivier Lightweight DC-DC Converter with Partial Power Processing and MPPT for a Solar Powered Aircraft Electrical and Computer Engineering2015-06A lightweight dc-dc partial power processing converter is demonstrated for solar aerospace applications. A system-level model is conceived to determine conformity to payload and target distance objectives, with the Solarship aircraft used as an application example. The concept of partial power processing is utilized to realize a high efficiency lightweight converter that performs Max Peak Power Tracking (MPPT) to transfer power from the aircraft solar array to the high-voltage battery bus. The isolated Cuk is determined to be a suitable converter topology for the application. A small-signal model is derived for control design. The operation of a 400V, 2.7 kW prototype is verified at high frequency (200 kHz), high efficiency (> 98%), small mass (0.604 kg), and uses no electrolytic capacitors. MPPT operation is verified on a 376 V commercial solar installation at The University of Toronto. The prototype serves as an enabling technology for solar aerospace applications.M.A.S.solar7
Dias, Kayla RianeBraeutigam, Katharina Integrated Analyses of Stress and Recovery Responses in Poplar Cell and Systems Biology2019-11Efficient responses to environmental change are important for long-lived plants, like trees. We investigated how Populus balsamifera responds to two distinct but related abiotic stresses - osmotic and ionic stress – during acute perturbation and recovery. Based on a pilot experiment and photosynthetic characteristics, one genotype (AP4326) was investigated in greater detail. Responses during the initial phases of both stresses indicated some degree of tolerance. Response patterns in growth and stomatal behavior, diverged as the stress progressed and were even more pronounced during recovery, allowing to discriminate osmotic and ionic effects. Exposure to 150mM NaCl was identified as a critical threshold with 50% survival rate, thus contributing to our understanding of response capacities of P.balsamifera. Soil elemental analyses provided insights into soil conditions experienced under ionic stress. These findings will enhance our understanding of plasticity and survival in trees and will be useful for informed planning of plantations or reclamation efforts.M.Sc.environment13
Diaz Salgado, SantanaFurlan, Andrea D. An Assessment of Opioid Prescribing Behaviors in Ontario Family Physicians before and after Participation in ECHO Chronic Pain/Opioid Stewardship Medical Science2019-06Canada is in the middle of an opioid crisis. The Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care funded a demonstration project of the first replication of Project ECHO in Canada to tackle the opioid crisis. ECHO Ontario Chronic Pain / Opioid Stewardship started in June 2014. Participants attending ECHO acquire knowledge related to chronic pain management with or without opioids.
This study aims to assess opioid prescribing behaviours among family physicians who attended ECHO compared to those who did not. We conducted an observational study with two control groups: a matched cohort and a random sample of 3,000 primary care physicians in Ontario using the Narcotics Monitoring System.
We found that none of the groups reduced the number or proportion of patients on opioids. Secondary outcomes showed a reduction in high-dose opioid prescriptions in the ECHO group, but not in the control groups during the same comparable periods.
Dickinson, Adam KabirIsaac, Marney E Intraspecific Trait Variation in Cacao Agroecosystems: Influence of Local Conditions and Cultivars, and Role in Local Knowledge Systems Geography2017-11Intraspecific functional trait variation (ITV) in agroecosystems indicates changes in crop plant function due to genetic, environmental, and management effects. Such variation may also underpin farmersâ knowledge and management practices. I measured ITV in six Central American cacao cultivars (Theobroma cacao L.) by collecting leaves (n=519) from cacao trees (n=173) in two clonal gardens and analyzing them for a suite of functional traits. Chemical traits were related to environmental factors, morphological traits to genetic factors, and physiological traits to a combination of the two. To assess the use of ITV in farm management, I interviewed 45 farmers using a visual elicitation device containing leaves arranged by size, colour, and thickness. Participants linked leaf size to cacao production, leaf colour to shade and plant health, and leaf thickness to shade. This thesis uses ITV to demonstrate how cacao cultivars respond to environmental conditions, and how farmers interpret variation in cacao traits.M.Sc.AGIRCULTURE; environment2, 13
Didiano, Teresa JuliaDuval, Tim P||Johnson, Marc TJ The Impact of Variable Precipitation on the Performance of Wetland and Grassland Plants Geography2015-11Climate change is causing increased precipitation variability, leading to large, infrequent precipitation events. This will have ecological consequences for plants because hydrological inputs will become transient. Despite this, there is a lack of evidence explaining the impact of variable precipitation on plant performance. To address this, this thesis asked three questions: (i) How does variable precipitation impact wetland and grassland plant performance? (ii) Does variable precipitation impact plant functional groups differently? And, (iii) do wetland and grassland plants respond similarly or differently to variable precipitation? A greenhouse and field experiment was conducted with wetland and grassland monocot and eudicot species, the amount and frequency of precipitation was manipulated, and plant performance was measured. This thesis reveals that large, infrequent precipitation events negatively impacted plant performance with larger effects on eudicots than monocots. This suggests that variable precipitation could have implications for the diversity and abundance of species in plant communities.M.Sc.climate13
Diemert, Sabrina Anne Andrews, Robert C. The Impact of Coagulation on Endocrine Disrupting Compounds, Pharmaceutically Active Compounds and Natural Organic Matter Civil Engineering2012-07-19Previous research indicates that pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) and endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are poorly removed during conventional drinking water treatment processes including coagulation; however, removal efficiency increases in the presence of natural organic matter (NOM). Therefore, this project investigates the link between various NOM types with EDC/PhAC removal. Bench-scale coagulation tests were conducted on three different source waters spiked with environmentally relevant levels (nominally 1000 ng/L) of EDCs/PhACs. Two different coagulants were used: polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and aluminum sulphate (alum). NOM was characterized using size exclusion liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection (LC-OCD).
Results for Lake Ontario, Otonabee and Grand River water indicate that certain EDCs/PhACs are significantly removed during coagulation while others increase in concentration. Concurrently, particular NOM fractions (biopolymers and humic substances) are also being removed. Solvents used for EDC/PhAC spiking (acetone and acetonitrile) did not affect coagulation, but contributed to low molecular weight neutral and hydrophobic NOM fractions.
DiFilippo, Shawna Healey Miles, Angela Trust and Transformation: Women's Experiences Choosing Midwifery and Home Birth in Ontario, Canada Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2014-06-24Using a critical feminist approach, and with attention to participants’ broad life experiences, this qualitative study explores seven women’s challenging, transformative decisions to give birth at home with midwives in Ontario, Canada. To make this choice, the women had to draw on their own strength, take responsibility for their decisions, and resist the dominant view of birth as inherently risky, and of women’s birth experiences as unimportant and incompatible with more narrowly defined good outcomes. As participants became informed decision-makers, resisted medicalized birth, and envisioned more woman-centred possibilities, they were empowered as active agents in their births. They were able to trust that with the care of their midwives, and the support of their partners or close family, they could have satisfying and safe births at home.MASTwomen5
Ding, Xin RanPasseport, Elodie Bioretention Cells under Cold Climate Conditions: The Effect of Freezing and Thawing on Water Infiltration and Nutrient Removal Civil Engineering2017-06Bioretention cells are widely used to reduce urban stormwater runoff, and improve water quality. However, their efficiency under cold climate is still poorly understood. The objective of this research is to understand the effect of freeze-thaw cycles on bioretention cell treatment and hydrological. In this study, soil column experiments were conducted with undisturbed soil cores collected from a bioretention site in Ajax, Ontario. A control column (at room temperature) and an experimental column were run. The experimental column underwent six freeze-thaw cycles consisting of 3 days at -10 Ë C followed by 2 days at 10 Ë C. Nitrate and phosphate concentrations were reduced by more than 95% in the drainage of both columns. Over the course of the experiments, the difference in drainage rates in the two columns increased slightly. The results of this research demonstrate that under cold climate conditions, bioretention cells can perform well for water infiltration and treatment.M.A.S.climate; urban; water6, 11, 13
Dinshaw, Rayomond Scholes, Gregory D. Spectroscopic Investigations of the Photophysics of Cryptophyte Light-harvesting Chemistry2012-11-21The biological significance of photosynthesis is indisputable as it is necessary for nearly all life on earth. Photosynthesis provides chemical energy for plants, algae, and bacteria, while heterotrophic organisms rely on these species as their ultimate food source. The initial step in photosynthesis requires the absorption of sunlight to create electronic excitations. Light-harvesting proteins play the functional role of capturing solar radiation and transferring the resulting excitation to the reaction centers where it is used to carry out the chemical reactions of photosynthesis. Despite the wide variety of light-harvesting protein structures and arrangements, most light-harvesting proteins are able to utilize the captured solar energy for charge separation with near perfect quantum efficiency. This thesis will focus on understanding the energy transfer dynamics and photophysics of a specific subset of light-harvesting antennae known as phycobiliproteins. These proteins are extracted from cryptophyte algae and are investigated using steady-state and ultrafast spectroscopic techniques.MASTenergy7
Diogu, Williams OMiller, Eric J Towards the Implementation of an Activity-based Travel Demand Model for Emerging Cities: Integrating TASHA and MATSim Civil Engineering2019-11In many emerging cities, there are various proposals for transit-oriented infrastructural investments and transport policies. However, the effort to understand possible current and future effects of alternative investment strategies, socio-economic trends, and travel behaviour patterns before deciding on pressing projects is lacking. Finding a solution to this problem would enable rapid identification and representation of local transport need with all possible policy effects of public transport strategy evaluation. By identifying modelling challenges in an application context on data and modelling framework to use, and demonstrating methods taken to overcome these challenges, this study proposes practical steps decision-makers can apply to better forecast future travel patterns, by exploring an “integrate-refine-and-transfer” strategy of the operational Greater Toronto Area travel demand model (GTAModel) implementation to an emerging city.
The modelling approach used involves the integration of the household-based activity scheduling model travel activity scheduler for household agents (TASHA) with Multi-Agent Transport Simulation (MATSim).
Dishy, Aaron MosesKeilty, Patrick Swallowing Misandry: A Survey of the Discursive Strategies of r/TheRedPill on Reddit Information Studies2018-11The Red Pill (r/theredpill) (TRP) subreddit lies at the heart of an interconnected network of misogynistic blogs and websites known as the manosphere. It disseminates radical anti-feminist and discriminatory content across Reddit and the broader internet. Acknowledging the community’s staggering size - with membership that numbers in the hundreds of thousands - this research fills a gap in standalone investigations into the toxic subreddit. Using mixed-methods critical discourse analysis (CDA), qualitative and quantitative research methods identify how misogynistic ideologies are constructed, consumed, and exchanged by RedPills on their virtual platform, Reddit. This study does not seek to define their discursive strategies as uniquely RedPill. Instead, it situates them in the context of a growing community based in gendered rage and the validation of violence. As result, it reveals the complex affordances Reddit provides, to create, engage, and disseminate RedPill discourses online.M.I.S.gender5
Dixon, Peter RKrahn, Murray D Improving the Hearing Status Discrimination of the Health Utilities Index, Mark 3 Dalla Lana School of Public Health2019-11Health state utility measurement is pivotally important to cost-utility analyses. The Health Utilities Index, Mark 3 (HUI3), like other generic instruments, has content limitations that threaten the validity of its utility estimates for hearing-impaired health states.
The Hearing attribute of the HUI3 was redesigned to better characterize the abilities and disabilities of individuals with hearing loss. Items were generated though systematic literature review, expert focus groups, and patient interviews. Importance of items to individuals with hearing loss guided domain selection and design.
The novel HUI Hearing attribute classifies hearing status according to 7 sub-attributes: speech, environmental sounds, sound localization, listening effort, tinnitus, music, and assistive hearing devices. It has substantially improved content validity for hearing-impaired health states compared with existing utility instruments.
HUI-Hearing is a comprehensive health status classification system that aims to facilitate appropriate health resource allocation through accurate discrimination of health states important to patients with hearing loss.
Djedovic, VladimirBrown, Theodore J. BRCA1 Modulation of Glucocorticoid Receptor Signal Signaling in High-grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Cells Physiology2016-03Germline BRCA1 mutations increase a woman’s risk of developing high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) up to 43-fold. Lifetime ovulatory events also associate with increased risk. Studies suggest the post-ovulatory pro-inflammatory milieu persists longer in BRCA1 mutation carriers compared to control women. Slowed remediation of pro-inflammatory signaling leads to increased reactive oxygen species levels that potentiate DNA damage accumulation, which may ultimately promote malignant transformation. Preliminary evidence suggests BRCA1 may modulate glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, a major anti-inflammatory mediator. Impairment of GR signaling by BRCA1 mutation may contribute to increased HGSOC risk. My objective was to determine if BRCA1 deficiency affects GR signaling in HGSOC cells. My results indicate BRCA1 enhances GR levels and GR transcriptional activity independent of its effect on GR levels. BRCA1 expression also correlates with diminished pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA levels at baseline. Overall, BRCA1 has a dynamic role in modulating inflammatory signaling through GR in HGSOC cells.M.Sc.health3
Dobrean, Corina Virginia Katz, Ariel Product Tying Involving Intellectual Property: Pro or Anti-innovation Effects Law2011-12-07This paper analyses the effects of tying arrangements involving IP rights on innovation. Tying, with its ability to temporarily exclude others from the potential benefits deriving from innovation, is pro-innovative by providing firms the incentive to allocate resources to realize newer and better products. However, when tying is used with or in place of IP rights to only help protect entry or growth into a market, it could discourage innovation. Market dominance, especially coupled with technological tying can create a barrier towards competition. It is shown that most pro-competitive effects of tying can also be seen as pro-innovatory as intense competition in the marketplace is shown to lead to innovation. In more competitive markets firms are pushed to innovate in order to maintain or improve their positioning for their products. The courts are faced with a difficult balancing judgment regarding product tying involving IP.MASTinnovation; rights9, 16
Dobson, Tracey-Ann Alecia Langille, Brian A. Constitutional Deradicalization of the Wagner Act Model:The Impact of B.C. Health Services and Fraser Law2011-12-07For many years, workers petitioned the Supreme Court of Canada to intervene in labour relations to protect their collective bargaining rights. Finally, the Court answered the call, but the drastic changes made were not what workers expected. This thesis outlines the effect that the Court’s decision to intervene in labour relations had on the existing collective bargaining model. In making this determination, a historical analysis was done of the Court’s attitude towards using section 2(d) Freedom to Associate to protect collective bargaining, followed by a comparative analysis with United States jurisprudence to explain the effect of the Canadian decisions on the statutory provisions. The analysis revealed that the decisions had significantly weakened protections for workers’ rights, and provided the basis to conclude that the Supreme Court of Canada had used the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to deradicalize the existing collective bargaining model.MASTrights; worker; labour8, 16
Dolatabadi, Mahsa Heidari Panesar, Daman ||Hooton, Robert Douglas Properties and Performance of Photocatalytic Concrete Civil Engineering2013-07-12This research program is focused on the photocatalytic cement with emphasis on evaluating impacts on concrete’s physical, transport and durability properties. The scope of this project is to examine three key aspects of photocatalytic concrete including: a critical review of currently reported applications; an examination of air pollution concentrations in Ontario to assess the potential effectiveness of photocatalytic concrete, with respect to NOx; and an experimental study to characterize the material properties.
Research findings revealed comparability between photocatalytic concrete and conventional concrete in mechanical and fluid transport properties. Although photocatalytic concrete resisted rapid freeze and thaw damage very well, in terms of de-icer salt scaling performance, only formed surface performed well and highly variable results for photocatalytic and GU concrete was observed for the finished surface.
Dong, Fang Hui Kirk, W Donald Controlling Biomass Ash Alkalinity for Land Application Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2014-11Burning biomass wastes generates large quantities of ash products which contain plant nutrients, such as Ca, Mg, K, and P. These nutrients could be returned for reforestation. However, the ash high alkalinity presents some challenges in terms of direct land application. The high alkalinity affects the leachability of various ash components and adversely affects ground vegetation. In this thesis, it will be shown that CO2 can effectively decrease ash alkalinity at room temperature. From the study, it was found that the rate carbonation depends heavily on the moisture content of the ash and the CO2 partial pressure. From a practical point of view, a combined process of ash pelletization and carbonation was tested to have some potential for industrial application. It was found that the time required for carbonation equals the time it takes for the wetted pellet, regardless of the size, to dry at 15 vol% of CO2.M.A.S.industr; waste; forest9, 12, 15
Donkers, John Michael Sandwell, Ruth Open Secularism And The Place Of Religion In Public Education: A Historical Analysis Of Quebec's New Ethics And Religious Culture Program Social Justice Education2014-11As a Spiritual and Community Animator with the English Montreal School Board, I have been fascinated by the fact that even though Quebec has marched forward in the school secularization process, it has chosen to provide mandatory religious instruction in a normative framework. This vision of secularism, namely "Open Secularism," has been espoused by recent (1999-2008) government educational policies. The main question for this thesis is as follows - Why is religion still in the mandate of public education in Quebec? This thesis will follow the secularization process of the Quebec educational system which ultimately led to the establishment of the Ethics and Religious Culture (ERC) program in 2008. Using the conceptual lens of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of Social and Cultural Reproduction this thesis will also examine how the school system itself perpetuates dominant class structure - an aspect of the Quebec secularization story that is missing from the educational historiography.M.A.educat4
Doroodgar, Barzin Nejat, Goldie A Learning-based Semi-autonomous Control Architecture for Robotic Exploration in Search and Rescue Environments Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2011-12-07Semi-autonomous control schemes can address the limitations of both teleoperation and fully autonomous robotic control of rescue robots in disaster environments by allowing cooperation and task sharing between a human operator and a robot with respect to tasks such as navigation, exploration and victim identification. Herein, a unique hierarchical reinforcement learning (HRL) -based semi-autonomous control architecture is presented for rescue robots operating in unknown and cluttered urban search and rescue (USAR) environments. The aim of the controller is to allow a rescue robot to continuously learn from its own experiences in an environment in order to improve its overall performance in exploration of unknown disaster scenes. A new direction-based exploration technique and a rubble pile categorization technique are integrated into the control architecture for exploration of unknown rubble filled environments. Both simulations and physical experiments in USAR-like environments verify the robustness of the proposed control architecture.MASTurban11
Doroszkiewicz, Corinne ChristineTator, Charles H Depression, Anxiety, and Quality of Life in Postconcussion Syndrome Medical Science2019-11Postconcussion syndrome (PCS) affects a considerable percentage of concussion patients. A follow-up analysis was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of anxiety and depression in patients with PCS and measure their quality of life. A questionnaire package consisting of the Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), the WHO Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-Bref), and a general follow-up questionnaire was sent to 526 PCS patients. A total of 37 (35.2%) patients had symptoms of anxiety, depression, or both. 8 (7.6%) patients had symptoms of depression alone, 8 (7.6%) patients had symptoms of anxiety alone, and 21 patient (20%) had symptoms of both. The number of previous concussions was significantly correlated with increased DASS anxiety (r=0.207, p=0.0034) and depression (r=0.264, p=0.006) scores. Increased DASS scores were significantly correlated with a poorer quality of life in all four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref. Thus, concussion-related symptoms of depression and anxiety are important public health concerns.M.H.Sc.health3
Dow, Rustam Shachak, Aviv The Impact of End-user Support on Electronic Medical Record Success in Ontario Primary Care: A Critical Case Study Information Studies2012-11-28Although end-user support is an important aspect of EMR implementation, it is not known in
what ways it affects EMR success. To investigate this topic, a case study of end-user support for
an open-source EMR was conducted in an Ontario Family Health Organization using 7 semistructured
interviews based on the DeLone and McLean Model of Information System Success.
Second, documentation for an open-source and proprietary EMR was analyzed using Carroll’s
Minimalism as a theoretical framework. Finally, themes from this thesis were compared and
contrasted with a multiple case study that examined support for a commercial EMR in 4 Ontario
family health teams.
Main findings include the role of informal support, which was important for ensuring that data
are documented consistently, which in turn enabled information retrieval for providing better
preventive care services. Also, formal support was important for mitigating problems of system
quality, which had potential implications for patient safety.
Downie, Kathleen Knowles, J. Gary On Reciprocity: Teaching and Learning with People who have Alzheimer's Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-11-29The initial intention of this arts-informed research study was to implement art classes for people with Alzheimer‟s disease, and to examine its impact upon new learning at cognitive, procedural and affective levels of experience. While these goals persist – indeed adult educational theory and quality of life are central to this thesis – the research focus gradually shifted from a constructivist view of the Alzheimer‟s learner to a phenomenological view of the relationship between teacher and student. Its power to facilitate the growth of reciprocity and bolster identity within the learning context, whether one-to-one or in small group settings, became more apparent as the research progressed. This revealed the potential of arts-based educational programs to build mutual trust and reciprocity with and among the participants. In turn, these qualities contributed to the expression of positive feelings, improved self-esteem,and communication in people with Alzheimer‟s.MASTeducat4
Doyle, Bradley Jackson, Donald Andrew Phylogenetic Structuring of Lake Fish Communities Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2013-11-22Evolutionary history has been recognized as an important factor in studying ecological communities. Lake fish communities have had limited consideration from a community phylogenetics perspective and present the opportunity to include trophic interactions in the analysis. For the species under study, I used known phylogenies from the literature and genetic information to determine relative branch lengths and phylogenetic relationships by Bayesian inference. Using the resultant phylogenetic tree and fish community data, the phylogenetic community structure was determined for the lakes in the Manitoulin Island and LaCloche regions of Ontario, Canada. Evidence of phylogenetic structuring was found, particularly associated with piscivory, winter hypoxia tolerance, and thermal preferences for deep coldwater lakes. Although the majority of the lakes were weakly structured from a phylogenetic perspective, significant trends were nonetheless apparent; especially when further informed by examining species-specific trends, demonstrating that evolutionary history can play a role in structuring freshwater fish communities.MASTfish14
Drake, Karen Sanderson, Douglas The Answer, Not the Problem: An Examination of the Role of Aboriginal Rights in Securing a Liberal Foundation for the Legitimacy of the Canadian State Law2013-11-22Are Aboriginal rights defensible within the framework of liberalism? Liberalism's commitment to individual equality seems to preclude Aboriginal rights insofar as these rights are exercisable by only a sub-set of the Canadian population and not by all Canadians equally. Instead of asking how Aboriginal rights can be justified within the liberal state, we need to question the legitimacy of the state's assertion of sovereignty over Aboriginal peoples and territories. Of the four potentially applicable modes of acquiring sovereignty - discovery, conquest, cession and prescription - only treaties have the potential to provide a liberally-compelling basis for the legitimacy of Crown sovereignty. But historical treaties did not purport to transfer sovereignty. As such, Canadian sovereignty suffers from a normative lacuna. Aboriginal rights, as set out in mutually consensual treaties addressing the sharing of sovereignty, have the potential to fill this lacuna and thereby to ground the legitimacy of Crown sovereignty.MASTequality; rights5, 16
Driscoll, Elizabeth Ann Sumner, Jennifer Neoliberal Policy in Action: A Critical Analysis of the Global Food Safety Initiative and Food Safety Governance Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2012-11-28Using a political economy analysis, this thesis examines the Global Food Safety Initiative and its effects on food safety governance. It begins with a discussion of food safety, an important component of food production systems, which attempts to ensure that food will not induce foodborne illness in the consumer. After outlining how neoliberalism is the current political economy environment in which the Global North operates, it argues that within this environment the Global Food Safety Initiative is rapidly becoming the predominant expression of neoliberalism to promote food safety. A political economic analysis of the Global Food Safety Initiative reveals that it is an indicator of the current neoliberal food regime and has significant consequences for the governance of both Canadian and international food safety.MASTfood; consum; governance2, 12, 16
Drummond, Sarah Lauren Nedelsky, Jennifer Supporting Canadian Caregivers: Current and Future Policy Directions Law2010-12-31T18:48:51ZThis thesis examines current Canadian social policies aimed at ameliorating the position of informal caregivers of terminally ill and elderly care recipients. Using an ethics of care theoretical approach, the thesis critically evaluates federal and provincial income tax regimes aimed at increasing the financial security of caregivers, and also looks at the shortcomings of the Compassionate Care Benefit offered through the federal Employment Insurance Act. The evaluation reveals that the benefit has a very low up-take compared with initial estimates, and offers some explanations for its low use. A review of the caregiver policies in three European countries provide additional background for the final chapter of the thesis, which offers concrete and incremental solutions to the problems with the current social policies in place. The aim of this thesis is not to suggest sweeping reforms, but to offer affordable, practical, and politically feasible solutions that can begin to make a difference in the lives of caregivers.MASTemployment8
Drystek, Emily Gilbert, Benjamin Ecological Differentiation Among Populations of Three Alvar Plant Species: Linking Traits to Growth in a Common Garden Ecology and Evolutionary Biology2014-03-18Populations in fragmented habitat patches may show ecological differentiation, which has implications for metapopulation viability. In this study we used a common garden with two watering treatments to contrast mean differences in ecophysiological traits and the relationships between traits and performance among seven populations of three alvar species. These species differ in their alvar specialization in Ontario, from almost endemic (Solidago ptarmicoides) to highly confined (Dasiphora fruticosa) to a widespread generalist (Hypericum perforatum). Populations of all species exhibited mean differences in at least one trait: photosynthesis (Amax), growth rate and specific leaf area. More surprisingly, the relationship between functional traits and performance was significantly different among populations in all species, suggesting different strategies for maximizing growth in different environments. The ecological differentiation observed affected all species regardless of distribution and is likely genetically based. This differentiation may destabilize metapopulation dynamics and reduce rates of spread if colonization is negatively impacted.MASTecology15
Duan, ZhuangDavidson, Alan R Identification and Characterization of Novel Anti-phage Compounds using a High Throughput Approach Biochemistry2016-11Bacteriophages play important roles in human health. They encode and spread diverse virulence factors, and have been implicated in regulating microbiome symbiosis. In this thesis, I performed a growth curve-based high throughput screen and identified eleven novel anti-phage compounds that prevent 位 phage-mediated bacterial cell lysis. Six lead compounds were further investigated to elucidate their inhibitory activities against a diverse collection of phages. I found that these compounds showed different phage inhibition profiles, suggesting diverse inhibitory mechanisms. Furthermore, I examined compound effects on individual steps of the 位 infection cycle. I found that Ro 90-7501 inactivates phage particles, dequalinium chloride prevents genome injection, and mitoxantrone blocks an early step of the infection cycle. The phage inhibitors identified here represent powerful new tools for fundamental phage research. Additionally, they canM.Sc.health3
Dughman, Sandra Cook, Rebecca Doe v. Canada: Lesbian Women, Assisted Conception, and a Relational Approach to Rights Law2010-01-14T21:43:21ZThis thesis examines Doe v. Canada, a case brought before the Ontario Court of Appeals with the purpose to declare that the definition of “assisted conception” set forth by the respective regulations discriminated against lesbian women. The regulatory framework of assisted conception is embedded with heteronormativity, heterosexism and an over medicalization of reproduction. The traditional liberal conception of rights, embedded in the Court’s decision did not allowed lesbian women to have access to assisted conception free from barriers that other women, seeking insemination with semen donated by their spouse or sexual partner, do not have to endure. However, If we shift our perspective of rights from a liberal view to a relational approach, we will be able consider such decisions from a perspective that takes into account not only the physical health implications of the use of this technology, but also all other social, psychological and contextual relevant factors.MASTwomen; rights5, 16
Duivestein, Jared Miller, Eric Household Vehicle Fleet Decision-making for an Integrated Land Use, Transportation and Environment Model Civil Engineering2013-11-22Understanding how households make decisions with regards to their vehicle fleet based on their demographics, socio-economic status and travel patterns is critical for managing the financial, economic, social and environmental health of cities.
Vehicle fleets therefore form a component of the Integrated Land Use, Transportation and Environment (ILUTE) modelling system under development at the University of Toronto. ILUTE is a year-by-year agent-based microsimulation model of demographics, land use and economic patterns, vehicle fleet
decisions and travel choices in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area.
This thesis extends previous work that modelled the quantity, class and vintage of vehicles in ILUTE households. This revised model offers three key improvements: transaction decisions are made sensitive
to travel patterns, fuel costs are better represented, and vehicle purchases are considered in the context of the overall household budgeting. Results are promising, but further model validation is required.
Potential extensions of the research are discussed.
MASTcities; environment11, 13
Dujon, Genither Dei, George Jerry Sefa Women and Leadership: Towards a Gender, Race and Class Analysis Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-01-01T16:11:12ZThis study examines women and leadership and presents a critique of leadership within a framework of gender, race and class. It discusses the crucial role that leaders play in transforming Canadian society, and how women factor into that role. It explores the way in which leadership is also contextualized within and outside of gender. It also examines the way changes in Canadian demographics have resulted in a more diverse group of students in schools, out of which have arisen new problems. Consequently, this study proposes alternative educational leadership to help transform the situation. This study is based on content analysis using a series of books, periodicals, journals, and internet articles, and incorporates a theoretical framework of feminist theory, black feminist theory and black feminist thought and spirituality, and anti-racism theory.MASTwomen5
Duncan, JamesCaidi, Nadia Negotiating Citizenship: Mediatized Migration and the Canadian Data Border Information Studies2019-11This thesis reflects upon the anomalous rise of irregular migration into Canada near the town of Lacolle, Quebec and the response of the Canadian government in the context of prevalent networked communications. Conceiving of politics as performance, the research engages in a systematic content analysis of Canadian Press and Agence France Press coverage of arrivals through Lacolle to identify an official ‘institutional narrative’. Subsequently, I test this institutional narrative, which privileges the voices of Canadian political elites, establishing my own ‘narrative of encounter’ through analysis of a variety of legislation, policy, and internal documents obtained both publicly and through Canada’s Access to Information System. This produced novel insights regarding how the massive proliferation of networked communication has shaped possibilities for citizenship and authority at the Canadian border in many paradoxical and ironic ways.M.I.S.institution16
Dunlop, Emily AlexandraBickmore, Kathy Ethnic Difference and Conflict in Burundian Schools: Experiences of Different Student Generations Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2015-06Interethnic conflict in schools may be destructive, passive, and/or constructive. This case study examined how the Burundian formal education system incorporated ethnic difference and conflict into schools, throughout three time periods: the three pre-civil war Independent Republics, civil war (1993-2005), and post-civil war. It looked at education policy and planning documents from each time period and compared these documents to the remembered, lived experiences in schools, obtained from semi-structured interviews with ten Burundian immigrants currently living in Canada. Results showed that destructive conflict and passive conflict, in particular conflict avoidance, were often present in Burundian schools during the Independent Republics. The interviews suggested that the avoidance interethnic conflict in schools may have contributed to the direct violence in the 1990s. Thus, constructively engaging with interethnic difference and conflict in schools, through critical dialogue and incorporating multiple experiences, may help to build sustainable peace in the country in the future.M.A.educat; peace4, 16
Dury, Julia AlexisBentz, Evan C||Kwon, Oh-Sung Effects of Aging on Concrete Containment Structures: An Investigation of Shrinkage and Leakage Civil Engineering2018-11While historically used for infrastructure such as buildings, bridges, dams, and roadways, concrete is also a vital component for the storage of energy – especially sources of renewable energy such as natural gas or nuclear. For these applications, the leak-tightness of concrete walls is important and is linked with effects of aging. Most research investigating the leak tightness of concrete structures is outdated and was performed without aging in mind. Additionally, while a large set of experiments have researched the effects of relative humidity on aging, very few have dealt with humidity levels below 40%. This thesis investigates the effects of very dry climates on the shrinkage of concrete and develops an experimental program for analyzing leakage of air through cracks in concrete walls that may develop due to aging; infrastructure7, 9
Dyson, Amanda Lee Scott, Katreena ||Intervention, Maternal History of Abuse as a Moderator of Effectiveness in a Parenting Intervention Program Applied Psychology and Human Development2013-11-20This study examined the effectiveness of a parenting intervention for abused women and their children called Mothers in MindTM. Based on models of cumulative effects of trauma, it was hypothesized that women who experienced continuous abuse (from childhood to adulthood) would have more parenting difficulties initially and be less receptive to treatment than women whose abuse experiences began later in life (in youth and/or adulthood). Fifty-seven women completed the intervention. Overall, parenting intervention significantly increased women’s parenting competence but did not significantly change mothers’ perceptions of their attachment with their children. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant differences in initial parenting difficulties between the two groups and timing of abuse (continuous versus late onset) did not significantly differentiate treatment effects. Contributions of other contextual variables, such as poverty and parental psychopathology, to variation in the effectiveness of intervention for this population of multiply disadvantaged women are discussed.MASTpoverty; women1, 5
Easty, LauraSilver, Michelle P Primary Care Provider’s Perspectives on Physical Activity Counseling Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-11Physical activity counseling in primary care has been a key health sector response to the health risks of physical inactivity. This thesis examined how providers in a clinic group understood physical activity counseling, perceived their experiences in practice, and to what extent their perspectives differed based by discipline. Two focus groups were conducted, one each for physicians and nurses/nurse practitioners, with short surveys at the start. Physical activity was understood as a health issue, and physical activity counseling was generally accepted as a routine part of care. Though it was an accepted practice, providers noted several areas of challenges, including how to apply recommendations to particular patient contexts, how to address barriers patients face, and different challenges between disciplines in incorporating counseling into practice. These results inform how providers are understood to perceive physical activity and counseling for it, and the challenges providers face integrating physical activity counseling in practice.M.Sc.health3
Eaton, Andrew DavidCraig, Shelley L||Watchorn, Jocelyn Exploring the Role of Social Work in Supporting People Affected by HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) Social Work2016-06It is estimated that 50% of the 75,500 people living with HIV/AIDS in Canada will be affected by at least an asymptomatic form of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). As the number of HIV-positive people over age 50 increases, social workers and other helping professionals need to adapt to meet people’s changing needs. Using a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework, an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study was conducted to understand: a) concerns about living with HIV and changes in cognition; b) client knowledge and experience of social work; and c) gaps in current HIV-related programs and services related to cognitive health. Through a quantitative survey (n=108) and qualitative interviews (n=20), five key themes emerged regarding the duality of people’s perceptions and experiences, confusion about whether health issues were attributable to HIV or to aging, social work’s role as a necessary support service, and how knowledge and supports decrease stress and anxiety.M.S.W.health3
Ebrahim, Shanil Parshuram, Christopher Outcomes of Children Receiving In-hospital Resuscitation Medical Science2010-01-15T18:54:09ZIntroduction: This thesis prospectively evaluated the cognitive and functional outcomes and health-related quality of life of children admitted urgently to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at the Hospital for Sick Children.
Methods: The primary outcome was the Vineland Adaptive Behavioural Scale (VABS-2) measured at 1-month and secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life, daily functioning, and caregiver perceptions.
Results: 56 children and 66 caregivers were enrolled; 42 (75%) patients and 49 (74%) caregivers completed the 1-month assessment. Children in the PICU had a mean VABS-2 score of 85(+25). Daily functioning outcomes did not significantly change from baseline to 1-month. In comparison to baseline, children had significantly reduced health-related quality of life at 1-week but no significant change was found at 1-month.
Discussion: Children surviving PICU have significant cognitive morbidity and reduced health-related quality of life that is exacerbated by more intense modes of resuscitation and increasing severity of illness.
Ebrahimi, Neda Koren, Gideon Evaluation of Pharmacotherapy for Common Medical Conditions in Pregnancy Pharmaceutical Sciences2011-12-07Purpose Two new scales, CORECTS and PUQE-24 are introduced and validated, and the
safety and effectiveness of Proctofoam-HC® in pregnancy is demonstrated.
Method 315 of Motherisk NVP patients provided information on five clinical parameters
as well as PUQE scores. 28 patients visiting a proctologist were graded for the severity of
anal conditions by a proctologist before administering CORECTS. Pre and postnatal
interviews were conducted with 204 pregnant women prescribed Proctofoam-HC®.
Results Strong correlations were found between the following:
PUQE-24 scores and parameters of well-being, hospitalization, and multivitamin intake;
bleeding and pain components of CORECTS and the proctologist’s grade.There was no
significant difference between mean birth weight of Proctofoam-HC® treated and
comparison groups. There was a significant reduction in all symptoms of hemorrhoids.
Conclusion PUQE-24 and CORECTS are the first validated scales used to assess the
severity of NVP and hemorrhoids. Proctofoam-HC® is safe and effective for use in
Egan, Kathleen GloryShear, Harvey Shoreline Modification Impacts on Lake Ecology as a Result of Intensive Cottage Cluster Development Geography2014-11Sturgeon Lake located within the Kawarthas in Ontario is one of many freshwater lakes that are experiencing a transition from seasonal to permanently inhabited homes. This transition in development resulted in the intensification of clustering houses along the lake shoreline, impacting natural surroundings. This paper examines the ecological impacts housing developments have on lakes, examining the socio-economic impacts from the intensification of development. The goals of the paper are to examine the effects shoreline modifications have on lakes from cluster communities, to determine areas along Sturgeon Lake's shoreline that should be monitored to ensure that they are not further modified, and to bridge the gaps between management and sustainability plans for Sturgeon Lake's shoreline. Relationships were noticed between the type of housing, shoreline type, and type of roads in each development section. Increased habitation along the shoreline has resulted in increased nutrient discharge impacting the occurrences of eutrophication and algae.M.A.water14
Egan, KylaMollett, Sharlene The Geographic Imaginaries of Empire: Migration, Tourism, and Constructions of Difference in Panamanian Travel Narratives Geography2018-11Panama’s tourism industry has flourished since 1990 to become one of the premiere travel destinations in Central America as described by tourism literature. Using historical geography as its methodology, this thesis offers an analysis of how colonial logics of empire remain embedded in the Panamanian tourism industry and nation building agendas. In particular, the discourse analysis of Panamanian travel narratives in archival and contemporary travel literature has revealed both substantial transformations and persistent congruities of imperial discourse from 1880-2017. The findings of this project demonstrate how hegemonic Euro-American geographic imaginations help construct tourism materials and influence tourist behaviour in Panama. In particular, themes of wilderness and nature, white supremacy, and America exceptionalism emerged from the analysis of tourism literature as the primary factors contributing to the conceptual and material organization of Panamanian space in travel literature. These themes are contextualized within broader discussions of empire studies and amenity migration literature.M.A.industr9
Ejiogu, Nwadiogo Nestel, Sheryl ||Alexander, M. Jacqui "A Clinic for the World": Race, Biomedical Citizenship, and Gendered National Subject Formation in Canada Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2009-12-11T16:29:26ZOn October 21st , 2005 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that immigration officials “can no longer assess potential immigrants to be ‘medically inadmissible’ to Canada solely on the basis of a person’s disability” and their likelihood to make “excessive demands on Canadian social services” (Chadha 2005, 1). In this thesis I will explore this ruling using a methodological approach that engages practices of: self-reflexivity; tracing historical and political genealogies; and case study analysis. What I am interested in thinking about is how this moment gestures to the necessity of conceptualizing the nation, nationalism, and citizenship as highly medicalized terrains. Through an engagement with transnational and black feminist theorizing, anticolonial studies, and disability studies, I will suggest that “medical inadmissibility” is one of many regulatory mechanisms that work to fashion the Canadian nation-state as white, healthy, fit, and productive.MASTgovernance16
Ekoh, Ijeoma Portelli, John P. High-stakes Standardized Testing in Nigeria and the Erosion of a Critical African Worldview Theory and Policy Studies in Education2012-11-28This thesis investigates the practice of high-stakes standardized testing in Nigeria. Examining its colonial histories, its philosophical incongruities with African indigenous education, and its neocolonial foundations, it argues that high-stakes testing in Nigeria facilitates the erosion of a critical African worldview. It demonstrates that through high-stakes testing’s reproduction of social and regional inequalities, the unethicality of its systems and practices as well as its exemplification of Freire’s concept of normative and non liberatory education as the “practice of domination”; high-stakes standardized testing in Nigeria seamlessly fits into the neo-colonial and neoliberal logic of education as a site of psychological colonization and the material exploitation of the people by the ruling elite.MASTeducat4
El Helow, DaliaDrake, Jennifer Performance of Green Roof Integrated Solar Photovoltaics in Toronto Civil Engineering2018-06Green (vegetated) roofs and solar photovoltaics are among a range of solutions intended to meet environmental sustainability targets and transition to low-carbon communities. In urban environments, they are means to integrate onsite stormwater management and renewable energy. Research shows that the evaporative cooling from green roofs helps to keep photovoltaics near best operational temperature, while proving that vegetation can survive under variable shade and precipitation conditions. This study evaluated photovoltaic surface temperature and power output at two heights (2 and 4 ft.) from two high-performance roof surface types, green and high-albedo (white) roof membrane, at the University of Toronto’s GRIT Lab. Photovoltaic surface temperature and power output showed dependence on height and surface type. Higher separation (4 ft.) allowed for increased biomass, improved cooling effects, and an increase in power output. This short-term study showed a successful integration of both technologies, and hence a viable option for green building practices.
الأسطح الخضراء (النباتية) والضوئية الشمسية هي من بين مجموعة من الحلول التي تهدف إلى تحقيق أهداف الاستدامة البيئية والانتقال إلى المجتمعات منخفضة الكربون. في البيئات الحضرية، هي وسيلة لدمج إدارة مياه الأمطار وتوليد الطاقة المتجددة في الموقع. تبين البحوث أن التبريد التبخيري من الأسطح الخضراء يساعد على إبقاء الخلايا الكهروضوئية بالقرب من أفضل درجة حرارة تشغيلية، مع إثبات أن الغطاء النباتي يمكن أن يبقى على قيد الحياة تحت ظلال وأمطار متغيرة. قيمت هذه الدراسة درجة حرارة الاسطح الكهروضوئية وإنتاج الطاقة على ارتفاعين (2 و 4 قدم) من نوعين من الاسطح، السطح الأخضر و السطح الغشائى عالي الإنعكاس (الأبيض) في مختبر جريت بجامعة تورونتو. أظهرت درجة حرارة الاسطح وإنتاج الطاقة الاعتماد على الارتفاع ونوع السطح. يسمح الفصل ألاعلى (4 قدم) بين الوحدات الضوئية والسطح النباتي بزيادة الكتلة الحيوية، وتحسين آثار التبريد، وزيادة في انتاج الطاقة. وأظهرت هذه الدراسة قصيرة الأجل اندماجا ناجحا بين الخلايا الكهروضوئية الشمسية وأنظمة الأسطح الخضراء، وبالتالي خيارا صالحا لممارسات البناء الأخضر.; energy; environment; urban7, 11, 13
El-Khechen Richandi, GraziellaColantonio, Angela The Impact of Menstrual Phase on Outcomes of Females with Concussion Rehabilitation Science2018-11This study examined the impact of menstrual phase, oral contraceptive use and post-menopausal status (collectively referred to as reproductive states) during time of injury on female post-concussion outcomes during the acute phase of recovery. A total of 83 female participants (ages 17 - 71) recruited from a concussion clinic at a rehabilitation hospital were included in the analysis. Personal health information and Rivermead Post-Concussion Questionnaire (RPCQ) scores were collected. Descriptive, bivariate regression and multivariable regression models were performed. The reproductive states were not associated with RPCQ scores during the first week of recovery; however, females taking oral contraceptives had significantly higher RPCQ scores two weeks post-injury. The other reproductive states do not appear related to RPCQ scores up to 2 weeks post injury. Being on birth control was independently associated with more symptomatology.M.Sc.health3
El-Sherif, Lucy Niyozov, Sarfaroz Experiences of Rural Students with Schooling in Community Schools in Egypt Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2013-11-20This study examined the schooling experiences of eleven graduates from the rural south of Egypt with primary community schools in Assiut. The study used individual interviews and focus groups to examine how community school graduates understood their experiences. The community schools were found to have removed previous obstacles of distance and cost. The quality of education that the students received allowed them to flourish in education rather than falter, and that was largely influenced by the quality of their relationship with their teachers. The students learned academic skills, as well as attitudes and dispositions that serve as cultural capital. They have more opportunities than before, yet also face significant challenges as they transition to the public system. The model of community schooling is also facing significant challenges as differences with the public schooling systems are exerting tension on the community school model to converge.MASTeducat; rural4, 11
Elford, Spencer TAdams, Matthew D Ultrafine Particulate Pollution Exposure during the School Commute: GIS-based Modelling techniques for Estimating Dosage and Examining Environmental Inequality Geography2020-06This research is broadly divided into experiments focusing on two primary objectives: (1) To develop modelling techniques for examining ultrafine particulate (UFP) dosage in the walk-to-school commute, and (2) use these models to examine spatial patterns in dosage from an environmental inequality perspective. The first objective was met through development of a GIS-based modelling workflow which yielded estimates of commute dosage that account for variations in ambient concentration, walking speed, and ventilation rate within a single commute route. The second objective was met by applying these models to estimate commute related UFP dosage across an entire population and conducting analysis within a standard environmental inequality framework combining spatial regression and cluster mapping. We identified associations and patterns of exposure-burdening on vulnerable population groups, which indicate evidence of UFP dosage disparities. However, a divergence from those found in the literature suggests a need for further research to validate these outcomes.M.Sc.environment13
Elias, EvelynGilbert, Julie||Cockerill, Rhonda The Role of the Physician in the Reach and Adoption of Online Health Resources - A Qualitative Study of the Perspectives of Patients and Health Care Providers Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-11Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) patients are living longer with side effects of their treatments, which are often debilitating. Online health resources (OHRs) could provide PCa patients with health information and support needs they often lack.
Purpose: To understand the contextual aspects of reach and adoption within the RE-AIM framework, and how they inter-relate through the role of the physician within the context of online health resources.
Methods: Secondary qualitative analysis using data collected to inform the design of an interactive OHR. Inductive/deductive hybrid analysis was used.
Results: Findings yielded three main categories of use and uptake of online health resources by patients: reach, patient uptake of OHRs, and physician uptake of OHRs.
Conclusions: By contributing to both reach and adoption, physicians can increase patients’ use of OHRs. These findings can improve the implementation OHRs for patients, fulfilling the need for information that PCa survivors have and increasing their quality of life.
Elias, Mary N. Cadarette, Suzanne M. Correlates of Calcium Supplement Use in Older Community-dwelling Ontario Women Pharmaceutical Sciences2011-12-07Background: Older Canadian women are not meeting recommended calcium intake levels and therefore require calcium supplementation to maintain bone mass. Objective: To examine factors associated with calcium supplementation among older community-dwelling women, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a conceptual framework. Methods: Data previously collected from Ontario community-dwelling women aged 65 to 90 years (n=798) were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to determine HBM factors associated with calcium supplement use. Results: About half (54%) of women reported taking calcium supplements. Positive correlates of calcium supplementation included: perceived osteoporosis susceptibility, perceived calcium benefits, natural health product use, residing in Toronto and general osteoporosis management factors (discussion with a physician or pharmacist, osteoporosis screening, falls history and preventive health check-ups); a negative correlate included: use of etidronate therapy. Conclusion: Only half of older women were taking calcium supplements. Discussions with healthcare practitioners may help to improve recommended calcium intake levels.MASThealth3
Elias, Paula VeronicaMojab, Shahrzad Critical Youth Participatory Action Research: Ideology, Consciousness, and Praxis Leadership, Higher and Adult Education2017-11Critical youth participatory action research (YPAR) is emerging as a meaningful exercise for young people, researchers, and educators to collaborate in pedagogical social change efforts. Youth and adult co-researchers have both referred to critical YPAR as a “transformative” experience. But what constitutes “transformative” within the everyday realities of capitalist social relations? Drawing upon the conceptual tools of anti-racist Marxist feminists, I argue that critical YPAR generates consciousness and praxis within the mode of ideology, where the depth of our social-material relations are obscured in the appearances of everyday life. Within this ideology, participants in critical YPAR work demonstrate a consciousness about the individual as a site and solution for social change, and produce a praxis concentrated on increasing young people’s access to research and higher education. Ultimately, critical YPAR emerges as useful in helping young people and their adult allies to creatively manage or reform, rather than transform, capitalist social relations.M.A.educat4
Elliott, Joshua GordonAndrews, Robert C Pathogen Removal Through Biological Filtration and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessments for Drinking Water Purification Civil Engineering2015-11Biological filtration is a novel concept for drinking water purification that allows for the
colonization of rapid granular filters with native bacterial organisms in order to reduce organic compounds in the final treated effluent. There is little published material on the efficacy of these filters for the removal of pathogens, specifically protozoa such as cryptosporidium and giardia which are difficult to inactivate using chlorine disinfection. This study utilizes aerobic endospores as a surrogate for cryptosporidium to characterize the removal performance of biologically active filters. Biological filtration was shown to achieve
Elliott, Meghan J.Straus, Sharon Long-Term Perceived Engagement and Research Priorities Among Chronic Kidney Disease Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2018-06Despite increasing engagement of patients and other stakeholders in the research process, little is known about its impact, particularly over the long term. In this qualitative descriptive study, we sought to explore how stakeholders who participated in a chronic kidney disease (CKD) research prioritization exercise two years earlier viewed their engagement experience and the research priorities. Through thematic analysis of interviews with 23 participants across stakeholder groups (patients, caregivers, healthcare providers and policymakers) and levels of engagement (steering committee, workshop and wiki), we identified four themes related to perceived engagement and three themes related to views on the CKD research priorities and prioritization process. Our findings highlight important considerations to support meaningful engagement in research prioritization, including roles and expertise, representation, and communication, and characterize ways in which individual priorities can change over time. Findings may contribute toward optimizing the design and conduct of future research engaging patients as stakeholders.M.Sc.health3
Elshazly, MohamedDawson, Francis P||Huzayyin, Ahmed Quantum Mechanical Characterization of Substrated Bilayer Graphene for Future Supercapacitor Applications Electrical and Computer Engineering2018-06Energy storage is one of the most crucial ingredients of a sustainable energy future. The safety, reliability, and performance of storage devices present a number of design challenges that require developing accurate predictive models capable of representing the most relevant physical phenomena at various spatial and temporal scales and a reasonable computational cost. Moreover, the current trend of decreasing the device size and the advent of low-dimensional nanomaterials have increased the dominance of interfacial physics that cannot be accurately modelled as a continuum within the device. This thesis is a first step towards developing a methodology for characterizing interfaces in capacitive energy storage devices based on insights from Density Functional Theory. Monolayer and bilayer graphene electrodes, attached to nearly lattice-matched conducting substrates, are then modelled as case studies. Graphene is one of the most promising materials for future supercapacitors due to its high specific surface area and unique electronic properties.M.A.S.energy7
Engle, Sarah Noelle Katz, Ariel An "Obvious" Proposal - Using An Industry Sensitive Doctrine of Obviousness to Govern the Scope of Gene Patents After Association for Molecular Pathology v. USPTO Law2011-12-07Currently there are approximately 20,000 valid gene patents in the United States. The debate regarding biotechnology and patent law has reached a pinnacle over the patentability of genes. Biotech is fighting a patentability war on two fronts. The Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit cannot agree regarding the touchstone of patentability for genes; two branches of the Executive are at odds over whether gene sequences qualify under 35 U.S.C. §101. Recent U.S. Supreme Court and Federal Circuit jurisprudence also undermine the patentability of genes as obvious. This thesis argues that the patentable subject matter debate fails to adequately address the goals of patent policy in fostering innovation. Looking to Canadian and U.K. jurisprudence, it is possible to hone an approach to obviousness that addresses the ethical and research concerns in the patentable subject matter debate while fostering investment and patent protection for non-obvious biotech discoveries.MASTinnovation9
Ens, Abra McCabe, Brenda Development of a Flexible Framework for Deterioration Modelling in Infrastructure Asset Management Civil Engineering2012-11-22Infrastructure deterioration models are an integral part of asset management. Deterioration models are used to predict future asset condition and to estimate funding requirements.
The purpose of this research is to develop a framework to create infrastructure deterioration models. An overview of the various types of deterioration models is included, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of each type. Existing deterioration model frameworks are also considered. A deterioration modelling framework is then proposed. The selection of the model type, calibration and validation is presented.
The framework is then applied to two case studies. The first case study involves a comparison of three pavement deterioration models, created for the City of Oshawa for use in their asset management system. The second case study involves modelling sewer deterioration. This model has been developed to explore the relationship between age, material and deterioration in trunk sewers.
Epstein, Griffin Nestel, Sheryl Extension: Towards a Genealogical Accountability: (The Critical [E]Race[ing] of Mad Jewish Identity Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2009-12-14T15:58:53ZCan we be accountable to privilege? Can we find a space for coherent anti-racist secular Ashkenazi Jewish identity in North America, where Jews have been deeply implicated in structural violence? Can we be agents of both complicity and change? This auto-ethnography describes a haunting; focusing on the ghostly presences of my deceased uncle Larry Treiman and Bruno Bettelheim, child psychologist and director of the residential treatment facility where Larry was institutionalized as a child, it creates a deeply personal explanation for how the whitening of Ashkenazi North American Jewish identity, the shifts in discourses of madness and major sociological and economic change in Chicago and New York over the second half of the 20th century constituted my subjectivity and my privilege. This text proposes accountability through genealogy, teasing out the possibility for ethical thought and action through cultivating a deeply personal relationship to the ghosts that make us.MASTinstitution16
Esmaeili, AmirKirk, Donald W Water Removal Process in Electrochemical Valorization of Glycerol Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2019-11Glycerol, as a by-product of biodiesel industries, can be converted to a broad range of high value-added products chemically in the presence of hetero/homogeneous catalysts and also electrochemically in electrolyzers. Using an alkaline medium for glycerol conversion increases the yield of the reaction. In several glycerol valorization reactions, water is used as a solvent or is produced as a by-product. Excess water reduces the reaction conversion and hinders the efficiency by decomposition of final products such as glycerol carbonate in the alkaline solution, and hence must be maintained in a low concentration. The removal of water from aqueous salt solutions containing soluble organic species is a very challenging extraction. This research seeks to design a simple and energy-efficient water removal process by focusing on two organic solvent dehydration methods, desiccants and membrane pervaporation to increase the efficiency as well as purifying the produced glycerol derivatives as commercial products.M.A.S.industr; WATER6, 9
Esmaili, Daryush El-Diraby, Tamer Assessing Organizational Competency in Infrastructure Asset Management: The Case of Water and Wastewater in Ontario Municipalities Civil Engineering2012-11-22As infrastructure networks grow more complex, regulatory requirements become greater, populations grow, budgets become more limited, and the expectations of customers increase, municipalities are progressively being required to provide more for less. This is presenting some particular challenges to the long-term sustainability of buried water and wastewater infrastructure in Ontario. In response, municipalities are increasingly seeking to improve their business processes and asset management capabilities as a path to optimize the lifecycle of their infrastructure assets and ensure public safety, community development, and financial sustainability. This thesis presents an organizational performance measurement framework for municipal infrastructure asset management which was validated through interviews and surveys with international discipline experts. The resultant framework provides a high-level outline and suggestions for implementation of key objectives, 11 core critical success factors, and 135 quantitative performance indicators for municipal water and wastewater asset management organizations.MASTinfrastructure9
Ewing, Alexandra (Lexi)Hamza, Chloe A Stressful Experiences, Emotion Regulation, and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury Among University Students Applied Psychology and Human Development2018-11Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a widespread mental health concern among students in university (Swannell et al., 2014). Stressful experiences in university may lead to increased risk for NSSI by undermining an individual’s ability to cope with distress. However, longitudinal examinations of the link between stressful experiences in university and NSSI, and the mechanism driving the association, are lacking. The current study investigated the process through which stressful experiences may heighten risk for NSSI in a sample of 1132 undergraduate students (70% female, mage = 19.11). Participants reported on daily stressors in university, difficulties in emotion regulation, and NSSI each year for three consecutive years. Path analysis revealed a significant indirect effect from stressful experiences to NSSI through emotion regulation. This association was bidirectional; greater frequency of NSSI predicted increased risk for stressful experiences through emotion regulation. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.M.A.health3
Ewing, MadelinPosen, I. Daniel||MacLean, Heather L. An Evaluation of Alternative Fuels and Powertrain Technologies for Canada’s Long Haul Heavy-duty Vehicle Sector Civil Engineering2019-11Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) are responsible for a growing share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Despite the near-term availability of several low GHG alternatives to diesel, the most viable alternatives have yet to be identified. The first portion of this thesis reports insights gathered through expert interviews in relation to the perceived barriers and opportunities to the adoption of promising alternative technologies for long haul HDVs. Expert insights are incorporated into frameworks for the evaluation of current or near-term alternative technologies. The second portion of the thesis evaluates an emerging fuel, dimethyl ether (DME), on the basis of its well-to-wheel GHG emissions when produced in Canada. It is found that DME produced from renewable feedstocks can reduce GHG emissions by up to 60%, while natural gas-based DME may increase GHG emissions by 20%. Insights from this thesis can inform policies to support uptake of low GHG alternatives for HDVs.M.A.S.greenhouse gas13
Ewing, MadelinePosen, I. Daniel||MacLean, Heather L. An Evaluation of Alternative Fuels and Powertrain Technologies for Canada’s Long Haul Heavy-duty Vehicle Sector Civil Engineering2019-11Heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) are responsible for a growing share of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. Despite the near-term availability of several low GHG alternatives to diesel, the most viable alternatives have yet to be identified. The first portion of this thesis reports insights gathered through expert interviews in relation to the perceived barriers and opportunities to the adoption of promising alternative technologies for long haul HDVs. Expert insights are incorporated into frameworks for the evaluation of current or near-term alternative technologies. The second portion of the thesis evaluates an emerging fuel, dimethyl ether (DME), on the basis of its well-to-wheel GHG emissions when produced in Canada. It is found that DME produced from renewable feedstocks can reduce GHG emissions by up to 60%, while natural gas-based DME may increase GHG emissions by 20%. Insights from this thesis can inform policies to support uptake of low GHG alternatives for HDVs.M.A.S.renewable7
Fakhrashrafi, MitraGilbert, Emily “Pass me the Hookah”: An Assessment of Toronto’s Shisha Ban as Related to Muslim Placemaking, Forced Displacement, and Racializing Surveillance Geography2020-03Toronto’s ‘shisha ban’ came into effect on April 1st, 2016 and has since forced nearly 70 predominantly Black and brown Muslim migrant-owned businesses to close or restructure their livelihoods. Following the passing of the ban, Ali, the owner of Scarborough-based Habibiz Shisha Café, spoke to the cultural and religious significance of shisha and asked, “where else is there for us in this city?” (Hassan, 2016). Through semi-structured interviews and an analysis of the legislation enacted, I look to Ali’s question as a starting point to engage in a study of the relatively new bylaw and its impacts on Muslim placemaking in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Through this thesis, I put forward a non-exhaustive archive of Toronto’s shisha culture and look to traditions of Black, Indigenous, and racialized urban placemaking to consider collective futures beyond racializing surveillance and the unbelonging and displacement which often follows.M.A.urban11
Fakiha, Abrar GhaziFakiha, Abrar G Application of the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique to Determine the Metabolic Availability of Lysine in Millet Nutritional Sciences2019-06Application of the Indicator Amino Acid Oxidation Technique to Determine the Metabolic Availability of Lysine in Millet
Abrar Fakiha
Masters of Science
Graduate Department of Nutritional Science
University of Toronto
Objective 1) Determine the metabolic availability (MA) of the most limiting indispensable amino acid, lysine, in millet.2) Assess the effect of complementing millet protein with lentils Method The MA of lysine in millet was studied using the indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) and slope ratio methods. Five healthy males participated in 8 experiments: 4 lysine intakes from a reference protein, 3 intakes from millet and 1 complementation experiment with lentils. The MA of lysine was estimated by comparing the reference protein slope with the millet slope using the slope ratio method Results The MA of lysine from millet was 97%. Complementation with lentils decreased the IAAO response suggesting increased uptake for protein synthesis Conclusion Lysine is completely bioavailable, however still limiting in millet. Complementation with lentils in 2:1 ratio is recommended to meet the lysine and protein requirement for adults consuming a millet based diet.
Fan, Mark Easty, Anthony ||Woods, Nicole Measuring the Impact of Human Factors and Education Informed Training on the Safety and Efficiency of Smart Infusion Technology Biomedical Engineering2010-01-13T20:24:06ZThis thesis evaluated the effects of two types of training on nurses’ ability to safely and efficiently administer IV medications using a smart infusion pump. A high fidelity simulated nursing unit was created in which nurses recruited from the University Health Network programmed a series of infusions after receiving training. A training script modeled after the pump vendor’s training sessions was created and tested first on 24 nurses. The results were analyzed for deficiencies in safety and efficiency from a human factors and education perspective and a new training script was created and tested on a group of 23 nurses. No significant differences were found between training groups on measures related to safety, but significant differences were found in nurse efficiency and behaviour in some aspects of pump programming. This study sets a precedent for human factors evaluation being used in tandem with existing training practices and lays the groundwork for further exploration on this topic.MASThealth3
FAN, PhilSiegel, Jeffrey EVALUATING THE WETTING AND DRYING RESPONSE OF GYPSUM DRYWALL SUBJECT TO LIQUID WATER Civil Engineering2017-11Gypsum drywall is susceptible to moisture damage due to their porous structure and common exposure to liquid water from floods, plumbing leaks, condensation, and enclosure leaks. There are many types of drywall, including some that are designed to be resistant to moisture damage and many ways of measuring moisture. In this thesis, I evaluate multiple methods of moisture measurement on different types of drywall under different water wetting amounts and environmental conditions. Different types of drywall respond differently to water and surface treatments play an important role in their response to moisture. Even on the same type of drywall, different sensors can provide different responses to wetting events in magnitude, duration, and temporal dynamics. The implications of this work are that the drywall itself, as well as the environmental conditions, the method of moisture measurement, and the nature of the wetting all are important to the availability of water for microorganisms and moisture-related decay processes.M.A.S.water6
Fang, TeHofmann, Ron||Andrews, Susan Comparing UV/Chlorine Advanced Oxidation Efficiency to UV/H2O2 when using Monochromatic UV light Civil Engineering2016-11This thesis compares the efficiency of the UV/chlorine and UV/H2O2 advanced oxidation processes for contaminant removal using monochromatic UV light. Previous work reported that UV/chlorine is more efficient than UV/H2O2 for trichloroethylene removal in pure water at approximately pH 5 and below using medium pressure (MP) lamps (Wang et al., 2012), and that it may even be more competitive in the presence of elevated total inorganic carbon (TIC) and total organic carbon (TOC).
In this work, a LP kinetics model was adapted from the MP model developed by Wang et al. (2012). The modelled results of sucralose decay were then validated by bench-scale experiments with a collimated beam apparatus.
The adapted LP models successfully predicted sucralose decay under most of the experimental conditions, but not at pH 10 for the UV/chlorine process. The reason for the inaccuracy of the UV/chlorine model at pH 10 is not clear, and requires more work.
Farag, Mina SaberJanssen, Harry L.A A Changing Era in Chronic Hepatitis B: Novel Biomarkers and Therapies Medical Science2019-11Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection is a severe health problem worldwide. It is challenging to achieve a complete cure for CHB as the currently available antiviral treatments cannot eradicate the covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) in the infected hepatocytes. Detecting cccDNA is an important goal to strive for when investigating the effectiveness of available therapies and developing novel treatments. Hepatitis B virus RNA (HBV-RNA) is a relatively new serum biomarker that correlates with cccDNA. We studied HBV-RNA kinetics and their potential role as a predictor of treatment response in HBeAg-negative CHB patients. HBV-RNA showed a greater decline in treatment responders compared to non-responders early on, at week 12 of treatment. Levels above 1700 c/mL (3.2 log10 c/mL) had a negative predictive value for treatment response of 91% at week 12 and 93% at week 24 (P=0.01). In conclusion, HBV-RNA demonstrated a rapid and significant decline associated with treatment response during long-term follow-upM.H.Sc.health3
Farmer, Julie W.Quiñonez, Carlos R Measuring the Magnitude of Oral Health Inequalities within and between Canada and the United States from 1970 to 2009 Dentistry2015-11Objectives: To compare the magnitude of, and contributors to, income-related inequalities in oral health outcomes within and between Canada and the United States over time. Methods: The Concentration Index (CI) was used to estimate income-related oral health inequalities from two Canadian and two American cross-sectional surveys, and decomposed to determine the potential contributors to inequalities. Results: Pro-poor inequalities were observed in oral disease outcomes and pro-rich inequalities in oral health outcomes, with greater magnitude in the United States. Decreases in inequalities for edentulism and increases in decayed teeth were observed in both countries over time. Inequalities in filled teeth decreased in the United States and increased in Canada. Socioeconomic characteristics contributed greater to inequalities than demographic characteristics, with greater contributions of income over time. Conclusions: Oral health inequalities have persisted over time in Canada and the United States and are associated with age, sex, education, and have varied over time.M.Sc.socioeconomic; health1, 3
Farra, Nicolas Thomson, Murray J. Efficiency and Emissions Study of a Residential Micro–cogeneration System Based on a Stirling Engine and Fuelled by Diesel and Ethanol Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2010-12-31T20:09:04ZThis study examined the performance of a residential micro–cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine and fuelled by diesel and ethanol. An extensive number of engine tests were conducted to ensure highly accurate and reproducible measurement techniques. Appropriate energy efficiencies were determined by performing an energy balance for each fuel. Particulate emissions were measured with an isokinetic particulate sampler, while a flame ionization detector was used to monitor unburned hydrocarbon emissions. Carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, water, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and methane emissions were measured using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. When powered by ethanol, the system had slightly higher thermal efficiency, slightly lower power efficiency and considerable reductions in emission levels during steady state operation. To further study engine behaviour, parametric studies on primary engine set points, including coolant temperature and exhaust temperature, were also conducted.MASTenergy7
Farrahi-Avval, Neyaz Locker, David Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of the Institutionalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in two Ontario Psychiatric Care Centres Dentistry2008-07-30T19:41:38ZOral Health Status and Treatment Needs of the Institutionalized Chronic Psychiatric Patients in two Ontario Psychiatric Care Centres

Neyaz Farrahi-Avval

Master of Science

Graduate Department of Dentistry
University of Toronto



Purpose: To examine the oral health status of psychiatric in-patients at two long-term psychiatric health centres, with one operating a full-time dental care facility.

Methods: Data were gathered from clinical examinations, a structured interview and hospital records from 120 participants. Periodontal (CPI) and dental (DMFT) indices, subjectively reported oral health status, and oral health behaviour were subsequently analyzed.

Results: Referrals for dental problems were made for 62.9% of participants. Bivariate analyses revealed positive correlations between DMFT scores, age and length of stay. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated correlations between DMFT scores and infrequent dental visits, frequent snacking and age. Patients at the psychiatric hospital without a full-time dental care facility were more likely to have had higher DMFT scores, and infrequent dental visits.

Conclusions: Psychiatric patients have poor oral health and significant oral health treatment needs. This study underlines the need for on-site dental care facilities at long-term psychiatric care centres.
Fateh, Navratan Shachar, Ayelet Honour Killing Law2012-11-22This thesis is a timely response to the current developments of cultural forces which lead to honour killings in Canada. I believe that it is only through a detailed analysis of honour killings that Canada as a country can equip and prepare itself to deal with crimes of honour in the future. The aim of this thesis is to examine the crime of honour killing by elaborating the close linkage that it shares to the cultural regulations for the sexuality of women. The research also endeavors to resolve the existing dilemmas of balancing multiculturalism and diversity in Canada on one hand and counteracting the extreme violent cultural reactions, which are in clear violation of Canadian laws. I propose that, since the crime shares a crucial foreign element, being cultural pressure, a careful analysis of the honour killing situations in South Asian countries can offer vital inputs for policy analysis.MASTwomen5
Fathieh, Amirahmad Mercan, Oya Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Modular Steel Buildings in Two and Three Dimensions Civil Engineering2013-11-22Modular construction is a relatively new technique where prefabricated units are assembled on-site to produce a complete building. Due to detailing requirements for the assembly of the modules, these systems are prone to undesirable failure mechanisms during large earthquakes. Specifically, for multi-story Modular Steel Buildings (MSBs), inelasticity concentration in vertical connections can be an area of concern. Diaphragm interaction, relative displacements between modules and the forces in the horizontal connections need to be investigated. In this study, two 4-story MSBs with two different structural configurations were chosen to be analyzed. In the first model which was introduced in a study by Annan et al. (2009 a), some of the unrealistic detailing assumptions were challenged. To have a more accurate assessment of the structural capacity, in the second model, a more realistic MSB model was proposed. Using OpenSees, Incremental Dynamic Analyses (IDA) have been performed and conclusions were made.MASTbuildings9
Faulkner, Colin Ray BrianRochon, Paula The Association of Individual-level Characteristics with Aging and Health Care Utilization among Older Women and Men Medical Science2019-11Older adults typically have the highest health care utilization of any age group. There are very few studies focused on older adults who are low-cost users (LCU) of the health care system. Understanding this population may be a key way to understand the determinants of healthy aging and wellness. In addition, the ways in which gender modifies the correlates of health-system use is explored. This thesis systematically reviews successful aging and health care utilization among older women and men. A study is then presented to better understand the sex-stratified individual-level factors associated with health care utilization for older adults. The results of these studies converged to suggest that certain health decisions made by clinicians, policy-makers, and older adults themselves, can be tailored to a person’s sex or gender. Further, the thesis highlights several sex/gender-based nuances in the health of older adults that should be explored in future research.
Les personnes âgées ont généralement le taux d'utilisation des soins de santé le plus élevé parmi tous les groupes d'âge. Très peu d'études ont été menées sur les personnes âgées qui utilisent le système de santé à faible coût. Comprendre cette population pourrait être essentiel pour comprendre les déterminants du vieillissement en bonne santé et du bien-être. En outre, les moyens par lesquels le sexe modifie les corrélats de l'utilisation du système de santé sont explorés. Cette thèse passe systématiquement en revue le vieillissement et l'utilisation des soins de santé chez les femmes et les hommes âgés. Une étude est ensuite présentée pour mieux comprendre les facteurs individuels–stratifiés par sexe–liés à l'utilisation des soins de santé par les personnes âgées. Les résultats de ces études suggèrent que certaines décisions de santé prises par les cliniciens, les responsables politique et les personnes âgées elles-mêmes, peuvent être adaptées au sexe ou au genre d'une personne. En outre, la thèse met en évidence plusieurs nuances liées au sexe / genre dans la santé des personnes âgées qui devraient être explorées dans de futures recherches.
Fekete, Daniel James Brett, Clare Worthy Worlds: A Case Study of the Pedagogy, Design, and Execution of Two University Courses in Second Life Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2012-11-28With increasing access to powerful computer processing and broadband Internet connectivity, persistent immersive worlds like Second Life are being adopted for use as virtual learning environments. The flexibility of these spaces, however, offers little innate direction for educators in terms of design and pedagogy considerations, creating a space for research, shared experience, and possibly the development of “best practices” literature. This multiple-case study explores the unique affordances of immersive environments for distance education with reference to the design, pedagogy, and student experience of two university-accredited courses taught entirely “in-world” on the Second Life platform.MASTinnovation9
Feldman, Rachel LinLofters, Aisha||Grunfeld, Eva Primary Care use during, and Wait Times to Receiving, Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy: A Population-based Retrospective Cohort Study using CanIMPACT Data Medical Science2020-06OBJECTIVES: To determine how physical and/or mental comorbidities affect primary care physician (PCP) use during adjuvant breast cancer chemotherapy and how PCP continuity affects time to chemotherapy.
METHODS: Population-based, retrospective cohort study of 12,781 women diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in Ontario who received adjuvant chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Six-month PCP visit rate increased during chemotherapy (mean 2.3 baseline visits, 3.4 chemotherapy visits). Low physical/mental comorbidity patients saw larger increases (1.4/1.8 baseline, 2.8/3.0 chemotherapy) versus high physical/mental comorbidity (5.6/3.5 baseline, 5.3/4.1 chemotherapy). Median time to chemotherapy (126 days) was shorter by 3.21 days in symptom-diagnosed patients with low PCP continuity, 17.43 days in screen-diagnosed immigrants with high PCP continuity and 10.68 days in symptom-diagnosed patients with no baseline PCP utilization.
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low physical and/or mental comorbidity showed greater increases in PCP use during adjuvant chemotherapy. Higher PCP continuity was associated with shorter median time to chemotherapy in screen-diagnosed immigrants.
Feng, Yan O'Brien, Peter J. Hepatocyte Molecular Cytotoxic Mechanism Study of Fructose and its Metabolites Involved in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hyperoxaluria Pharmaceutical Sciences2010-07-26T18:50:13ZHigh chronic fructose consumption is linked to a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) type of hepatotoxicity. Oxalate is the major endpoint of fructose metabolism, which accumulates in the kidney causing renal stone disease. Both diseases are life-threatening if not treated. Our objective was to study the molecular cytotoxicity mechanisms of fructose and some of its metabolites in the liver. Fructose metabolites were incubated with primary rat hepatocytes, but cytotoxicity only occurred if the hepatocytes were exposed to non-toxic amounts of hydrogen peroxide such as those released by activated immune cells. Glyoxal was most likely the endogenous toxin responsible for fructose induced toxicity formed via autoxidation of the fructose metabolite glycolaldehyde catalyzed by superoxide radicals, or oxidation by Fenton’s hydroxyl radicals. As for hyperoxaluria, glyoxylate was more cytotoxic than oxalate presumably because of the formation of condensation product oxalomalate causing mitochondrial toxicity and oxidative stress. Oxalate toxicity likely involved pro-oxidant iron complex formation.MASTconsum12
Ferguson, CameronCameron, Linda A Narrative Inquiry into Critical Learning Strategies in the Ontario High School Dramatic Arts Curriculum Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2013-11The purpose of this study was to identify and apply critical learning strategies to the design of social justice lesson plans for the dramatic arts, followed by reflections upon the process.
The major research question to be answered was “How can we integrate critical learning theories into the curriculum of Ontario high school drama curriculum?” To arrive at the answer to this question, the study addressed four sub-questions: Why is it important to integrate critical learning theories into the curriculum of high school drama classes? Which teaching strategies support critical learning curriculum? What are some examples of past efforts to integrate critical learning theories into the curriculum of high school drama classes? What are some examples of future possibilities for implementing critical learning theories into the curriculum of Ontario high school drama classes? The chosen methodology was narrative inquiry.
Fernando, Shannon M. Monks, D. Ashley Myocyte Androgen Receptor Modulates Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters Medical Science2010-12-31T20:21:06ZAndrogens (such as testosterone) have been shown to increase lean body mass and reduce fat body mass in men through activation of androgen receptors (AR). While this suggests a potential clinical use for androgens, attempts at utilization of this class of hormones as a therapeutic are limited by side effects due to indiscriminate AR activation in various tissues. Thus, a greater understanding of the tissues and cells involved in promoting these changes would be beneficial. Here we show that selective overexpression of AR in muscle cells of transgenic (HSA-AR) rodents both increases lean muscle mass and significantly reduces fat mass in males. Similar effects can be induced in HSA-AR females treated with testosterone. Metabolic analyses of HSA-AR males show that these animals demonstrate increased O2 consumption and hypermetabolism. Thus, targeted activation of AR in muscle regulates body composition and metabolism, suggesting a novel target for drug development.MASTconsum12
Ferreyro Mazieres, Sofia LorenaMcDougall, Doug Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes Towards Teaching Mathematics and their Professional Learning Goals Curriculum, Teaching and Learning2016-06This study examined how elementary teachers identified and set specific goals to
improve their mathematics teaching using the framework of the Ten Dimensions of
Mathematics Education (McDougall, 2004). This qualitative study investigates the beliefs
and attitudes of four Grade 6 teachers using data collected from interviews and surveys.
Based on the evidence found in this study, a relationship exists between teachers’
beliefs and attitudes towards teaching mathematics, their professional learning goals,
their instructional practices and student achievement. There were three major findings:
(1) teachers’ goals were linked to their weakest dimension and were student centered; (2)
teachers’ beliefs on constructing knowledge are not aligned with current mathematics
education thinking; and (3) professional development, collaboration, and parental
involvement also influenced teachers’ goal setting process. Suggestions for teacher
professional learning sessions are discussed, including additions to the teacher change
model (Ross Bruce, 2007).
Ferri-de-Barros, Fábio Howard, Andrew Priority Setting for Health Resource Allocation in Brazil: A Scoping Review and Ethical Analysis. Medical Science2013-11-22Brazil is a high middle income country where health inequities persist across two systems of health care financing and delivery. The publicly financed system (SUS) is one of the world’s largest health organizations, which is charged with the constitutional mandate to provide comprehensive health care coverage to over 190 million citizens. National Health Conferences (CNS), the core forum for societal participation in health policy making for the SUS, occur every four years. Yet, managers and councillors struggle to decide on how to allocate resources to meet competing populational health needs and demands, and to comply with the directives of the SUS. The purpose of my research is to describe the three most recent CNS, based on a scoping literature review, to evaluate the ethical account of these decision making processes, and to provide recommendations for improving priority setting for health resource allocation for the SUS according to the ethical analysis.MASThealth3
Field, NicolasBoler, Megan||Bialystok, Lauren Farewell Manly Strength: Masculinity and the Politics of Emotion Social Justice Education2017-11Masculine identity has been historically defined through invocations of various forms of negative emotions within the domain of psychoanalysis, psychology, gender studies and American history. By theorizing men and masculinity as seemingly perpetually in crisis, theorists of masculinities do a disservice to the members of our society who have historically been disenfranchised by the bearers of patriarchal privilege, regardless of how these men feel. This text explores the relationship between masculinity and emotion, urging readers to consider the ways patriarchy has modulated in response to the feminist movement using the concepts of crisis masculinity, post-truth politics and gaslighting.M.A.gender5
Figueiredo, Rafael L. F. Quiñonez, Carlos Homelessness and Oral Health in Toronto Dentistry2011-12-07Objectives: This study aimed to assess the oral health status of the Toronto adult homeless population; to learn how they perceive their own oral health; and how they interact with the dental care system.
Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study collected data from 191 homeless adults who were randomly selected using a stratified cluster sample at 18 shelters. A questionnaire and clinical oral examination were conducted with participants.
Results: The mean Decayed/Missing/Filled Teeth (DMFT) score of the subjects was 14.4 (SD=8.1). Only 32% of them had visited a dentist during the last year; 75% believed that they had untreated dental conditions; and 40% had their last dental visit for emergency care. The clinical oral examination observed that 88% needed fillings, 70% periodontal, 60% prosthodontic and 40% emergency treatment.
Conclusion: Homeless adults in Toronto have poor oral health, significant oral health treatment needs and a lack of access to dental care.
Filewod, Benjamin A. Thomas, Sean C. Effects of an Early Season Heat Wave on Ecophysiological Parameters Related to Productivity in Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) Forestry2011-12-07Anticipated increases in the frequency, duration or intensity of high temperature events ('heat waves') have the potential to significantly impact forest form and functioning, but these events remain virtually unstudied in forest ecosystems. This thesis presents the results of an event-driven research effort into the impacts of three days of record-setting high temperatures in late May 2010 on key ecophysiological parameters in Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum. Marsh). High temperatures reduced photosynthetic capacity by ~66% versus previous years and total end-of-season leaf litter production by ~33% versus prior measurements. It is predicted that these reductions substantially reduced productivity for Sugar Maple in 2010. These results constitute the first description of the impacts of a short-duration heat wave on productivity-related parameters in a temperate forest tree. The predicted increase in high temperature events could make such impacts a significant, though so far overlooked, pathway of climate change impacts on temperate forests.MASTforest; climate13, 15
Finkleman, Gary Glogauer, Michael The Impact of Integration of Dental Services on Oral Health in Long-term Care Dentistry2010-01-18T20:42:41ZBackground: There is no standardized approach to the organizational structure for oral health provision in long-term care (LTC) and many different arrangements exist within different institutions. Objectives: To analyze how integration of dental service in LTC impacts residents and their oral health using quantitative and qualitative research methods. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed involving 61 residents in 3 LTC facilities in Ontario. Facility A had a fee-for-service hygienist, Facility B had a dentist present once per week, and Facility C had a full time dental team. Results: Dental services that initiated treatment as opposed to placing responsibility on the LTC resident to access dental care resulted in better oral health outcomes. Conclusion: Dental services in LTC require a proactive approach directly integrated with each resident’s overall health care plan. Passive treatment strategies fail to provide acceptable oral health for LTC residents even when dental services are available.MASThealth3
Finseth, Sonia Madelene LittlerPeterson-Badali, Michele Meeting the Needs of Aboriginal Youth in the Ontario Justice System: Reconciling Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Ways of Knowing: An Exploratory Qualitative Study Applied Psychology and Human Development2014-11Using a qualitative, exploratory design and drawing on interpretivist, postcolonial, and decolonizing frameworks, this study sought to comprehend the perceptions of justice system personnel and Aboriginal service users about Aboriginal-specific, community-based justice programming and to better understand the factors that influence successful referral and access to these programs within community-sentencing and probation contexts. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 participants (youth court judges, crown attorneys, youth court workers, youth probation officers, service providers, and Aboriginal service users) and thematic analysis was employed to identify key themes. Results indicate that there is strong support for Aboriginal-specific, community-based programming within the youth justice community. However, barriers to matching Aboriginal service users with Aboriginal programming are numerous and include poor communication between mainstream and Aboriginal justice partners and inconsistency in Aboriginal-specific program offerings, among others. Findings are also discussed in reference to the Risk-Need-Responsivity framework.M.A.justice15
Fishman, J. Zachary Bazylak, Aimy Investigation of Surface Properties and Heterogeneity in Gas Diffusion Layers for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2010-12-31T20:33:36ZThe development of improved water management strategies for the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) could stand to benefit from an improved understanding of the
surface and internal structure of the gas diffusion layer (GDL). The GDL is a fibrous porous material enabling mass transport between the PEMFC catalyst layer and flow fields. Fluorescence-based visualizations of liquid water droplet evaporation on GDL surfaces were performed to investigate water droplet pinning behaviours. The heterogeneous in-plane and through-plane porosity distributions of untreated GDLs were studied using computed tomography visualizations. The through-plane porosity distributions were utilized to calculate
heterogeneous local tortuosity, relative diffusivity, and permeability distributions. Finally, the heterogeneous through-plane porosity distributions of GDLs treated for increased hydrophobicity were investigated. This work provides new insight into GDL material properties to better inform future PEMFC models.
Fiume, Anna MarieBoland, Alana||Wakefield, Sarah The Regionalized Health Care System and Access for Mobile Populations in Southern Ontario Geography2016-11This case study of the Ontario regionalized health care system has investigated health care access in the context of an increasingly mobile population (including commuting and seasonal travel). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff members of Local Health Integration Networks and a Health Centre within southern Ontario alongside secondary research on federal and provincial health system structures and governance. The results of this research suggest there are mobility and geography system barriers to health care access in this region. The participants characterized obtaining transportation to health services as a current access challenge, and urban development and population growth as future concerns. Commuting and seasonal travel were not considered to present significant barriers outside logistics in arranging appointments. The health care systemâ s ability to mitigate such barriers may be limited by the structure of the health care system due to the regional-focus of planning and the necessity of inter-organizational; urban; governance3, 11, 16
Flemming, Scott A. C. Jamieson, Gregory Allan Encouraging Energy Conservation Through Information Display: A New Approach Mechanical and Industrial Engineering2009-08-07T20:07:05ZMuch study is required on how human behaviour affects resource consumption. Not only are Human Factors Engineers well equipped to study how to shape human behaviour, but contributors to conservation literature have asked for their involvement in the domain of energy conservation. This study took a novel, systematic, human-factors approach to providing feedback on energy consumption by testing the effects of providing three levels of feedback on conservation performance. The results showed that providing physical, functional, and task-based information aided performance more than physical information alone, but no more than providing physical and functional information together. More research is required to determine if physical and task information alone could achieve the same result, if study results would differ when two opposing task goals were given, and if the varying levels of feedback have a greater effect on novices.MASTenergy; conserv7, 14
Fong, Fredric KajunAzhari, Fae||Ghafghazi, Mason Towards the Development of a Sensor for Measuring Soil Stresses in the Cyclic Simple Shear Apparatus Civil Engineering2019-11In locations with seismic activity, structures are susceptible to damage or failure due to soil liquefaction. Determining the horizontal stresses in soil before and during cyclic loading, which is a fundamental challenge in geotechnical engineering, is important for interpreting liquefaction susceptibility and predicting foundation response to earthquake loading. The applicability of various existing sensing devices and concepts for measuring stresses in soil were investigated. Six passive and two active sensor systems were designed and evaluated when buried within a soil specimen. The evaluations showed that none of the sensors functioned well in soil, even for those that minimized diaphragm deflection to mitigate soil arching effects. Major limiting factors observed in the results included hysteresis, non-linearity, lack of repeatability, and effects of placing sensors in soil. The disturbance induced by sensor placement in soil appears to be a dominating factor acting against reliable measurement of horizontal stresses, even under laboratory conditions.M.A.S.urban11
Fong, Melissa Schugurensky, Daniel Rolling Out the Transformative Social Economy: A Case Study of Organic Intellectualism in Canadian Settlement Houses Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2011-01-01T16:15:50ZSocial economy community development organizations (SECDOs) are social service
organizations that provide poverty relief but do not necessarily inspire a counter-hegemonic antipoverty strategy against a neoliberal welfare state. Tension between providing human social services and engaging in advocacy is at the core of how SECDOs may be both complicit to as well as working against the neoliberalization of the welfare state. This study explores how SECDOs can nurture a new paradigm for community economic development organizations.
Through a case study of a Canadian settlement house, the research demonstrates how transforming work may encourage a culture of organic intellectualism or, a culture of emancipatory consciousness-raising. By re-organizing workplace practices, such as working collaboratively, providing a hub for services and engaging in popular education, transformative SECDOs help provide the conditions for citizens to affect governance. The research theorizes
how SECDOs may foster a culture of organic intellectualism to promote the transformative
social economy.
MASTpoverty; governance1, 16
Fonseca, Renu Kanga Jones, Glen A. ||Chambers, Tony Motivations and Experiences of Elected Governing Council Members Theory and Policy Studies in Education2011-11-29This qualitative study explores the motivations and experiences of individuals elected to serve on the Governing Council of the University of Toronto. Elected governors include alumni, students, staff and faculty. Six semi-structured interviews were conducted with 2 alumni governors, 2 student governors, and 2 staff/faculty governors. Interview questions helped to examine personal motivations behind serving in university governance, activities and duties of governors, self-perceptions of effectiveness and improvements to the experience of elected members. The responses were used to create interview summaries and discover common themes in the experiences of elected governors. Four theme areas emerged. They are (1) initial motivations, (2) learning and informal communication, (3) personal benefits, pride and positive experience, and (4) approach to governance. This study includes a discussion of the unique position of alumni governors and suggests improvements to the governor experience as recommended by the research participants.MASTgovernance16
Forde, Martyn Henry de BoulayHarvey, LD Danny Renewable Energy Technology and the Hotel Sector of Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Managing Sustainability Transitions on the Island of Barbados Geography2014-11This thesis examines the barriers to renewable energy technology within the hotel sector of Barbados. The topic is approached using the theoretical perspective of transition management. An economic analysis of renewable energy technologies applicable to Barbados is coupled with the insights of stakeholder interviews. Consequently, the space created for hotels to implement innovations in renewable energy technology is discussed. In particular, identified barriers are used to characterize the existing energy regime on the island. The categories of barriers identified are: institutional, market, economic, technical and socio-cultural. Despite favorable levelized costs of electricity for renewable energy technologies there must be new governance activities and market-based approaches to facilitate an energy transition within island; renewable; innovation; institution7, 9, 16
Fowler, Erin Weinrib, Lorraine Advancing Reproductive Rights in a Religious World: A Comparative Survey of Reproductive Rights in Poland, Indonesia and Israel Law2013-11-22This paper surveys the legal implications of religious doctrines at they relate to the universal acceptance of reproductive rights. While the use of human rights to advance reproductive health has gained momentum over the last several decades, the variance in arranging religion and state relations and the significant impact religious institutions have over the substantive rights to reproductive freedom in many parts of the world necessitates a break from considering reproductive rights as a strictly secular issue. Using Israel, Poland and Indonesia as examples, this paper will explain how an understanding of the doctrines underlying major world religions is a crucial step towards recognizing how reproductive rights and freedoms can be advanced in a world where laws and policies are informed by both the sacred and the secular.MASTrights16
Freeman, Michael WAllen, Christine J. Toward the patient-centred development of cancer therapeutics: A focus on nanomedicines Chemical Engineering Applied Chemistry2018-06Inspired by early work indicating nanometre-scale macromolecules can accumulate in tumours, nanomedicines were developed with intentions of improving cancer-killing efficacy and reducing systemic toxicity typical of traditional chemotherapies. This research first evaluates evidence provided to FDA and EMA regulators in order for cancer nanomedicines to be granted marketing approval, and then consults mature clinical data via health technology assessments to synthesize judgments of clinical benefit with respect to overall survival, safety, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Findings indicate that every marketed cancer nanomedicine— eight of nine being liposome technologies—demonstrates comparative clinical benefit on at least one dimension, that improvements in overall survival frequently come at the expense of safety, and that HRQOL is generally conserved or improved versus comparator therapies. Sparse data and inconsistency in HRQOL reporting practices were major deficiencies among the documents consulted and represent key barriers to providing patients evidence that can inform treatment; innovation3, 9
Fregoli, Clio RobinsonWakefield, Sarah Alternative Spaces of Sex Education: A Look into the Lived Experiences of Young Queer Women Geography2019-11The classroom is a formative space for young women to learn about sexuality and sexual health; however, sexual health education is often engrained in heteronormative expectations of sexuality, which exclude the experiences and health concerns of young queer women. This provokes the question of where, and how, young queer women learn about sexual health. This project draws on 29 in-depth, semi-structured interviews with young queer women who attended public high school in Toronto. The results illustrate the exclusion of queer sexual health in Ontario’s Grades 9-12 1998 sex education curriculum, and both the benefits and drawbacks of learning about sex and sexuality from friends, family, the Internet, clinics and community organizations. This analysis of spaces of education expands our knowledge of how and where young queer women learn about sexual health, with the hope to ultimately improve sexual health education for young queer women in Toronto.M.A.queer; women5
Fridman, Joel Friedmann, Harriet Settlement, Food Lands, and Sustainable Habitation: The Historical Development of Agricultural Policy and Urban Planning in Southern Ontario Geography2014-06-25In this thesis I recount the historical relationship between settlement and food lands in Southern Ontario. Informed by landscape and food regime theory, I use a landscape approach to interpret the history of this relationship to deepen our understanding of a pertinent, and historically specific problem of land access for sustainable farming. This thesis presents entrenched barriers to landscape renewal as institutional legacies of various layers of history. It argues that at the moment and for the last century Southern Ontario has had two different, parallel sets of determinants for land-use operating on the same landscape in the form of agricultural policy and urban planning. To the extent that they are not purposefully coordinated, not just with each other but with the social and ecological foundations of our habitation, this is at the root of the problem of land access for sustainable farming.MASTfood2
Friedman, Molly EhrlichCasas, Michael J||Barrett, Edward J Trends in Utilization of a Children's Hospital Emergency Department for Caries-related Complaints Dentistry2016-11abstract
purpose: To determine trends in caries-related visits to a childrenâ s hospital emergency department and associated costs.
Methods: A review of health records of all children who presented to the ED at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, with caries-related complaints from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012 was completed. Institutional costs for the episodes of care were calculated using encounter level costing. A Poisson model examined trends over time. A log-linear model examined the impact of sex, age, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status.
results: Over the study period, the numbers of visits for caries-related complaints increased by 48 percent (p=0.001). Characteristics of the children were being male, under 5 years old, low socioeconomic status and no co-morbidity. The mean cost per visit was $575.17 CDN.
conclusions: With an increasing volume and mean visit cost of almost $600 CDN, childrenâ s hospital EDs caries-related visits to childrenâ s hospital EDs are not insignificant.
Friel, Charlotte Finkelstein, Sarah A. Diatom Records of Holocene Climatic and Hydrological Changes in the Western Hudson Bay Region, Canada Geography2011-12-07Rapidly changing climates in northern Canada make the western Hudson Bay region an area of high importance for paleoenvironmental studies. Long-term changes in assemblages of diatoms (microscopic algae) were analyzed from lake sediment cores from Baker Lake, Nunavut, and Lake AT01, northern Ontario, to track responses to past environmental changes. Diatom assemblages dating to 6700 years ago in AT01 were initially characterized by cold- tolerant Fragilarioid assemblages, but shifted to an assemblage dominated by large benthic species and Cymbella diluviana consistent with the timing of the Holocene Thermal Maximum after 6300 years BP. A possible drainage event in Lake AT01 may have added significant hydrologic control on the diatom assemblages. The post-industrial period is marked by the largest compositional shifts in both records. Assemblages during the 20th century are indicative of reduced ice cover and enhanced thermal stratification linked to a climate regime shift noted in Hudson Bay since the mid-1990’s.MASTclimate13
Frost, Damien F. Lehn, Peter W. ||Prodic, Aleksandar A PFC Power Supply with Minimized Energy Storage Components and a New Control Ttechnique for Cascaded SMPS Electrical and Computer Engineering2012-12-04This Master of Applied Science thesis proposes a new design of low
power, power factor corrected (PFC), power supplies. By lifting the
hold up time restriction for devices that have a battery built in,
the energy storage elements of the converter can be reduced,
permitting a small and inexpensive power converter to be built. In
addition, a new control technique for controlling cascaded
converters is presented, named duty mode control (DMC). Its
advantages are shown through simulations. The system was proven
using a prototype developed in the laboratory designed for a
universal ac input voltage (85 - 265VRMS at 50 - 60Hz)
and a 40W output at 12V. It consisted of two interleaved phases
sensed and digitally controlled on the isolated side of the
converter. The prototype was able to achieve a power factor of
greater than 0.98 for all operating conditions, and input harmonic
current distortion well below any set of standards.
Frydrych, David Benson, Peter Taking Rights Way Too Seriously: Kant, Hohfeld, and Evaluating Conceptual Theories of Rights Law2010-12-31T20:40:30ZThis paper concerns the dominant conceptual or formal accounts of legal rights: the Interest and Will Theories. Section II clarifies the minimal necessary conditions for a rights model to count as a Will Theory. It also explores Kant’s Will Theory of rights and the difficulties posed to it by Hohfeld’s schema of jural relations. Kant has three alternatives: reject the schema’s utility or demonstrate his theory’s compatibility with it via molecularist or basic models of Hohfeldian rights. Although his best option is to disavow Hohfeld, Kant’s theory is ultimately undesirable on other grounds. Section III shall analyze the modern Will and Interest Theories’ biggest weaknesses according to a test proposed in Section I, which should generate bases for preferring one theory to another. It will offer a counterargument to the Inalienability charge levied against the Will Theory, and demonstrate why Interest Theory responses to the Third Party Beneficiary argument are inadequate.MASTrights16
Fryer, MarisaDrake, Jennifer The Comparative Impacts of Meadow and Sedum Species on Green Roof Hydrology Civil Engineering2017-11The goal of this thesis is to compare the stormwater management potential of two common green roof plant communities – native grasses and forbs, known as “meadow” species, and Sedum species – over a range of irrigation volumes. The physical and biological mechanisms involved in water retention provided by the green roof vegetation was measured and compared. Plants retain stormwater through three different mechanisms: water consumed through the roots which remains in the biomass, water transpired through the leaves during photosynthesis, and water intercepted by the leaves which then evaporates. Overall, the meadow species consumed roughly 50% more water through their roots, while Sedum intercepted roughly 70% more water; however, these processes occurred over different timescales and at different magnitudes, and were significantly impacted by variations in climate. This study highlights the complexities of plant water relations, and will contribute to a more holistic understanding of green roof performance and benefits.M.A.S.water; sustainable design6, 8
Fugariu, IoanaSimpson, Andre J The Development of In Vivo and Microcoil NMR: Towards Single Egg Toxicity Screening Chemistry2017-11An objective in ecology is to understand an organism’s response (e.g. Daphnia magna) to changing environmental conditions. Under unfavorable conditions, D. magna’s dormant eggs are stored in aquatic sediments, where exposure to toxins can lead to population decimation. A single egg has a small volume (~4 nL), making them challenging to study via conventional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The static nature of eggs allows for their localization over planar microcoils and an increase in signal-to-noise ratio is observed relative to larger coils. This thesis applies a range of planar microcoils (M.Sc.ecology15
Fullerton, Leslie-AnnTrotz, D. Alissa||Walcott, Rinaldo Women in Jamaican Dancehall: Rethinking Jamaican Dancehall through a Women-Centered Informal Economy Approach. Social Justice Education2017-11Some academic discussions that address women who participate in Jamaican Dancehall have taken the position that these women lack morality and agency and have internalized sexist norms (Lake 1996). This is because of the overtly sexual nature of the cultural expression. This research project aimed to expand the conversation concerning these women by investigating how female dancehall dancers, models and auxiliaries (designers, beauticians and vendors) make a living from Dancehall's informal economy. Through empirical evidence, this research will suggest that women who participate in Jamaican dancehall have subjectively and economically benefited from the informal economy that is embedded in dancehall.M.Ed.women5
Fung, Jonathan Winston Chen, Jing Ming Atmospheric Inversion of the Global Surface Carbon Flux with Consideration of the Spatial Distributions of US Crop Production and Consumption Geography2012-11-22Carbon dioxide is taken up by crops during production and released back to the atmosphere at different geographical locations through respiration of consumed crop commodities. In this study, spatially distributed county-level US cropland net primary productivity, harvested biomass, changes in soil carbon, and human and livestock consumption data were integrated into the prior terrestrial biosphere flux generated by the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). A global time-dependent Bayesian synthesis inversion with a nested focus on North America was carried out based on CO2 observations at 210 stations. Overall, the inverted annual North American CO2 sink weakened by 6.5% over the period from 2002 to 2007 compared to simulations disregarding US crop statistical data. The US Midwest is found to be the major sink of 0.36±0.13 PgC yr-1 whereas the large sink in the US Southeast forests weakened to 0.16±0.12 PgC yr-1 partly due to local CO2 sources from crop consumption.MASTconsum; agriculture; environment2, 12, 13
Gabriel, Mikaela DariaStewart, Suzanne L Indigenous Homelessness and Traditional Knowledge: Stories of Elders and Outreach Support Adult Education and Counselling Psychology2015-11Aboriginal people are the fastest growing population in Canada. A large portion live off reserves, seeking employment and education in urban centres. While Aboriginal people comprise less than 5% of the population of Toronto, they are overrepresented in the homeless population, at an estimated 15% (Statistics Canada, 2009). There is little known about current life transitions of Aboriginal individuals into cities, and what barriers and supports exist that may put them at risk of homelessness. This study asked: “What are the intersections of traditional Elders, mental health, and homelessness for Aboriginal peoples in Toronto?” The study is based in a conceptual framework of Indigenous knowledges, and employed a narrative methodological structure, using individual interviews to explore stories of Elders and outreach employees from an urban Aboriginal homeless shelter. Results include four metathemes: Traditional Knowledge, Mental Health, Services, and Clients. Limitations, future directions and research implications are discussed in this; educat; employment; cities3, 4, 8, 11
Gagliardi, Stephanie Isaac, Marney Intraspecific Trait Plasticity in Coffee Agroforestry Systems of Costa Rica Geography2014-03-18Although a common plant response to environmental gradients, leaf trait plasticity is often uncharted in agroforestry systems. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a i) local-scale gradient (light, nutrients) induced by shade tree diversity and ii) large-scale gradient (climato-edaphic) induced by altitude on coffee plant response on multiple agroforestry research farms in Costa Rica. Results show large variability of coffee traits: leaf photosynthetic rates, specific leaf area (SLA) and number of fruiting nodes deviate along both gradients. Mean SLA increased with increasing shade tree diversity. However, with increasing altitude, full sun coffee photosynthesized at higher rates than shaded coffee. Concurrently, other coffee leaf physiological and morphological traits differentiated between full sun and shaded coffee with increasing altitude. Results suggest soil moisture and light availability dominate environmental correlates to intraspecific coffee trait plasticity, providing insight to sources of coffee performance variability in monoculture and agroforestry systems.MASTenvironment; forest13, 15
Gahayr, Safia Cannon, Martin Invisibility, Disappearance and Reclamation: A Sociological Investigation into the Location(s) of Aboriginal and African Women in Canada Sociology and Equity Studies in Education2011-05-24T19:30:51ZThis thesis focuses on issues of the growing level of violence that continues to be leveled at two groups of women in Canada; Aboriginal women and African Canadian women. I propose that a combination of State racism, sexism, colonialism, poverty and societal indifference are responsible for the marginalization and oppression that both these groups of women are facing in Canada today. I will make use of three key tenets of sociological discourse that are built on the theoretical frameworks of anti-colonial, Indigenous and Black Feminism. These frameworks describe ways in which the interlocking systems of oppression maintain a Eurocentric, colonial hegemony that continues to perpetuate violence against Aboriginal and African Canadian women. This comparative approach opens an investigative lens into the ways that ideologies (including cultural representations in the media) demean both Aboriginal and African Canadian women.MASTwomen; poverty1, 5
Gairdner, Sarah Amara, Catherine Metabolic and Endocrine Adaptations to Chronically Low Body Mass in Female Wistar Rats Exercise Sciences2011-12-07Animal models have yet to characterize alterations in body composition, wheel running activity, food intake, and neuroendocrine parameters, in chronic food restriction. This study investigated changes in these measures in food restricted rats, with and without access to running wheels, over four weeks. The data demonstrated that upon initiation of food restriction IGF-1 reductions paralleled loss of lean tissue while leptin levels were rapidly reduced which paralleled losses in body fat. Further, a lower limit threshold of body fat was identified, below which the correlation between leptin and fat mass was disrupted. Lastly, a decrease and plateau in body mass was mirrored by an increase and plateau in voluntary wheel activity in the food restricted population. The data suggest that there is a tight biological link between hyperactivity and body mass and that adequate nutritional support might attenuate the drive for obligate exercise even before weight is fully restored.MASTfood2
Gallego, Cristina Martel, Anne L. Automatic 3D Segmentation of the Breast in MRI Medical Biophysics2011-12-08Breast cancer is currently the most common diagnosed cancer among women and a significant cause of death. Breast density is considered a significant risk factor and an important biomarker influencing the later risk of breast cancer. Therefore, ongoing epidemiological studies using MRI are evaluating quantitatively breast density in young women. One of the challenges is segmenting the breast in order to calculate total breast volume and exclude non-breast surrounding tissues. This thesis describes an automatic 3D breast volume segmentation based on 3D local edge detection using phase congruency and Poisson surface reconstruction to extract the total breast volume in 3D. The boundary localization framework is integrated on a subsequent atlas-based segmentation using a Laplacian framework. The 3D segmentation achieves breast-air and breast-chest wall boundary localization errors with a median of 1.36 mm and 2.68 mm respectively when tested on 409 MRI datasets.MASTwomen5
Gamble, Jennifer Lauren McCulloch Brunnee, Jutta Mitigating Natural Disaster: Conceptualization and Implementation of an International Responsibility to Protect Law2011-12-07This Note asserts that natural disaster-affected populations have a right to call on the international community to protect basic subsistence interests where their sovereign government is unable or unwilling to do so in the wake of a catastrophic natural disaster. First, this Note situates the right to international humanitarian assistance following a natural disaster as a legitimate right under modern international human rights law, using the normative framework set out by renowned political theorist Charles Beitz. This Note then illustrates how the international humanitarian law doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect provides a clear and coherent way to operationalize the right to post-natural disaster humanitarian assistance, by providing a previously-determined structure for a definitive, yet circumstantially-flexible, determination of first- and second-level responsibilities for eligible international actors to take action in defence of this right.MASTrights16
Gamboa, Gimy Halfar, Jochen Mg/Ca Ratios in Crustose Coralline Algae as Proxies for Reconstructing Labrador Current Variability Geology2010-07-26T19:05:53ZClimate variability in the North Atlantic has been linked in part to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO influences marine ecosystems in the northwestern Atlantic and the transport
variability of the cold Labrador Current (LC). Understanding historic patterns and predicting future changes in LC transport require long-term and high-resolution climate records that are not available from instrumental data sets.
This thesis presents the first century-scale sea surface temperature (SST)reconstructions from the Northwestern Atlantic using Mg/Ca ratios in the long-lived crustose coralline algae Clathromorphum compactum. which is characterized by a high Mg-calcite skeleton exhibiting annual growth increments.
Results indicate strong correlations between interannual variations in Mg/Ca ratios and
instrumental SST. The 131-year algal Mg/Ca record reveals NAO-type periodicities and
evidence of past cold events and warming periods associated with basin-wide ecosystem shifts.
Negative correlations between LC volume transport and algal Mg/Ca reflect the cooling
influence of the LC on eastern Canadian shelf ecosystems.
MASTclimate; marine13, 14
Gandhi, Sonal Alibhai, Shabbir Muhammad Husayn A Systematic Review and Appraisal of International Early Breast Cancer Guidelines for Systemic Therapy, and a Global Physician Survey Examining Practice Patterns by Resource Setting: Potential Implications for International Health Policy Health Policy, Management and Evaluation2012-07-19Breast cancer is a growing international health epidemic, and patients in low and middle income countries (LMCs) have worse outcomes than those in high income countries. High quality, well-implemented guidelines help improve patient outcomes, but are often not resource-sensitive, and support therapies that may not be feasible in LMCs. A systematic review to address the content, quality, and resource-sensitivity of international breast cancer guidelines was completed. Also, a survey of global physicians evaluated the impact of resource setting on practice patterns and guideline use. Guideline use did not appear to be directed by quality (which was variable across guidelines) or resource-sensitivity (found in few guidelines). However, practice patterns were found to vary by resource setting and by continent, often due to the cost of certain therapies. In order for guidelines to better impact global breast cancer outcomes, they need to be of higher quality, more resource-sensitive, and better implemented.MASThealth3
Gao, Dong Lu, Zhenghong C60:LiF Hole Blocking Layer for Bulk-heterojunction Solar Cells Materials Science and Engineering2010-12-31T21:10:21ZA standard procedure for P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunc